Roger I 'd'Espagne' de Tosny

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Roger I 'd'Espagne' de Tosny, seigneur de Tosny, Standard Bearer of Normandy

Also Known As: "Hispanicus", "de Toni", "de Toeni", "The Spaniard", ""The Spaniard""
Birthdate: (53)
Birthplace: Tosny, Eure, Normandy, France
Death: between May 31, 1038 and May 31, 1043 (39-62)
Normandie, France (killed in battle (along with two of his sons) by Roger I de Beaumont (son of Humphrey of Vieilles) during their rebellion against Guillaume II Duke of Normandy)
Place of Burial: Saint-Pierre de Conches abbey, Conches-en-Ouches, Eure, Haute Normandie, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Raoul II de Toeni, seigneur de Tosny
Husband of Adelaide de Barcelone
Father of Helbert (Elbert) De de Toeni and Elinant De de Toeni
Brother of Raoul III de Toeni / Tosny / Toni, of Conches; Hugo de Limesi and Adele De Toeni
Half brother of Robert De Tosny

Occupation: Standard Bearer of Normandy, aka "de Conches", Sieur, de Tosny, de Conches, Porte-Etendard, de Normandie, The Standard /Bearer/, the Spaniard, Seigneur de Toeni Lord of Conches, Banneret de Normandie, Sr de Conches, Lord of Conches
Managed by: James Fred Patin, Jr.
Last Updated:

About Roger I 'd'Espagne' de Tosny

This is Roger de Tosney, d'Espagne (The Spaniard) NOT Roger de Tosny, seigneur de Conches

CURATOR'S NOTE from Pam Wilson, 18 May 2018. For many years, historians and genealogists have considered Roger de Tosny "de Conches" and "The Spaniard" to have been one and the same, while acknowledging many problems with this theory. Noted medieval prosopographer Katherine S.B. Keats-Rohan posits that these may actually represent two different men whose identities have been ambiguated over the years. In his most recent update to the Medieval Lands Database, Charles Cawley concurs and, based upon suggestions by Keats-Rohan and others (see his footnotes), separates Roger "d'Espagne' de Toeni (son of Raoul II de Tosny) and Roger "de Conches" (parent unknown) as two separate men, perhaps uncle and nephew. Believing Keats-Rohan to be the foremost interpreter of these families, we have separated the two Rogers of Tosny on the Geni tree.

Katherine Keats-Rohan, in her article "Domesday Book and the Malets: patrimony and the private histories of public lives, with an Appendix on Welbourn Castle, Lincolnshire," Nottingham Medieval Studies 41 (1997) 13-56, (available online at https://www.academia.edu/552480/Domesday_Book_and_the_Malets_patrimony_and_the_private_histories_of_public_lives_with_an_Appendix_on_Welbourn_Castle_Lincolnshire) writes in Footnote #178:

"Orderic's Interpolation in William of Jumièges (van Houts 2, 94) says that Roger of Conches fought briefly in Spain c. 1035. This may have been a separate incident to the prolonged stay in Spain of a Roger, usually identified as de Tosny, mentioned in the chronicles of Adhemar and Clarius of Sens (Adhemar de Chabannes, Chronique, ed. J.Chavanon (Paris, 1897),pp.178-9; Clarius de Sens, Annales de Saint-Pierre-le-Vif, ed. Dune, Bibl. historiques de l'Yonne, vol. 2 (1863), 501) as having spent some time in Spain, where he married the daughter of Ramon Berenguer I of Barcelona (then dead) c.1018. In his Ecclesiastical History 2, 68, Orderic once refers to a Roger 'the Spaniard' and he may do so to distinguish him from the Roger de Tosny, founder of Conches, he mentions elsewhere (ib., 10, 40, 140). The younger Roger was perhaps the nephew of the elder. To suppose that there were two Rogers resolves a problem unsatisfactorily discussed in L. Musset, 'Aux origines d'une classe dirigeante: les Tosny, grands barons normands du X au XIIIe siècle', Francia 5 (1978), 52, M. Aurell, Les noces du comte.Marriage et pouvoir en Catalogne (785-1213), Paris 1995, 56-8, and Keats-Rohan, 'The prosopography of post-Conquest England', 35. The elder Roger was possibly the father of Robert de Tosny, lord of Belvoir in Lincolnshire, father of a Berengar and brother of Berengar Hispina. On this view Roger of Conches is absolved of the charge of bigamy, since Stephanie of Barcelona was alive during the time of Roger's marriage with the French or Norman Godehildis, subsequently the wife of Richard count of Evreux. Both Rogers died around the same time, Roger II soon after his return to Normandy, c.1040, and Roger I by 1038 when Stephanie married her second husband Garciaof Navarre".

Cawley writes (http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORMANDY%20NOBILITY.htm#_Toc489686673) from FMG Medieval Lands updated May 2018::

One of the most controversial issues regarding the Tosny family is whether there were two individuals named Roger de Tosny who were active during the first half of the 11th century. Keats-Rohan raised the possibility that Roger de Tosny who travelled to Spain in [1018] (shown above as Roger [I]), was different from a younger Roger de Tosny (maybe nephew of Roger [I]) who founded Conches abbey (shown below as Roger [II])[1182]. The same theory has been espoused more recently by Jaime de Salazar Acha, although his main purpose is identifying the wife of Roger [I] as discussed above[1183]. The theory of two individuals is confirmed by the charter dated to [1040], quoted below, which is witnessed by both "Rodgerii filii Rodulfi" (assumed to be Roger [I]) and "Rogerii de Conchis" (Roger [II]). The parentage of Roger [II] has not been ascertained, but presumably he was closely related to Roger [I]. The estimated birth date “[before 1038]” of Raoul [III], son of Roger [II] see below, suggests that Roger [II] was considerably younger than Roger [I] and therefore may have been nephew of the latter. The fact that Roger [II] was ancestor of the later Tosny family is shown by two charters which record his descendants. Firstly, Henry I King of England confirmed the foundation of Conches by "Rogerius senior de Toenio et filius eius Radulphus senex et Radulphus juvenis filius prædicti Radulphi senis et Rogerius filius Radulphi juvenis", quoting the foundation by "Rogerius filius Radulphi Toteniensis" for the soul of "coniugis meæ Godehildis", by charter dated to [1130][1184]. Secondly, Henry II King of England confirmed the property of Conches, including donations by "Rogeris senior de Toenio et filius eius Radulfus senex et Radulphus juvenis filius predicti Radulphi senex et Roger filius Radulphi juvenis", by charter dated 1165 or [1167/73][1185].

SOURCES

[1182] Keats-Rohan ‘Domesday Book and the Malets’ (1997), pp. 13-56, footnote 178.

[1183] Salazar Acha ‘Estefanía de Pamplona’ (2007), pp. 853-64.

[1184] Gallia Christiana, XI, Instrumenta, V, col. 128.

[1185] Actes Henri II, Tome I, CCCCXXIII, p. 550.

Cawley distinguishese them thus:

(1) =Roger I "d'Espagne" de Tosny/Toeni=

son of Raoul II de Tosny and Unknown wife

married to NN de Barcelona, daughter of Ramon Borrell, Count of Barcelona, and Ermesinde de Carcassonne

children:

  • Elbert
  • Elinand
  • Vuaso

Cawley then lays out the elder of the two Rogers as follows (http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORMANDY%20NOBILITY.htm#_Toc489686673 from FMG Medieval Lands updated May 2018):

Raoul [II] & his wife had one child:

1. ROGER [I] de Tosny ([990]-killed in battle [before 17 Jun] [1040]).

  • His parentage is confirmed by Guillaume of Jumièges who records that Richard II Duke of Normandy appointed “Nigellum Constantinensem atque Rodulfum Toennensem et Rogerium filium eiusdem” as custodians of “castrum Tegulense” (Tillières {Verneuil, Eure}), which the duke had built to protect against attack by Eudes [II] Comte de Blois (so dated to after 1004)[1156].
  • Roger [I] de Tosny spent time in Spain, returned to Normandy, and was killed in rebellion against Guillaume II Duke of Normandy. The precise chronology of these events is uncertain given the contradictions in the different primary sources as we shall see. Two sources record Roger in Spain in [1017/20].
  • Firstly, the Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes (written before [1034]) records that "Normanni, duce Rotgerio" (presumably identifiable as Roger [I], although he never bore the ducal or even comital title), who had been fighting Saracens in Spain, asked "comitissa Barzelonensi Ermensende…vidua" for the hand of her (unnamed) daughter[1157]. This episode is dated to [1017/20], when Ermesinde was acting for her son Berenguer Ramon I “el Curvo” Comte de Barcelona during his minority. In addition, the other events recorded by Adémar in the same paragraph, all relate to 1016/18.
  • Secondly, the early 12th century Chronicon S Petri Vivi Senonensis records, in a section headed 1015 but whose coverage extends into later years, that "Rotgerius filius Rodulfi comitis" left Normandy with an army for Spain (“de Normannia perrexit cum exercitu in Hispaniam”) where he captured “civitates et castella...Tarraconam [Tarragona] et Gerundam [Girona]”, married “sororem Raymundi Berengerii Stephaniam”[1158].
  • The Chronicon S Petri Vivi Senonensis records that "Rotgerius filius Rodulfi comitis" lived in Spain “cum uxore et exercitu suo per 15 annos” before returning “ad patrem suum in Normanniam” (having left “20 viris et uxore et omnibus quæ possidebant” in Spain) to make peace “cum duce Richardo”[1159]. “Duce Richardo” was either Duke Richard II or Duke Richard III, but assuming that the Chronicon’s report is accurate (which is not without doubt) Roger [I]’s return from Spain to Normandy must be dated to before Aug 1027, when Duke Richard III died. Roger’s presence in Normandy after this date is confirmed by two charters dated during the early 1030s: firstly, "…Rogerii filii Radulfi…" witnessed the charter dated to [1030] under which Robert II Duke of Normandy donated "in comitatu Abrincatensi villam…Sancti Johannis" to the abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel[1160], and secondly “...Rogerii Todelensis...” witnessed the charter dated [20 Jul 1031/Jul 1032] under which Robert II Duke of Normandy donated the church of Arques to Saint-Wandrille[1161].
  • After this time, the situation becomes confused, but indications are that Roger returned to Spain: Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Rogerius Toenites de stirpe Malahulcii qui Rollonis ducis patruus fuerat” (who was “totius Normanniæ signifer“) travelled “in Hispaniam” when Duke Robert II went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem (so dated to [1035]), that he returned after the accession of Duke Guillaume II but rebelled because of the new duke’s ignoble birth, destroyed property in particular that of “Humfridi de Vetulis”, and that the latter eventually sent his son to attack Roger who was killed with “duobus filiis suis Helberto et Elinantio”[1162].
  • Orderic Vitalis also names “...Rogerius de Hispania...” among those who rebelled against Guillaume II Duke of Normandy after his accession in 1035[1163]. In another passage, Orderic Vitalis records that “Rodbertus de Grentemaisnilio...cum Rogerio de Toenio” fought “Rogerium de Bellomonte”, during the course of which “Rogerius cum filiis suis Elberto et Elinancio“ were killed and “Rodbertus” mortally wounded (adding that the latter later died “XIV Kal Jul”)[1164].
  • Guillaume of Jumièges’s account is partly corroborated by a second extract from the Chronicon S Petri Vivi Senonensis which records that, after returning to Normandy, Roger attacked a neighbour but was killed (“iste Rotgerius contra quemdam vicinum faciens bellum, interfectus est”), although the chronology of the Chronicon is suspect as this passage follows the report that Roger returned to Normandy to make peace “cum duce Richardo”[1165]. The Chronicon report is also confused by Roger’s father’s supposed journey to Apulia after Roger died, which as discussed above appears to contradict other sources and whose chronology is in any case suspect.
  • The presence of Roger [I] in Normandy in the late 1030s is noted in two charters: "…Rodgerii filii Rodulfi…" witnessed the charter dated to [1040] under which Guillaume Comte de Talou donated property to Jumièges[1166], and "…Rodgerii filii Rodulfi…Rogerii de Conchis" subscribed the charter dated to [1040] under which "Vuillelmus Ricardi magni ducis Normannorum filius" donated property to the abbey of Jumièges[1167].
  • The question of the dual identity of “Roger de Tosny”, reflected in the references to “Rodgerii filii Rodulfi" and "Rogerii de Conchis" in the latter document, is discussed below under Roger [II] de Tosny.
  • Roger [I]’s death is dated to [before 17 Jun] because firstly Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Robertus de Grentesmaisnil” died in the same battle as “Rogerius [de Toenia]“[1168], and secondly the necrology of the monastery of Ouche records the death "17 Jun" of "Robertus de Grentemesnil"[1169]. The date must be considered approximate because Orderic Vitalis records that “Rodbertus de Grentemaisnilio” was mortally wounded in the battle during which “Rogerius cum filiis suis Elberto et Elinancio“ were killed and that Robert died “XIV Kal Jul” (it is not known how many dies after the battle)[1170].

m ([1017/20]) [--- de Barcelona, daughter of RAMÓN BORELL I Comte de Barcelona & his wife Ermesinde de Carcassonne].

  • The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes (written before [1034]) records that "Normanni, duce Rotgerio" (presumably identifiable as Roger [I], although he never bore the ducal or even comital title), who had been fighting Saracens in Spain, asked "comitissa Barzelonensi Ermensende…vidua" for the hand of her (unnamed) daughter[1171]. This episode is dated to [1017/20], when Ermesinde was acting for her son Berenguer Ramon I “el Curvo” Comte de Barcelona during his minority. In addition, the other events recorded by Adémar in the same paragraph, all relate to 1016/18.
  • Europäische Stammtafeln names her “Adelaida (Papia)”[1172]. No primary source has been identified which confirms that either of these names is correct. The early 12th century Chronicon S Petri Vivi Senonensi records, in a section headed 1015 but whose coverage extends into later years, that "Rotgerius filius Rodulfi comitis" left Normandy with an army for Spain (“de Normannia perrexit cum exercitu in Hispaniam”) where he married “sororem Raymundi Berengerii [Ramon Berenger [I] “el Viejo” Comte de Barcelona] Stephaniam” and lived there “cum uxore et exercitu suo per 15 annos” before returning “ad patrem suum in Normanniam” (having left “20 viris et uxore et omnibus quæ possidebant” in Spain) to make peace “cum duce Richardo”[1173].
  • The early 12th century Chronicon S Petri Vivi Senonensi records that “sororem Raymundi Berengerii Stephaniam” married as her second husband “rex Hispaniæ Garsias”[1174]. Based on this source, Jaime de Salazar Acha suggests that the widow of Roger [I] de Tosny was Estefanía who married García V King of Navarre[1175]. There are several reasons why this suggestion is unlikely to be correct. Firstly, Roger [I]’s marriage is dated to [1017/20] according to Adémar de Chabannes as noted above. If that date is correct, it is unlikely that his widow would have given birth to nine children by a second marriage, whose births are estimated between 1039 and 1054 (see the document NAVARRE KINGS). Secondly, Estefanía is named with her husband King García in a charter dated 1040, her marriage probably being dated to a couple of years earlier, whereas Roger [I] is recorded in Normandy around the same time as noted above. Thirdly, there are intrinsic problems associated with the Chronicon S. Petri Vivi Senonensis: the chronology of the whole passage, of which the reference to Roger’s marriage forms part, is flawed as explained earlier, and in addition Roger’s wife could not have been the sister of Ramon Berenguer [I] Comte de Barcelona (whose birth is dated to 1023, see the document CATALONIA) if his marriage is correctly dated to [1017/20].

Roger [I] & his wife had [three] children (it does not appear chronologically possible that, in addition, Berthe (who married Guy [I] Seigneur de Laval in [1010/15]) and her [two] brothers (see below) were also children of Roger [I]):

a) [ELBERT (-killed in battle [before 17 Jun] [1040]). Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Rogerius Toenites de stirpe Malahulcii qui Rollonis ducis patruus fuerat” rebelled against Duke Guillaume II and destroyed property, in particular that of “Humfridi de Vetulis” whose son eventually killed Roger [I] along with “duobus filiis suis Helberto et Elinantio”[1176]. Orderic Vitalis records that “Rodbertus de Grentemaisnilio...cum Rogerio de Toenio” fought “Rogerium de Bellomonte”, during the course of which “Rogerius cum filiis suis Elberto et Elinancio“ were killed and “Rodbertus” mortally wounded[1177]. Assuming that these sources are accurate, there is no indication of the identity of the mother of Elbert and Elinand. Their names are unusual, and not encountered either in the Tosny or Barcelona families, which may suggest that they were illegitimate.]

b) [ELINAND (-killed in battle [before 17 Jun] [1040]). Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Rogerius Toenites de stirpe Malahulcii qui Rollonis ducis patruus fuerat” rebelled against Duke Guillaume II and destroyed property, in particular that of “Humfridi de Vetulis” whose son eventually killed Roger [I] along with “duobus filiis suis Helberto et Elinantio”[1178]. Orderic Vitalis records that “Rodbertus de Grentemaisnilio...cum Rogerio de Toenio” fought “Rogerium de Bellomonte”, during the course of which “Rogerius cum filiis suis Elberto et Elinancio“ were killed and “Rodbertus” mortally wounded[1179]. Assuming that these sources are accurate, there is no indication of the identity of the mother of Elbert and Elinand. Their names are unusual, and not encountered either in the Tosny or Barcelona families, which may suggest that they were illegitimate.]

c) [VUASO . “...Vuaso filius Rogerii Tothennensis...” subscribed the charter under which Guillaume Duke of Normandy donated the church of Arques to Saint-Wandrille, dated to [1035/55][1180]. The name “Vuaso” (or similar) is not found in either the Tosny or Barcelona families, which may suggest that he was illegitimate.]


SOURCES

[1156] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber V, X, p. 253.

[1157] Adémar de Chabannes, III, 55, p. 178.

[1158] Clarii, Chronico Sancti Petri Vivi Senonensi 1015, MGH SS XXVI, pp. 30-1.

[1159] Clarii, Chronico Sancti Petri Vivi Senonensi 1015, MGH SS XXVI, pp. 30-1.

[1160] Delisle (1867), Pièces justificatives, 9, p. 10.

[1161] Saint-Wandrille, Appendice, 13, p. 52.

[1162] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber VII, III, p. 268.

[1163] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. I, Liber I, p. 180.

[1164] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, II, pp. 40-1.

[1165] Clarii, Chronico Sancti Petri Vivi Senonensi 1015, MGH SS XXVI, pp. 30-1.

[1166] Delisle (1867), Pièces justificatives, 16, p. 17.

[1167] Jumièges, Tome I, XX, p. 63.

[1168] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber VII, IV, p. 269.

[1169] RHGF XXIII, Ex Uticensis monasterii necrologio, p. 487.

[1170] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, II, pp. 40-1.

[1171] Adémar de Chabannes, III, 55, p. 178.

[1172] ES II 69.

[1173] Clarii, Chronico Sancti Petri Vivi Senonensi 1015, MGH SS XXVI, pp. 30-1.

[1174] Clarii, Chronico Sancti Petri Vivi Senonensi 1015, MGH SS XXVI, pp. 30-1.

[1175] Salazar Acha ‘Estefanía de Pamplona’ (2007), pp. 853-64.

[1176] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber VII, III, p. 268.

[1177] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, II, pp. 40-1.

[1178] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber VII, III, p. 268.

[1179] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, II, pp. 40-1.

[1180] Saint-Wandrille, Appendice, 17, p. 59.

=============================

The second of the two Rogers that Cawley is disambiguating is included here for the value of comparing biographical facts:

(2) Roger de Tosny, Seigneur de Conches

parents unknown married to Godechilda (Godehilde), parents unknown

children:

  • Raoul of Tosny, successor of his father.
  • Robert of Tosny, Lord of Stafford
  • Adelise of Tosny, married Guillaume Fils Osbern.
  • ?Béranger l'Espagnol of Tosny
  • ?Berthe m. Guy de Laval
  • ?Robert de Tosny of Belvoir

Charles Cawley's Medieval Lands database (updated May 2018) http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORMANDY%20NOBILITY.htm#_Toc489686673

ROGER [II] de Tosny [Conches] (-[after 1040]). Orderic Vitalis records that “Rogerius de Toenio” founded “cœnobium Castellionis alias de Conchis”[1186]. "…Rodgerii filii Rodulfi…Rogerii de Conchis" subscribed the charter dated to [1040] under which "Vuillelmus Ricardi magni ducis Normannorum filius" donated property to the abbey of Jumièges[1187]. Roger’s place of burial is confirmed by the charter dated to [1130] under which Henry I King of England confirmed the foundation of Conches by "Rogerius senior…", quoting the confirmation by "Radulphus de Totteneio cum Godehilde matre mea" for the burial of "patris mei Rogerii"[1188].

m as her first husband, GODECHILDIS, daughter of ---. Henry I King of England confirmed the foundation of Conches by "Rogerius senior de Toenio et filius eius Radulphus senex et Radulphus juvenis filius prædicti Radulphi senis et Rogerius filius Radulphi juvenis", quoting the foundation by "Rogerius filius Radulphi Toteniensis" for the soul of "coniugis meæ Godehildis", dated to [1130][1189]. The Miracles of Sainte-Foy recount her being cured of a serious illness by miracle, when she was still married to her first husband[1190]. She married secondly Richard Comte d'Evreux. Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Richardus Ebroicensis comes filius Roberti Archiepiscopi” married “uxore Rogerii de Toenia” by whom he had “Willelmum qui nunc Ebroicensibus principatur”[1191].


Roger [II] & his wife had [three] children:

a) RAOUL [III] de Tosny ([before 1038]-24 Mar[1193] [1102], bur Conches Saint-Pierre). “Radulphus de Tony cum Godehelde matre mea” donated property to Wotton Wawen Abbey, Warwickshire by undated charter[1194].

b) [ADELISE (-6 Oct


, bur Abbaye de Lyre). Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Willelmus...filius Osberni, propinquus ducis Willelmi” founded “duo monasteriain honorem...Mariæ unum apud Liram...alterum apud Cormelias”, adding that he buried “Adelinam filiam Rogerii de Toenio uxorem suam” at Lyre[1195]. There is no indication whether Roger [I] or Roger [II] de Tosny was the father of Adelise, or of the identity of her mother. "Willelmo filio Osberni et…Ælicia eius uxore filia Rogeri de Thoneio" founded the abbey of Lyre by charter dated 1046[1196]. Robert of Torigny's De Immutatione Ordinis Monachorum records that "Willermus filius Osberni Normanniæ dapifer et cognatus Willermi ducis…Aelizam uxorem suam filiam Rogeri de Toeneio" was buried in the monastery of Lyre[1197]. The necrology of Lyre monastery records the death "6 Oct" of "Adeliz uxor Willelmi hujus loci fundatoris"[1198]. The necrology of the monastery of Ouche records the death "6 Oct" of "mater Willelmi Britolii Adeliza"[1199]. m (before 1046) as his first wife, GUILLAUME FitzOsbern Seigneur de Breteuil, son of OSBERN de Crépon & his wife Emma d'Ivry (-killed in battle Cassel, Flanders 22 Feb 1071, bur Abbaye de Cormeilles).]

c) [ROBERT [III] de Tosny (-[1088], bur [Evesham Abbey]). His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated to [1130] under which Henry I King of England confirmed donations to Conches, including the donation of "ecclesiam de Octona" made by "Robertus de Stafort filius Rogerii de Totteneio" with the consent of "filio meo Nicholao"[1200]. Robert’s connection with the Tosny family is confirmed by the undated charter under which “Robertus de Stafford” confirmed donations to Wotton Wawen Abbey, Warwickshire by “avus meus Robertus de Toenio et pater meus Nicolaus de Stafford”[1201]. The chronology suggests that Robert’s father was Roger [II] de Tosny, although there is no indication of the identity of Robert’s mother. Domesday Book records “Robert of Stafford” holding Denchworth in Wantage Hundred in Berkshire; “Robert de Tosny” holding Miswell in Tring Hundred and Barwythe in Danish Hundred in Hertfordshire; "Robert of Stafford" holding land in Oxfordshire; Stoneton in Northamptonshire [Warwickshire][1202]. The entries in Hertfordshire precede those which record the holdings of Raoul de Tosny in Hertfordshire, which suggests that they refer to the Robert Tosny/Stafford who was Raoul’s brother. Lord of Stafford.] - ENGLISH NOBILITY – STAFFORD.

SOURCES

[1186] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, I, p. 12.

[1187] Jumièges, Tome I, XX, p. 63.

[1188] Gallia Christiana, XI, Instrumenta, V, col. 128.

[1189] Gallia Christiana, XI, Instrumenta, V, col. 128.

[1190] Houts (2000), p. 214, quoting (in translation) Bouillet, A. (ed.) (1897) Liber Miraculorum sancte Fidis (Paris), pp. 144-5.

[1191] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber VII, IV, p. 269.

[1192] Gallia Christiana, XI, Instrumenta, V, col. 128.

[1193] Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall), Vol. III, Book V, p. 129.

[1194] Dugdale Monasticon VI.2, Wotton Wawen Abbey, Warwickshire III, p. 995.

[1195] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Duchesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXII, p. 278.

[1196] Neustria Pia, p. 535.

[1197] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 198.

[1198] RHGF XXIII, Ex Obituario Lirensis monasterii, p. 474.

[1199] RHGF XXIII, Ex Uticensis monasterii necrologio, p. 489.

[1200] Gallia Christiana, XI, Instrumenta, V, col. 128, 131.

[1201] Dugdale Monasticon VI.2, Wotton Wawen Abbey, Warwickshire I, p. 994.

[1202] Domesday Translation, Berkshire, XLII, p. 154, Hertfordshire, XXI, p. 382, Oxfordshire, XXVII, pp. 433-4, Northamptonshire, XXVII, p. 609.


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Based upon the above interpretation, the information in Peter Stewart's 2013 publication and that in Wikipedia show need for more critical examination of the historical data:

Peter Stewart: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~bobwolfe/gentxt/Origin_and_early_generations_of_the_Tosny_family.pdf (p. 5)

ROGER I Hispanicus (the Spaniard),1 b ca 985/95,2 seigneur of Tosny,3 ducal standard bearer,4 k batt 31 May ca 1038/43,5 bur Saint-Pierre de Conches abbey6 (1) ≈ N 7 [maternity uncertain—all three possibly sons of Godehildis] ▲4.1 Elbert (Helbertus),1k batt 31 May ca 1038/43 2 ▲4.2 Elinand (Elinancius),1 k batt 31 May ca 1038/43 2 ▲4.3 Waszo (Vuaso), 1 living 1037/ca 1045 2

ROGER I Hispanicus (2) ≈ ca 1018/20 8 (div by ca 1025) 9 N, a Catalan lady (most probably not Estefanía, later wife of GARCÍA Sánchez III, el de Nájera, king of Navarre, 10 nor a dau of RAMON Borrell, count of Barcelona & ERMESSENDA of Carcassonne 11); (1, 2 or 3) = bef Aug 1026 or 102712 (1) GODEHILDIS (Gotelina), 13 later wife of RICHARD, count of Évreux14 ▲4.4 RADULF III, 1 b ca 1030, 2 seigneur of Tosny or Conches,3 ducal standard bearer,4 lord of Flamstead, Hertfordshire aft 1066/bef 1086, 5 d 24 Mar 1102 or 1103, 6 bur Saint-Pierre de Castillon abbey, Conches7 = ca 1068/708 ISABELLE, 9 d (as a nun) Haute-Bruyère priory aft 1123, 10 dau of SIMON I, seigneur of Montfort-l’Amaury & ISABELLE of Broyes, dame of Nogent-le-Roi11 ▲5.1 Roger,1 d 15 May 1092 or 1093, 2 bur Saint-Pierre de Conches3 ▲5.2 RADULF IV, 1 seigneur of Tosny or Conches & lord of Flamstead,2 d 1126 or 11273 bur Conches abbey4 = aft 24 Mar 11025 ALICIA (Adeliza), 6 lady of Walthamstow, Essex,7 d aft 1126,8 dau of WALTHEOF, earl of Northumberland & JUDITH of Lens (Boulogne)9 ▪ see CP xii/I 762–775 for their descendants •5.3 Godehildis (Gutuera, Godwera), 1 d Mar’ash, Syria ca 15 Oct 1097, 2 bur there3 (possibly ≠ ROBERT I Preud’homme de Beaumont, count of Meulan, earl of Leicester,4 d 5 or 6 Jun 11185 ) = bef 15 Aug 10966 (1) Balduin I of Boulogne, later count of Edessa & king of Jerusalem,7 d al-‘Arish, northern Sinai 2 Apr 1118, 8 bur Holy Sepulchre church, Jerusalem9 •4.5 ADELIZA, 1 b ca 1030/35, 2 d 5 Oct 1066 or 1067, 3 bur Notre-Dame de Lyre abbey4 = ca 1045/505 WILLIAM fitz Osbern,6 b ca 1025/30, 7 seigneur of Breteuil 1054, 8 earl of Hereford & lord of the Isle of Wight ca Feb 1067, 9 k batt Cassel, Flanders 20 or 21 Feb 1071, 10 bur Notre-Dame de Cormeilles abbey11 ▲4.6 ROBERT de Stafford,1 lord of Stafford bef 1072, 2 sheriff of Staffordshire 1072/85, 3 d (as a monk) Evesham abbey 1088, 4 bur there5 = N (later called AVICE de Clare) 6 Origin and early generations of the Tosny family 2 ▲5.4 NICHOLAS, 1 lord of Stafford,2 sheriff of Staffordshire bef 1101/02–1123 & 1130–aft 1133,3 d bef 8 Aug 1135/bef Aug 1138, 4 bur Stone priory5 = MATILDA, 6 d aft 1135/38,7 bur Stone priory8 ▪ see CP xii/I 169–170 for two further generations in the male line, continuing through an heiress ibid 170–188

Roger I of Tosny

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_I_of_Tosny Updated March 2015

Roger I of Tosny or Roger of Hispania[1] (d. ca. 1040) was a Norman nobleman of the House of Tosny who took part in the Reconquista of Iberia.

Career

Roger was the son of Raoul I of Tosny, seigneur de Conches.[2] In 1013, Roger and his father Raoul guarded the castle at Tillières for Richard II, Duke of Normandy.[3] A few years later, for an unknown reason, the pair were forced into exile. While his father gained a reputation for himself in Apulia, Roger did the same in fighting the Muslims in Iberia.[3] The small Christian states of Northern Iberia welcomed volunteers and adventurers who they could use to mount a strong force for the Reconquista. Roger was summoned by Ermesinde of Carcassonne, regent-countess of Barcelona after the death of her husband Ramon Borrell, to help her against the Muslim threat to her power. Roger rushed to help, marrying Ermesende's daughter,[4] terrorising the Saracens and capturing several towns and castles. Adémar de Chabannes gives an echo of the more or less legendary deeds of Roger in Iberia. He gained the nickname Mangeur de Maures (Moor-Eater). Adémar recounts that Roger took his captured Saracens each day and, in front of them, cut one of their number in two, boiling the first half and giving it to the other Muslims to eat, and pretending to take the other half into his own tent for him and his companions to eat. Then Roger allowed some of these prisoners to escape, to spread these horrific rumours.[5]

Before 1024, Roger and his father gained permission from Richard II to return to Normandy, and Raoul died soon afterwards.

Roger de Tosny founded Conches-en-Ouche. He built its church of Sainte-Foy[6] (before 1026) then the abbey of Saint-Pierre de Castillon (c. 1035) where monks from Fécamp Abbey were installed. This monastery was one of the first baronial foundations in Normandy[7] The foundation charter reveals that the lord of Tosny gave it a small possession around Conches and his forest.

In 1035, Robert I's death began a troubled period in the duchy of Normandy. Civil wars multiplied and Roger (whose relations with his neighbours was already argumentative) was one of the main players in them. According to the Norman chroniclers,[8] the lord of Tosny refused to serve the new duke, the future William the Conqueror, due to his being a bastard. He especially took advantage of the weakness of the duke's power by ravaging his neighbours' lands, notably those of Humphrey of Vieilles. Humphrey sent his son Roger to face Roger of Tosny, and around 1040 the latter was killed in battle, and his two eldest sons[9] died a few weeks later of their wounds.

Peace was re-established between the Tosny family and the neighbouring families. The widow Gotelina/Godehildis was forced to marry Richard, Count of Évreux.

Family and descendants

Married :

  1. Adelaide
  2. Godehildis who married, after the death of Roger de Tosny, Richard, Count of Évreux[3]

Children :

  • Helbert (died 1040 with his father),
  • Elinand, (idem),
  • Raoul II of Tosny, successor of his father
  • Robert of Tosny, lord of Stafford
  • Béranger l'Espagnol,
  • Adelise, married Guillaume Fils Osbern
  • Berthe, married Guy de Laval
  • One other son

References

  1. van Houts, Normans, 269 n. 113. A name given him by Orderic Vitalis.
  2. Cokayne, CP, XII/1, 755
  3. Douglas, Wm Conq.,85
  4. However, the marriage in Barcelona is uncertain. Gotelina/Godehildis, Roger's only wife to be known by name, was not Iberian but it is not known if she was his second or first wife. See Lucien Musset, "Aux origines d'une classe dirigeante : les Tosny, grands barons normands du Xe au XIIe siècle", Sonderdruck aus Francia Forschungen zur westeuropäischen Geschichte, Munich, 1978, p.53.
  5. Chronique d'Adhémar de Chabanais, éd. J. Chavanon, Paris, 1897, p.178-179
  6. Its dedication was linked to the abbey of Sainte-Foy de Conques in Rouergue which Roger probably passed on his way out of Normandy or on his return from Iberia. See Lucien Musset, le nom de Conches « semble n'être qu'une simple transposition en langue d'oïl de celui de Conques »
  7. Before this, creating or restoring monasteries had been a right reserved to the duke of Normandy alone.
  8. Guillaume de Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, Robert de Torigni, Histoire des Normands, éd. Guizot, Paris, 1826, p.169-170
  9. Robert de Grandmesnil, ally of Roger I de Tosny

Bibliography

  • Boissonnade, P. (1934). "Les premières croisades françaises en Espagne: Normands, Gascons, Aquitains et Bourguignons (1018–1032)". Bulletin Hispanique 36 (1): 5–28. doi:10.3406/hispa.1934.2607. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  • Cokayne, G.E., The complete peerage; or, A history of the House of lords and all its members from the earliest times, ed. Geoffrey H. White, Vol. XII/1 (London: The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., 1953)
  • Douglas, David C., William the Conqueror (Berkeley; Los Angeles, The University of California Press, 1964)
  • (French) Lucien Musset, « Aux origines d'une classe dirigeante : les Tosny, grands barons normands du Xe au XIIe siècle », Sonderdruck aus Francia Forschungen zur westeuropäischen Geschichte, Munich, 1978, pp. 45–80
  • Lucas Villegas-Aristizabal, "Algunas notas sobre la participación de Rogelio de Tosny en la Reconquista Ibérica", Estudios Humanísticos de la Universidad de Leon, III, 2004, pp. 263–74. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=1078914
  • Lucas Villegas-Aristizabal, "Roger of Tosny's adventures in the County of Barcelona", Nottingham Medieval Studies LII, 2008, pp. 5–16.
  • Schwennicke, Detlev, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Marburg, Germany: J. A. Stargardt, 1984)
  • The Normans in Europe, ed. & trans., Elisabeth van Houts (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000) (Also see online extracts on Google Books)

________________________________________________

Roger Ier de Tosny

Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Ier_de_Tosny

Roger Ier de Tosny ou Roger d'Espagne († 1040), est le second membre de la famille de Tosny, un important lignage aristocratique du duché de Normandie. Il participe à la Reconquista espagnole, d'où son autre nom Roger d'Espagne[1].

Biographie

En 1013, Roger garde avec son père Raoul Ier le château de Tillières pour le compte du duc Richard II de Normandie. Quelques années plus tard, pour une raison inconnue, les deux doivent s'exiler. Alors que le père s'illustre en Pouille, Roger se fait un nom en combattant les Musulmans en Espagne. Les petits États chrétiens du Nord accueillent volontiers les aventuriers qui peuvent leur prêter main forte pour la Reconquista. Le Normand est appelé par Ermesende, (voir : Ermessende de Carcassonne), comtesse régente de Barcelone après la mort de son mari Raymond Borrell de Barcelone (972-1017), car le roi musulman Musetus menace son pouvoir. Roger accourt, épouse la fille de la comtesse, — (Le mariage barcelonais est incertain. Gotelina/Godehildis, l'épouse connue de Roger n'était pas espagnole mais est-ce sa première femme[2] ?) — terrorise les Sarrasins et leur prend beaucoup de villes et de châteaux.

Adhémar de Chabanais se fait l'écho des exploits plus ou moins légendaires de Roger. Il y a gagne le surnom de Mangeur de Maures. Adhémar de Chabanais raconte que chaque jour, Roger capturait des Sarrasins. Devant eux, il en coupait un en deux. La première moitié était bouillie et donnée à manger aux autres Musulmans. En ce qui concerne l'autre moitié, le Normand prétendait la ramener à la maison pour ses compagnons et lui. Roger permettait ensuite à quelques captifs de s'enfuir de manière à ce qu'ils colportent ses horreurs[3].

Avant 1024, Roger, ainsi que son père, obtiennent du duc Richard II l'autorisation de revenir en Normandie. Le père meurt peu après.

Roger de Tosny est le véritable fondateur de Conches-en-Ouche. Il y construit l'église Sainte-Foy[4] (avant 1026) puis l'abbaye Saint-Pierre de Castillon (vers 1035) où des moines de Fécamp s'installent. Ce monastère est l'un des premiers de fondation baroniale en Normandie[5]. La charte de fondation révèle que le seigneur de Tosny a un noyau de possession autour de Conches et de sa forêt.

En 1035, la mort du duc Robert le Magnifique inaugure une période de troubles dans le duché. Les guerres privées se multiplient et Roger, dont les relations avec ses voisins paraissent avoir été déjà conflictuelles, en est un des principaux acteurs. Selon les chroniqueurs normands[6], le seigneur de Tosny refuse de servir le nouveau duc, le futur Guillaume le Conquérant, en raison de sa bâtardise. Il profite surtout de la faiblesse du pouvoir ducal pour ravager les terres de ses voisins, notamment celles d'Onfroy de Vieilles. Ce dernier envoie alors son fils Roger combattre le remuant voisin. Vers 1040, ce dernier trouve la mort dans une bataille ainsi que ses deux fils aînés[7], meurt quelques semaines après des suites de ses blessures.

La paix est rétablie la famille de Tosny et ses voisins. La veuve Gotelina/Godehildis doit épouser Richard comte d'Évreux.

Famille et descendance

Père : Raoul Ier de Tosny

Épouse :

  • La fille anonyme de la comtesse de Barcelone Ermesende (?)
  • Gotelina/Godehildis qui épouse après la mort de Roger le comte d'Évreux, Richard

Enfants :

  • Helbert (mort en 1040 avec son père),
  • Elinand, (idem),
  • Raoul II de Tosny, successeur de son père
  • Robert de Tosny, seigneur de Stafford, [SEE ABOVE NOTE]
  • Béranger l'Espagnol, [SEE ABOVE NOTE]
  • Adelise, épouse de Guillaume Fils Osbern
* Berthe, épouse de Guy de Laval [SEE ABOVE NOTE]
  • Un autre fils

Notes et références

  1. ↑ Nommé ainsi par Orderic Vital
  2. ↑ Lucien Musset, « Aux origines d'une classe dirigeante : les Tosny, grands barons normands du Xe au XIIe siècle », Sonderdruck aus Francia Forschungen zur westeuropäischen Geschichte, Munich, 1978, p.53.
  3. ↑ Chronique d'Adhémar de Chabanais, éd. J. Chavanon, Paris, 1897, p.178-179
  4. ↑ La dédicace de ce sanctuaire est liée à l'abbaye Sainte-Foy de Conques en Rouergue où probablement Roger passa à son départ de Normandie ou à son retour d'Espagne. Selon Lucien Musset, le nom de Conches « semble n'être qu'une simple transposition en langue d'oïl de celui de Conques »
  5. ↑ Auparavant, la création ou la restauration de monastères provenaient d'une initiative ducale
  6. ↑ Guillaume de Jumièges, Orderic Vital, Robert de Torigni, Histoire des Normands, éd. Guizot, Paris, 1826, p.169-170
  7. ↑ Robert de Grandmesnil, allié de Roger Ier de Tosny

Voir aussi

   * Famille de Tosny
   * Duché de Normandie

Bibliographie

   * Lucien Musset, « Aux origines d'une classe dirigeante : les Tosny, grands barons normands du Xe au XIIe siècle », Sonderdruck aus Francia Forschungen zur westeuropäischen Geschichte, Munich, 1978, p.45-80
   * Élisabeth Van Houts, The Normans in Europe, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 2000 (Extraits en ligne sur Google Books)
   * Martin Aurell, Les Noces du comte. Mariage et pouvoir en Catalogne (785-1213), Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 1995,p. 56-58.
   * Lucas Villegas Aristizábal, « Algunas notas sobre la participación de Rogelio de Tosny en la reconquista Ibérica », Estudios humanísticos. Historia, nº3, 2004, p.263-274


Seigneur de Tosni et Conches Roger de Tosny joined with his father in the custody of the castle of Tillières in 1013/14.

James Bulkeley, La Hougue Bie de Hambie: a tradition of Jersey. Volume 2. London: Gilbert & Rivington, Whitaker & Company, 1837. (Google Books)

Notes to Vol. 1 pp. 195-202 "p. 75 (55.) The constable Gislebert Crispin' Based on Roman de Rou, which is interspersed throughout... summary:

  • Count Eudes of Chartres married Maud, the sister of Duke Richard II, and received in dowry the seigneuries of Dreux and other domains. When Maud died with no children, Richard tried to retake the city Dreux and castle of Tillières back from Eudes by force.
  • He "confided his defences" to Néel de Saint-Sauveur, to Ralph, and to this son Roger de Toesny and de Couches [Conches]
  • Eudes of Chartres allied himself to Valeran de Meulan, Hugh Count of Maine, and a reinforcement of French troops
  • Néel commanded the center, defending the main road into the castle; Ralph the right wing, and Roger the left.
  • Three divisions of Eudes' troops: (1) the troops of Chartres and Blois led by Eudes, (2) those of France and Maine by Count Hugh of Maine, and (3) those of Meulan by Valeran.
  • Néel's column was attacked, but with the aid of Roger's and Ralphs' forces, the Normans routed the Counts of Chartres and Meulan, causing the Count of Maine to flee. When his horse died, he disguised himself as a peasant and was able to escape capture.

The castle of Tillières, as a gateway to Chartres and France, became "of couble consquence to [Duke] Robert," and he gave command of it to Gilbert Crispin, Lord of Bec-Crispin. Later, King Henry of France, along with a group of disaffected Norman barons, "advanced a powerful army on Dreux" to persuade Duke William to raze the fortress. Crispin, indignant, "increased the garrison of the castle" but "could not overcome the brave resistance of the beseiged, or the virtuous obstinacy of the faithful Gilbert Crispin," who had pledged to turn it over only to the Duke, which he died, and Duke William in turn delivered it to King Henry, who "enveloped it in flames." The castle was later ceded by Henry to William after the Battle of Veraville, who named Gilbert's second son, also named Gilbert, as constable in remembrance of his father's loyalty. This younger Gilbert followed Duke William to the Conquest.

--------------------------------

from Complete Peerage, v 12 pt 1 p 755+

Tony. Roger de Toeni I, styled also de Conches, son and heir, was born probably about 990, for as stated above he was joined with is father in the custody of the castle of Tillierees in 1013 or 1014. he wa a powerful and haughty man, and banner-bearer of all Normandy. In 1031 or 1032 he attested a charter of Robert I for St. Wandrille. About 1035 he founded the abbey of Chatillon or Conches (Chatillon, close to Conches, was the actual site of the abbey...) While Duke Robert was away on pilgrimage, he went to Spain and distinguished himself in fighting the infidels (in consequence he was styled sometimes Roger of Spain, or Roger the Spaniard). When he returned to Normandy, he furious to learn that the boy William had succeeded his father in the Duchy, delcaring that a bastard ought not to rule over him and other Normans. Accordingly he rebelled and ravaged the lands of his neighbours, particularly those of Humphrey de Vieilles; whose son Roger de Beaumont marched against him, and in the battle which followed, Roger de Toeni and two of his sons were slain. He was a benefactor to the abbey of l'Estree and confirmed a gift to the abbey of Lire, and witnessed a charter for the Jumieges.

He married, perhaps secondly, Godeheut, whose parentage is unknown. He died as above, probably in 1038 or 1039 adn was buried 31 May at Conches. His widow married Richard, 3rd Count of Evreux. She was a benefactor to Conches.

footnote c: The two sons said by Odrderic to have been slain with him have the extraordinary names of Elbert and Elinant. He left at least three sons and one daughter: Ralph, who succeeded him; Robert de Stafford, Baron of Stafford (see that title); Gazon; and Alice, who married William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford.


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Roger I 'd'Espagne' de Tosny's Timeline

985
985
Tosny, Eure, Normandy, France
1025
1025
Age 40
Of, Tosni, , France
1027
1027
Age 42
Of, Tosni, , France
1038
May 31, 1038
Age 53
Normandie, France
1040
1040
Age 53
Saint-Pierre de Conches abbey, Conches-en-Ouches, Eure, Haute Normandie, France
1994
January 4, 1994
Age 53
March 9, 1994
Age 53
April 26, 1994
Age 53
????
Conches-en-Ouches, Eure, Haute-Normandie, France