Honorable Roger Brooke Taney, Chief Justice of the U.S.

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Honorable Roger Brooke Taney, Chief Justice of the U.S.

生日 (87)
出生地 Taney Plantation, Calvert County, Maryland, United States
逝世 1864年10月12日 (87)
Washington, District of Columbia, United States
葬于 Frederick County, Maryland, United States

Michael Taney, VMonica Taney之子
Ann Arnold Phoebe Charlton Taney的丈夫
Ann Arnold Campbell; Elizabeth Taney; Ellen Mary Taney; Augustus Brooke Taney; Maria Key Allison另外3个之父
Michael Taney; Augustus TaneyOctavius Taney的兄弟

Occupation: chief justice of the supreme court of the United States
管理员 William Chandler Lanier Jr.

About Honorable Roger Brooke Taney, Chief Justice of the U.S.

His most famous decision was that rendered in the Dred Scott case: that Congress had no power to exclude slavery from the territories - Myers 1697


Roger Brooke Taney (pronounced TAW-nee; March 17, 1777 €“ October 12, 1864) was the fifth Chief Justice of the United States, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864, and was the first Roman Catholic to hold that office or sit on the Supreme Court of the United States. He was also the eleventh United States Attorney General. He is most remembered for delivering the majority opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), that ruled, among other things, that African Americans, being considered "of an inferior order and altogether unfit to associate with the white race" at the time the Constitution was drafted, could not be considered citizens of the United States.

Described by his and President Andrew Jackson's critics as "[a] supple, cringing tool of Jacksonian power,"[3] Taney was a believer in states' rights but also the Union; a slaveholder who regretted the institution and manumitted his slaves.[4] From Prince Frederick, Maryland, he had practiced law and politics simultaneously and succeeded in both. After abandoning Federalism as a losing cause, he rose to the top of the state's Jacksonian machine. As U.S. Attorney General (1831–1833) and then Secretary of the Treasury (1833–1834), he became one of Andrew Jackson's closest advisers.

". . . He brought to the Chief Justiceship a high intelligence and legal acumen, kindness and humility, patriotism, and a determination to be a great Chief Justice that enabled him to mold the modest raw material of the Court into an effective and prestigious institution."[5]

Taney died during the final months of the American Civil War on the same day that his home state of Maryland abolished slavery. ____________________________________________________________________________ Marriage, Date of death and place of burial- The American Catholic Researcher vol 18-21, p.225 http://books.google.com/books?id=m7c7AQAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA225&lpg=RA1-PA225&dq=James+Larkins+born+in+Frederick,+Maryland&source=bl&ots=-0M3hM51Xd&sig=oUOXjVJplM79X2xqNzNfbq0SJQc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=vRSCU4TWJ5W0sAS04IGYBg&ved=0CFwQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=James%20Larkins%20born%20in%20Frederick%2C%20Maryland&f=false


Born in Calvert County on March 17, 1777, Roger Brooke Taney was the son of Michael and Monica Brooke Taney. As a young boy, Taney attended school in a log cabin close to his home, and then was enrolled in a grammar school about ten miles distant. When the teacher died, his father hired a succession of tutors to instruct the children of the Taney family in their home. When Roger Brooke Taney reached his teens, he was enrolled in Dickinson College in Pennsylvania, and graduated as valedictorian in 1795 at the age of 15.

Following his study of law under Judge J. T. Chase in Annapolis, Mr. Taney was admitted to the bar in 1799. That same year he was elected by the Federalist Party as a delegate to the General Assembly, and in 1816 he was elected to serve as the senator from Frederick County in the Maryland Legislature. This office he filled for the next five years.

Taney had moved to Frederick in March, 1801, and had opened his own office for the practice of law. On January 7, 1806 Mr. Taney married Anne Key, sister of Francis Scott Key, a man Mr. Taney had become friends with in Annapolis during his days as a law student.

Mr. Taney remained a resident of Frederick for the next twenty-two years. In 1823 at the age of forty-six, the Taney family moved to Baltimore, and Mr. Taney opened a law office in that city. In 1827 Taney was elected Attorney General of Maryland, and held that office until 1831. At that time President Andrew Jackson appointed Roger Brooke Taney Attorney General of the United States, and at the same time he held this office, he also filled the position of Acting Secretary of War.

President Jackson appointed Taney Secretary of the Treasury in 1833, and it was under Taney that all government deposits were removed from the Bank of the United States, a privately owned bank. For the first time in our history, the banking of this country came under control of the Federal Government, and was not subject to the order of private individuals.

In 1835 President Jackson nominated Roger Brooke Taney as the fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Taney remained in this position for twenty-eight years, during which time he administered the oath of office to seven Presidents: Martin Van Buren, William Henry Harrison, James K. Polk, Zachary Taylor, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, and Abraham Lincoln, an honor held only by Taney, since this number has never been repeated by any other Chief Justice. Perhaps Taney's most important decision was delivered in what is known as the Dred Scott Case. Certainly it was one of the reasons for Taney's fame, although he heard many cases of importance. Taney's opinion was endorsed by himself and five of the associate judges, while two judges dissented. The decision was that it was not "competent" for the Congress of the United States directly or indirectly to exclude slavery for the territories of the union. As a result of the decision, which was a most unpopular one, Taney added a supplement to his decision, and this document was one of the most comprehensive and best reasoned politico-judicial opinions ever pronounced by any tribunal.

Roger Brooke Taney is buried near his mother in St. Johns Cemetery, in Frederick. He died in October, 1864.

Honorable Roger Brooke Taney, Chief Justice of the U.S.的年谱

Taney Plantation, Calvert County, Maryland, United States
- 1833年11月14日
Washington, District of Columbia, United States
- 1834年6月25日
Washington, District of Columbia, United States