Simon IV de Montfort, 5th Earl Leicester

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Simon de Montfort

French: Simon de Montfort, seigneur de Montfort L'Amaury
Also Known As: "Simone de Montfort"
Birthdate: (43)
Birthplace: Montfort, Yvelines, Ile-de-France, France
Death: June 25, 1218 (39-47)
Toulouse, Midi-Pyrénées, France (Died during the siege of Toulouse in 1218)
Place of Burial: Messimy, Rhône-Alpes, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Simon Iv de Montfort, Seigneur de Montfort et de Rochefort and Amicia de Beaumont, Countess of Leicester
Husband of Alix de Montmorency
Father of Amaury VI, comte de Montfort; Guy de Montfort, Comte De Bigorre; Amicie de Montfort; Laure de Montfort-l'Amaury; Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and 2 others
Brother of Guy de Montfort, Lord of Sidon, seigneur de Castres; Perronelle de Montfort and Guiburge de Montfort
Half brother of Guillaume des Barres, comte de Châlons and Bure des Des Barres

Occupation: Comte, de Leceister, Sieur, de Montfort-l'Amaury, de Rochefort, de Bréthencourt, d'Epernon, Croisé, Duc de Narbonne, Duc, Seigneur
Managed by: Paul Douglas Van Dillen
Last Updated:

About Simon IV de Montfort, 5th Earl Leicester

From Medlands:

SIMON de Montfort ([1170]-killed in battle Toulouse 25 Jun 1218, bur Abbey de Haute-Bruyère). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the mother of "comes Symon Montisfortis et Guido frater eius" as "Guilelmum comitem Licestrie…sorore"[2685]. A charter dated Feb 1199 recalls a donation to the leprosery of Grand-Beaulieu near Chartres by "Amauricus de Monteforti", with the consent of "Amauricus parvus filius eiusdem Amaurici, qui erat sub custodia Amaurici de Mestenon", and the confirmation by "Simon de Monteforti, predictorum successor virorum et heres" with the consent of "uxore mea Eva et filiis meis Amaurico et Guidone et fratre meo Guidone"[2686]. "Li cuens Symon de Monfort et Gui ses freres" left on crusade in 1202[2687]. "Symon de Monteforti", leaving for Jerusalem, confirmed the privileges of the priory of Saint-Thomas d’Epernon by charter dated 1202[2688]. He left on Crusade in 1202 with Renaud Comte de Dampierre, but refused to take part in the capture of the town of Zara for the Venetians or in the capture of Constantinople[2689]. Villehardouin records that, after the siege of Zara, "Simon de Montfort [and]…his brother Guy de Montfort" deserted the army to join the king of Hungary[2690]. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split names "Symon comes de Monteforti" as one of the leaders of the army which landed at Zadar in Oct 1203[2691]. After the death of his maternal uncle, he went to England and was recognised as Earl of Leicester. He was one of the leaders of the crusade against the Albigensian heretics in 1209, and was elected their leader to govern the captured towns of Beziers and Carcassonne in Aug 1209. He captured Albi in 1210 and Toulouse in 1211. The titles which he used at that date are shown in the charter dated 3 Apr 1211 under which "Rogerus comes Convenarum" reached agreement with "Simone comite Leycestriensi, domino Montisfortis...Biterensi et Carcassonensi vicecomite, et domino Albiensi et Redensi"[2692]. "Henricus comes Ruthenensis, comitatum Ruthenensum, Rodellam, vicecomitatum de Cambolatio" swore homage to "domino meo S...comite Leycestriensi, domino Montisfortis...Biterrensi et Carcassensi vicecomite...et domino meo Amalrico primogenito filio vestro" by charter dated 7 Nov 1214[2693]. He defeated the Comte de Toulouse at Castelnaudary, and adopted the titles Vicomte d'Albi, Comte de Toulouse, Duc de Narbonne and Marquis de Provence[2694]. He defeated Pedro II King of Aragon at Muret 12 Sep 1213. "Simonem comitem de Monteforti" swore homage to Philippe II King of France for "ducatu Narbonensi, comitatu Tolosano, vicecomitatu Biterrensi et Carcassonæ" by charter dated Apr 1216[2695]. He lost Toulouse to Comte Raymond in Sep 1217, and was killed during an unsuccessful siege of the city[2696]. The Chronicle of Toulouse Saint-Saturnin records that "Simon comes Montisfortis" died "in obsidione Tolosæ, in crastinum festi Sancti Johannis Baptistæ" in 1218[2697]. The Annales Sancti Victoris Massilienses record the death "1218 VII Kal Iul" of "Simon comes Montisforti" during the siege of Toulouse[2698]. The necrology of Le Mans Cathedral records the death "VII Kal Jul" of "Simon…comes Montisfortis"[2699]. The necrology of Haute-Bruyère lists members of the Montfort family who are buried in the abbey, including "…conte Simon…qui mourut en Albigeois et de la contesse Alix sa femme…"[2700].

m ([1190]) ALIX de Montmorency, daughter of BOUCHARD [IV] Seigneur de Montmorency & his wife Laurette de Hainaut (-25 Feb 1221, bur Abbaye de Haute-Bruyère). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Matheum in curia Francie nominatissimum et comitissam Montisfortis matrem comitis Almarici" as children of "Loreta [de Haynaco] [uxor] Buchardo de Montinorencei"[2701]. A charter dated Feb 1199 recalls a donation to the leprosery of Grand-Beaulieu near Chartres by "Amauricus de Monteforti", with the consent of "Amauricus parvus filius eiusdem Amaurici, qui erat sub custodia Amaurici de Mestenon", and the confirmation by "Simon de Monteforti, predictorum successor virorum et heres" with the consent of "uxore mea Eva [presumably an error for Alix] et filiis meis Amaurico et Guidone et fratre meo Guidone"[2702]. "Symon comes Leycestrie dominus Montisfortis…Biterrenensis et Carcasonensis vicecomes" donated property to Notre-Dame de la Trappe with the consent of "A comitissa uxore mea et filiis nostris A et G" by charter dated Jul 1212[2703]. The necrology of Port-Royal records the death "V Kal Jan" of "Alix comtesse de Montfort"[2704]. The necrology of Haute-Bruyère lists members of the Montfort family who are buried in the abbey, including "…conte Simon…qui mourut en Albigeois et de la contesse Alix sa femme…"[2705]. Comte Simon & his wife had [eight] children:

a) AMAURY de Montfort (-Otranto [Apr] 1241, bur Rome, St Peter's). A charter dated Feb 1199 recalls a donation to the leprosery of Grand-Beaulieu near Chartres by "Amauricus de Monteforti", with the consent of "Amauricus parvus filius eiusdem Amaurici, qui erat sub custodia Amaurici de Mestenon", and the confirmation by "Simon de Monteforti, predictorum successor virorum et heres" with the consent of "uxore mea Eva [presumably an error for Alix] et filiis meis Amaurico et Guidone et fratre meo Guidone"[2706]. "Symon comes Leycestrie dominus Montisfortis…Biterrenensis et Carcasonensis vicecomes" donated property to Notre-Dame de la Trappe with the consent of "A comitissa uxore mea et filiis nostris A et G" by charter dated Jul 1212[2707]. The Historia Albigensium of Pierre de Vaux-Cernay names "primogenitus comitis Almaricus…utpote puer" when recording that he accompanied "Guido frater comitis" to Narbonne, dated to 1211 from the context[2708]. "Henricus comes Ruthenensis, comitatum Ruthenensum, Rodellam, vicecomitatum de Cambolatio" swore homage to "domino meo S...comite Leycestriensi, domino Montisfortis...Biterrensi et Carcassensi vicecomite...et domino meo Amalrico primogenito filio vestro" by charter dated 7 Nov 1214[2709]. He succeeded his father in 1218 as Duc de Narbonne, Comte de Toulouse, Seigneur de Montfort, the first two in opposition to Raymond VI Comte de Toulouse. He later used the title Earl of Leicester. He was compelled to agree settlement terms with the Comte de Toulouse and Comte de Foix 14 Jan 1224[2710]. He was appointed Constable of France by King Louis IX in Dec 1230, succeeding his maternal uncle Mathieu de Montmorency. "Almaricus comes Montisfortis, Francie constabularius" donated land "in loco…Marescheria" [Marchesserie] to Notre-Dame de la Roche for anniversaries for "…Guidonis Bigorensis comitis fratris nostri", with the consent of "Beatricis uxoris nostre", by charter dated Mar 1237[2711]. He fought in the Crusades in 1239, was captured at Gaza 13 Nov 1239, and died on his way home[2712]. William of Tyre (Continuator) names "Amarri le conte de Montfort" among those who took part in the crusade from France which landed at Acre in 1239, and in a later passage that he was captured[2713]. The necrology of Haute-Bruyère lists members of the Montfort family who are buried in the abbey, including "…comte Amaury…fils dou devant dit conte Simon et dou conte Guy de Bigorre, frere au devant dit conte Amaury…"[2714]. The chronicle of Evreux Saint-Taurin records the death in 1241 of "Amauricus comes Montis Fortis, Franciæ constabularius in redite de captivitate Sarracenorum" and his burial "Romæ in ecclesia Beati Petri"[2715]. m (Betrothed Carcassonne [1214], consummated 1222) BEATRIX de Viennois, daughter of ANDRE Comte d’Albon [Bourgogne-Capet] & his first wife Beatrix de Sabran Ctss de Gap et d'Embrun ([1205]-17 Sep after 1248). The Historia Albigensium of Pierre de Vaux-Cernay records the betrothal of "primogenitum comitis nostri…Almaricum" and "filiam Delphini", dated to 1214 from the context[2716]. The Aymari Rivalli De Allobrogibus records the marriage of "Andreas Delphinatum…et…Beatrice…Beatricem filiam" and "Amalrico comiti Montisfortis"[2717]. "Amalricus…dux Narbonæ, comes Tholosæ, vicecomes Biterrensis et dominus Montisfortis" donated property to the church of Embrun, relating to the dowry of "uxoris meæ filiæ comitis Dalphini", by charter dated 13 Dec 1222[2718]. "Almaricus comes Montisfortis, Francie constabularius" donated land "in loco…Marescheria" [Marchesserie] to Notre-Dame de la Roche for anniversaries for "…Guidonis Bigorensis comitis fratris nostri", with the consent of "Beatricis uxoris nostre", by charter dated Mar 1237[2719]. The necrology of Port-Royal records the death "XV Kal Oct" of "Beatrix contesse de Montfort jadis femme de Almary conte"[2720]. Amaury & his wife had five children: i) JEAN de Montfort (-Cyprus 19 Sep 1249, bur Abbaye de Haute-Bruyère). Comte de Montfort. "Johannes comes Montisfortis" donated property to the abbey of Notre-Dame de la Roche by charter dated Jun 1248 which names "bone memorie domini Almarici…patris nostri"[2721]. The necrology of Haute-Bruyère lists members of the Montfort family who are buried in the abbey, including "…le conte Jean fils du conte Amaury…"[2722]. The necrology of Joyenval records the death “19 Sep...circa...1254“ of "domini Joannis Montifortis comitis et dominæ Joannæ de Castilione uxoris eius”[2723]. m (before Mar 1248) as her first husband, JEANNE de Châteaudun, daughter of GEOFFROY [VI] Vicomte de Châteaudun & his second wife Clémence des Roches (-[19 Sep 1254]). “Clémence dame de Châteaudun et de Château-du-Loir” donated property to Bonlieu, with the consent of “sa fille Jehanne comtesse de Montfort”, for the souls of “feu Guillaume des Roches sénéchal d’Anjou, de Marguerite dame de Sablé, et de Geoffroy vicomte de Châteaudun”, by charter dated Apr 1250[2724]. Heiress of la Suze[2725]. “Jeanne comtesse de Montfort” granted a confirmation charter dated 1251[2726]. She married secondly ([1250/52]) as his first wife, Jean de Brienne dit d'Acre. Joinville records that “l’empereris s’en alla en France” (dated to [1249] from the context) and took with him “monsignour Jehan d’Acre son frère” whom he married to “la contesce de Montfort”[2727]. The necrology of Joyenval records the death “19 Sep...circa...1254“ of "domini Joannis Montifortis comitis et dominæ Joannæ de Castilione uxoris eius”[2728]. Jean & his wife had one child: (a) BEATRIX de Montfort (-4 Mar 1311, bur Abbaye de Haute-Bruyère). Her parentage is confirmed by the list in the necrology of Haute-Bruyère of members of the Montfort family who are buried in the abbey, which refers to "…la contesse Beatrix fille dou devant dit conte Jean…" as wife of "conte Robert de Dreux", although the text does not say that she was herself buried there[2729]. She succeeded her father as Ctss de Montfort, Dame de Rochefort. She succeeded her mother as Dame de Château-du-Loir. Heiress of la Suze, inherited from her mother[2730]. Letters dated Jun 1265 name “Marie comtesse de Dreues dame de Braine et de S. Gualery et Robers ses fius cunes de Dreux et de Montfort, Iean de Dreux son frere, et Beatrix femme d’iceluy Robert”[2731]. The necrology of Port-Royal records the death "IV Non Mar" of "Beatrix jadiz comtesse de Dreux et de Montfort"[2732]. The necrology of Joyenval records the death “2 Apr“ of "Roberti Druidarum et Montisforti comitis et Beatricis uxoris eius” and their confirmation of donations made by “domino Almarico Montisfortensi comite”[2733]. m (1260) ROBERT [IV] Comte de Dreux, son of JEAN [I] Comte de Dreux & his wife Marie de Bourbon ([1241]-12 Nov 1282, bur Braine St Ived). Comte de Montfort, by right of his wife. ii) MARGUERITE de Montfort ([1225/35]-1284 or after). The Chronicon Hanoniense of Baudouin d’Avesnes records that "Jehans...conte de Soissons" married "la fille le conte de Montfort...Marguerite si ot de li 3 fils et une fille"[2734]. "Johannes primogenitus J[ohannis] comitis Suessionensis dominus de Cimay et...Margarita de Monteforti eius uxor" confirmed the donation made to Vaux de Cernay under the testament of “bone memorie Almarricus condam comes Montisfortis pater predicte Margarite” by charter dated Apr 1257[2735]. m JEAN [III] Comte de Soissons, son of JEAN [II] Comte de Soissons & his first wife Marie du Thour (-before 8 Oct 1286). iii) LAURE de Montfort (-before Aug 1270, bur Abbaye Saint-Antoine-lès-Paris). "Ferrandus domicellus de Pontivo filius regis Hyspanie et Laura filia comitis Montisfortis uxor eiusdem Ferrandi" confirmed the donation made to Vaux de Cernay by “clare memorie Johannes quondam comes Montisfortis filius...Almarici Montisfortis quondam comitis...frater noster, de assensu...Johanne uxoris sue nunc defuncte” by charter dated Dec 1257[2736]. Dame d'Epernon. "Ferrandus…regis Hyspanie filius, heres Pontivil et dominus Sparnonis ac miles et domina Laura de Monteforti eiusdem Sparnonis domina eius uxor" issued letters to the priory of Saint-Thomas d’Epernon by charter dated Feb 1261[2737]. "Henricus de Grandiprato miles dominus de Lyvriaco et Laura de Monteforti eius uxor domina de Sparnone" donated property to the priory of Saint-Thomas d’Epernon by charter dated Dec 1267[2738]. "Henricus comes Grandi prati" confirmed donations to Notre-Dame d'Ourscamp made by “filii nostri Henrici militis domini de Livriaco et Lore de Monteforti dicti filii nostri uxoris”, with the consent of “magister Petrus de Meullento canonicus Cathalaunensis consanguineus meus et Radulfus de Passiaco avunculus meus”, by charter dated May 1267[2739]. m firstly (after 1256) Infante don FERNANDO de Castilla, son of FERNANDO III "el Santo" King of Castile & his second wife Jeanne de Dammartin Ctss d'Aumâle et de Ponthieu (1238-in France before 1264). Created Comte d’Aumâle, Baron de Montgomery et de Noyelles-sur-Mer. m secondly (before May 1267) as his first wife, HENRI de Grandpré Seigneur de Livry, son of HENRI [V] Comte de Grandpré & his wife Isabeau de Brienne (-before 1287). iv) ADELA de Montfort (-28 Mar 1279). The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. m SIMON [II] de Clermont Seigneur d'Ailly, son of RAOUL de Clermont Seigneur d’Ailly & his wife Gertrude de Nesle (-1 Feb 1286). v) PERNELLE de Montfort (-5 Dec 1275). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. Abbess of Port-Royal. The necrology of Port-Royal records the death "V Non Dec" of "Perronnelle de Montfort abbesse de Port Real"[2740].

b) GUY de Montfort (-killed in battle 4 Apr 1220, bur Abbaye de Haute-Bruyère). A charter dated Feb 1199 recalls a donation to the leprosery of Grand-Beaulieu near Chartres by "Amauricus de Monteforti", with the consent of "Amauricus parvus filius eiusdem Amaurici, qui erat sub custodia Amaurici de Mestenon", and the confirmation by "Simon de Monteforti, predictorum successor virorum et heres" with the consent of "uxore mea Eva [presumably an error for Alix] et filiis meis Amaurico et Guidone et fratre meo Guidone"[2741]. "Symon comes Leycestrie dominus Montisfortis…Biterrenensis et Carcasonensis vicecomes" donated property to Notre-Dame de la Trappe with the consent of "A comitissa uxore mea et filiis nostris A et G" by charter dated Jul 1212[2742]. The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records in 1220 that "Gui fils de Simon de Montfort" was killed by "le comte de Saint-Gilles"[2743]. The necrology of Port-Royal records the death "II Non Apr" of "le jeune Guydo de Montfort"[2744]. The necrology of Haute-Bruyère lists members of the Montfort family who are buried in the abbey, including "…comte Amaury…fils dou devant dit conte Simon et dou conte Guy de Bigorre, frere au devant dit conte Amaury…"[2745]. "Almaricus comes Montisfortis, Francie constabularius" donated land "in loco…Marescheria" [Marchesserie] to Notre-Dame de la Roche for anniversaries for "…Guidonis Bigorensis comitis fratris nostri", with the consent of "Beatricis uxoris nostre", by charter dated Mar 1237[2746]. m (13 Nov 1216) as her third husband, PETRONILLE de Comminges Ctss de Bigorre, widow firstly of GASTON VI Comte de Béarn and secondly of don NUÑO Sanchez de Aragón, daughter of BERNARD IV de Comminges & his wife Béatrix III Comtesse de Bigorre (-1251). The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens records that "Simon de Montfort" married "son fils Guy" to "la comtesse de Bigorre"[2747]. The record of the 1503 hearing relating to the dispute over the inheritance of the county of Bigorre records that "Pétronille contesse…de Bigorre" married "feu Monsieur Messire Guy de Narbonne", adding that the marriage was recognised by the church[2748]. She married fourthly ([1221/23]) Aymar de Rancon, and fifthly (1228) Boson de Mastas Seigneur de Cognac (-before 1251). - COMTES de BIGORRE.

c) [daughter .] The Historia Albigensium of Pierre de Vaux-Cernay records that "comes…Tolosanus" betrothed "filius suus" to "filiam comitis Montis-fortis" but later reneged on the promise, dated to 1209 from the context[2749]. It is not known whether this daughter was the same as one of the other daughters named below. Betrothed (1209, contract broken) to RAYMOND de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND Comte de Toulouse & his third wife Joan of England (Beaucaire, Gard Jul 1197-Millau, Aveyron 27 Sep 1249, bur Fontevraud). He succeeded his father in 1222 as RAYMOND VII Comte de Toulouse.

d) PETRONILLE de Montfort (-before 1237). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "soror…Symonis [de Montisforti]…Petronilla"[2750]. A nun.

e) AMICIE de Montfort (-20 Feb 1253). The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. “Galcherus de Jovigniaco et...Amicya uxor dicti Galcheri” donated property to Escharlis abbey by charter dated Apr 1229[2751]. Mathilde Ctss de Nevers confirmed the donation of "villa sue de Nannaio, Autissiodorensis diecesis" made to the chapter of Auxerre by “Amicie relicte bone memorie Galteri de Joigniaco et Galterii filii eorumdem” by charter dated May 1241[2752]. m (before May 1226) as his second wife, GAUCHER de Joigny Seigneur de Châteaurenard, son of RENARD [IV] Comte de Joigny & his wife Adelaide de Nevers (-before Nov 1237).

f) LAURE de Montfort (-1227 or before). The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. Darsy names "Lore ou Laure de Montfort" as first wife of Gérard [III] de Picquigny, and refers to her testament under which she bequeathed property to Gard convent[2753]. If her family origin is correctly stated, the chronology suggests that she was the daughter of Simon de Montfort and his wife Alix de Montmorency. m as his first wife, GERARD [III] de Picquigny Vidame d'Amiens, son of ENGUERRAND de Picquigny Vidame d’Amiens & his wife Marguerite de Ponthieu (-[May 1248/Jun 1249]).

g) SIMON de Montfort ([1208/09]-killed in battle Evesham 4 Aug 1265, bur Evesham). The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records in 1239 that "Simon de Montfort…fils de Simon comte de Montfort" fled to England, having become the enemy of the queen of France, where King Henry gave him the earldom of Leicester and his sister's hand in marriage[2754]. He was granted the inheritance of his paternal grandmother in England by Henry III King of England in Aug 1231 and installed as Earl of Leicester 11 Apr 1239.


Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester and Duke of Narbonne

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Not to be confused with Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester.

Simon IV de Montfort, Seigneur de Montfort-l'Amaury, 5th Earl of Leicester (1160 – 25 June 1218), also known as Simon de Montfort the elder, was a French nobleman who took part in the Fourth Crusade (1202 - 1204) and was a prominent leader of the Albigensian Crusade. He died at the siege of Toulouse in 1218.

Early life

He was the son of Simon III de Montfort, lord of Montfort l'Amaury in France near Paris, and Amicia de Beaumont, daughter of Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester - the de Montfort line itself descends from the Counts of Flanders. He succeeded his father as Baron de Montfort in 1181; in 1190 he married Alix de Montmorency, the daughter of Bouchard III de Montmorency. In 1191 his brother, Guy, left on the Third Crusade in the retinue of King Philip II of France.

In 1199, while taking part in a tournament at Ecry-sur-Aisne, he heard Fulk of Neuilly preaching the crusade, and in the company of Count Thibaud de Champagne, he took the cross. The crusade soon fell under Venetian control, and was diverted to Zara on the Adriatic Sea. Pope Innocent III had specifically warned the Crusaders not to attack fellow Christians; Simon tried to reassure the citizens of Zara that there would be no attack, but nevertheless, the city was sacked in 1202. Simon did not participate in this action and was one of its most outspoken critics. He and his associates, including Abbot Guy of Vaux-de-Cernay, soon left the Crusade altogether from Zara and traveled to King Emico of Hungary's territory.[1] Afterwards, under Venetian guidance, the Crusaders sacked the city of Constantinople—the main trading rival to Venice.

His mother was the eldest daughter of Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester. After the death of her brother Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester without children in 1204, she inherited half of his estates, and a claim to the Earldom of Leicester. The division of the estates was effected early in 1207, by which the rights to the earldom were assigned to Amicia and Simon. However, King John of England took possession of the lands himself in February 1207, and confiscated its revenues. Later, in 1215, the lands were passed into the hands of Simon's cousin, Ranulph de Meschines, 4th Earl of Chester.

Later life

Simon remained on his estates in France, where in 1209 he was elected captain-general of the French forces in the Albigensian Crusade by his fellow nobles, reportedly after several larger players had turned down the role. He was present at the siege and subsequent massacre at Beziers on 22 July 1209 when the entire population of twenty thousand Cathars and Catholics were slaughtered. Thousands sought sanctuary in the Cathedral of St Nazaire which was set on fire and also in the Eglise de la Madeleine inside which all were butchered to death."Tuez les tous, Dieu reconnaitra les siens" - "Kill them all, God will sort them out" was the famous quotation which exonerated the rampaging Crusaders. Ironically it was Ste Madeleine's Day. Simon was rewarded with the territory conquered from Raymond VI of Toulouse which in theory made him the most important landowner in Occitania. He became notorious and feared for his extreme cruelty, massacring whole towns, and for his "treachery, harshness, and bad faith." In 1210 he burned 140 Cathars in the village of Minerve who refused to give up their faith. In another widely reported incident, prior to the sack of the village of Lastours, he brought prisoners from the nearby village of Bram and had their eyes gouged out and their ears, noses and lips cut off. One prisoner, left with a single good eye, led them into the village as a warning.

Simon's part in the crusade had the full backing of his liege lord, the King of France, Philip Augustus. Following the latter's success in winning Normandy from John Lackland of England, he was approached by Innocent III to lead the crusade himself but turned this down being heavily committed to defend his gains against John and against the emerging alliance between England, the Empire and Flanders. However, Phillip claimed full rights over the lands of the house of St Gilles and some have seen his dispatch of de Montfort and other northern barons as at the very least an exploratory campaign to reassert the rights of the French crown in the Midi. He may well also have been wishing to appease the papacy after the long dispute over his marriage which had led to excommunication - as well as seeking to counter any adventure by John of England - who had marriage and fealty ties also with the Toulouse comtal house. Meanwhile others have seen Phillip's motives as including removing over-mighty subjects from the north, distracting them in adventure elsewhere where they could not threaten his increasingly successful restoration of the power of the French crown in the north.

Simon is described as a man of extreme religious orthodoxy, deeply committed to the Dominican order and the suppression of heresy. Dominic Guzman, later Saint Dominic, spent several years during the war in the Midi at Fanjeau, which was Simon's headquarters, especially in the winter months when the crusading forces were depleted. Simon had other key confederates in this enterprise which many see as a naked seizure of southern lands by ambitious men from the north, many of whom had been involved in the notorious fourth crusade. One of these was Guy Vaux de Cernay - head of a Cistercian abbey not more than twenty miles from Simon's patrimony of Montfort Aumary - who accompanied the crusade in the Languedoc and became bishop of Caracassonne for his pains. Meanwhile the nephew of Guy, Peter de Vaux de Cernay, arguably a stool-pigeon of De Montfort,his uncle and the papacy, wrote an account of the crusade which many have seen as a transparent piece of propaganda to justify the actions of the crusaders, whose outrages are described consistently as doing the work of God against the heretical agents of the demonic power - while outrages committed by the embattled lords of the Midi are predictably portrayed as the opposite. Simon was an energetic campaigner, making rapid movements to strike at those who had broken their faith with him - and there were many as local lords switched sides whenever the moment seemed propitious. The Midi was a warren of small fortified places, as well as home to some of the most magnificent defended cities - such as Toulouse, Carcassonne and Narbonne. Simon seems to have shown great personal valour and daring as well as being particularly brutal with those close to him who betrayed him - as for example, Martin Algae, lord of Biron. In 1213 he defeated Peter of Aragon at the Battle of Muret. The Albigensians were now crushed, but Simon carried on the campaign as a war of conquest, being appointed lord over all the newly-acquired territory as Count of Toulouse and Duke of Narbonne (1215). He spent two years in warfare in many parts of Raymond's former territories; he besieged Beaucaire, which had been taken by Raymond VII of Toulouse, from 6 June 1216 to 24 August 1216.

Raymond spent most of this period in Aragon, but corresponded with sympathisers in Toulouse. There were rumours that he was on his way to Toulouse in September 1216. Abandoning the siege of Beaucaire, Simon responded with a partial sacking of Toulouse, perhaps intended as punishment of the citizens. Raymond actually returned to take possession of Toulouse in October 1217. Simon hastened to besiege the city, meanwhile sending his wife, Alix de Montmorency, with bishop Foulques of Toulouse and others, to the French court to plead for support. After maintaining the siege for nine months Simon was killed on 25 June 1218 while combating a sally by the besieged. His head was smashed by a stone from a mangonel, operated, according to the most detailed source, by donas e tozas e mulhers ("ladies, girls and women") of Toulouse.[2] He was buried in the Cathedral of Saint-Nazaire at Carcassonne.[3]

Legacy

Simon left three sons: his French estates passed to his eldest son, Amaury VI de Montfort, while his younger son, Simon, eventually gained possession of the earldom of Leicester and played a major role in the reign of Henry III of England. Another son, Guy, was married to Petronille, Countess of Bigorre, on 6 November 1216, but died at the siege of Castelnaudary on 20 July 1220. His daughter, Petronilla, became an abbess at the Cistercian nunnery of St. Antoine's. Another daughter, Amicia, founded the nunnery at Montargis and died there in 1252.

Notes

^ Phillips, Jonathan. The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople, 2004. page 137.

^ Chanson de la Croisade Albigeoise laisse 205.

^ Chanson de la Croisade Albigeoise laisse 206; Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay, Historia Albigensis 615.

References

Sumption, Jonathan. The Albigensian Crusade, 2000

"Simon de Montfort". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.

Simon V Montfort1

M, b. 1170, d. 25 June 1218, #8023

Father Simon IV de Montfort1 b. between 1117 and 1121, d. before 18 July 1188

Mother Amicia de Beaumont1 d. 3 September 1215

Pop-up Pedigree

Reference 17691

Birth* Simon V Montfort was born in 1170.1

Marriage* He married Alice de Montmorency Montfort/, daughter of Bouchard V (?) and Laurette of Hainault (?), circa 1190.1

Death* He died on 25 June 1218 at Toulouse, France.1

Burial* He was buried at Hautebruyeres, France.1

Family Alice de Montmorency Montfort/ d. 24 February 1221

Children

Amaury VI de Montfort d. 1241

Amicie de Montfort d. 20 Feb 1253

Simon VI de Montfort b. c 1208, d. 4 Aug 1265

Last Edited 22 Jun 2005

Citations

[S218] Marlyn Lewis, Ancestry of Elizabeth of York.

Simon IV "le Macchabée" de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester1,2

b. 1170, d. 25 June 1218

Father Simon III de Montfort, comte de Évreux3 b. after 1120, d. 12 March 1180/81

Mother Amicia de Beaumont3 b. say 1154

    Simon IV "le Macchabée" de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester was related to Simon V de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester; the son of Simon de Montfort l'Amaury, leader of the crusade against the heretical Albigenses.4 Simon IV "le Macchabée" de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester was the second son of Simon III of Montfort and Amicia, daughter of Robert Beaumont, third Earl of Leicester.5 Also called seigneur de Montfort Simon III de Montfort.6 He was born in 1170.1 He was the son of Simon III de Montfort, comte de Évreux and Amicia de Beaumont.3 Simon IV "le Macchabée" de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester married Alix de Montmorency, daughter of Bouchard IV, seigneur Montmorency and Laurence de Hainaut, before 1190.7 Simon IV "le Macchabée" de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester was the successor of Raymond VI, comte de Toulouse; Count of Toulouse.8 Simon IV "le Macchabée" de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester was recognized by King John as the Earl of Leicester, a claim derived through his mother Amicia being the sister of Robert IV, the last Beaumont Earl of Leicester, circa 1205.4 Earl of Leicester at England between 1205 and 1207.1 He deprived of the earldom of Leicester by King John because he was a french subject in 1207.4 He was leader of the crusade against the heretical Albigenses after 1209 at Toulouse, France.4 He witnessed the death of Pere II "el Católico", rey de Aragón on 14 September 1213 at the Battle of Muret, France; Following the battle at Tolosa, he went to support his brother-in-law Raymond VI of Toulouse against the crusader Simon de Montfort in Languedoc. There he was killed in battle fighting on behalf of the Albigensians. His son James I succeeded him.9 Count of Toulouse at Aquitaine, France, between 1215 and 1218.8 Simon IV "le Macchabée" de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester was the predecessor of Raymond VI, comte de Toulouse; Count of Toulouse, restored.8 Simon IV "le Macchabée" de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester died on 25 June 1218 at Toulouse, France, at age 48 years. "He was struck by a stone thrown from a mangonel in the besieged city."1,2 He died on 27 June 1218 at Toulouse at age 48 years. He died at the siege of Toulouse.6

Family

Alix de Montmorency b. circa 1176?, d. 1221

Children

Amaury VI, comte de Montfort-l'Amaury, connétable de France+ b. c 1202, d. 12414

seigneur de Bigorre Guy de Montfort b. c 1204, d. 122810

Simon V de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester+ b. c 1208, d. 4 Aug 12651

Citations

[S682] D.S.O. Lt.-Col. W. H. Turton, Turton, pg. 224.

[S1002] D. Spencer Hines (e-mail address), Re: Simon de Monfort in "Re: Simon de Monfort," newsgroup message 2001-06-29 18:59:21 PST.

[S1345] Anselme de Sainte-Marie (augustin déchaussé), Pere Anselme's Histoire, 3rd Ed., VI:74.

[S862] Various EB CD 2001, Montfort, Simon de, Earl Of Leicester.

[S512] H. J. Chaytor, Chaytor, H. J., chap. 5, pg. 74.

[S1345] Anselme de Sainte-Marie (augustin déchaussé), Pere Anselme's Histoire, 3rd Ed., VI:75-76.

[S1345] Anselme de Sainte-Marie (augustin déchaussé), Pere Anselme's Histoire, 3rd Ed., VI:76.

[S261] Regnal Chronologies, online http://www.hostkingdom.net/regindex.html, France, Toulouse.

[S245] LDS.

[S862] Various EB CD 2001, Montfort family (Fr. lords).


ID: I191819

Name: Simon the Crusader de Montfort 1

Sex: M

Title: Earl of Leicester

Birth: BEF 1181 in Montfort Amaury, Ile de France, France 1

Death: 25 JUN 1218 in Killed before the walls of Toulouse 1

Occupation: Earl of Leicester, 4th Count de Montfort 1

Burial: 1215 Surety Baron signed Magna Carta 1

Burial: Crusade Leader Proclamation by Innocent III 1

Burial: Leader of crusade against the Albigenses 1

Burial: Made Earl of Leicester by King John 1

Burial: 1199 Crusader with Theobald of Champagne 1

Father: Simon IV de Montfort b: ABT 1153 in Montfort Amaury, Ile de France, France

Mother: Amice FitzPernel de Beaumont b: ABT 1158 in Leicestershire, England

Marriage 1 Alix de Montmorency b: BEF 1189

Married: 1190 1

Children

Guy de Montfort b: AFT 1190
Robert de Montfort b: AFT 1190
Amaury de Montfort b: AFT 1190
Amicia de Montfort b: AFT 1190
Simon de Monfort , Earl Leicester b: 1209 in Leicester, Eng.

Sources:

Title: 5463.ged

Repository:

Media: Other

Text: Date of Import: Oct 8, 2006


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_de_Montfort,_5th_Earl_of_Leicester


Duke of Narbonne.

Fifth Earl Leicester.

Lord High Steward of England.


seigneur de Montfort, Duke of Narbonne, Vicount of Béziers and Carcassonne, and 5th Earl of Leicester (participant in the 4th Crusade and leader of the Albigensian Crusade), m. before 1190.
Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Not to be confused with Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester.

Seal of Simon IV de Montfort

=Simon IV (or V[1]) de Montfort (c. 1175 – 25 June 1218),=

also known as Simon de Montfort the Elder, was a French nobleman and soldier who took part in the Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) and was a prominent leader of the Albigensian Crusade. He died at the Siege of Toulouse in 1218. He was lord of Montfort-l'Amaury in France and the 5th Earl of Leicester in England.

Contents [hide] 1 Early life 2 Later life 3 Legacy 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links Early life[edit] He was the son of Simon IV de Montfort (d. 1188), lord of Montfort l'Amaury in France near Paris, and Amicia de Beaumont, daughter of Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester. He succeeded his father as lord of Montfort in 1181; in 1190 he married Alix de Montmorency, the daughter of Bouchard III de Montmorency. She shared his religious zeal and would accompany him on his campaigns.[2] In 1199, while taking part in a tournament at Ecry-sur-Aisne, he took the cross in the company of Count Thibaud de Champagne and went on the Fourth Crusade. The crusade soon fell under Venetian control, and was diverted to Zara on the Adriatic Sea. Pope Innocent III had specifically warned the Crusaders not to attack fellow Christians; Simon opposed the attack and urged a waiting Zara delegation not to surrender, claiming the Frankish troops would not support the Venetians in this. As a result, the delegation returned to Zara and the city resisted.[3] Since most Frankish lords were in debt to the Venetians, they did support the attack and the city was sacked in 1202. Simon did not participate in this action and was one of its most outspoken critics. He and his associates, including Abbot Guy of Vaux-de-Cernay, left the crusade when the decision was taken to divert once more to Constantinople to place Alexius IV Angelus on the throne. Instead, Simon and his followers travelled to the court of King Emeric of Hungary and thence to Acre.[4] His mother was the eldest daughter of Robert of Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester. After the death of her brother Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester without children in 1204, she inherited half of his estates, and a claim to the Earldom of Leicester. The division of the estates was effected early in 1207, by which the rights to the earldom were assigned to Amicia and Simon. However, King John of England took possession of the lands himself in February 1207, and confiscated its revenues. Later, in 1215, the lands were passed into the hands of Simon's cousin, Ranulph de Meschines, 4th Earl of Chester. Later life[edit] Simon remained on his estates in France before taking the cross once more, this time against Christian dissidence. He participated in the initial campaign of the Albigensian Crusade in 1209, and after the fall of Carcassonne, was elected leader of the crusade and viscount of the confiscated territories of the Raymond-Roger Trencavel family. Simon was rewarded with the territory conquered from Raymond VI of Toulouse, which in theory made him the most important landowner in Occitania. He became feared for his ruthlessness. In 1210 he burned 140 Cathars in the village of Minerve who refused to recant - though he spared those who did. In another widely reported incident, prior to the sack of the village of Lastours, he brought prisoners from the nearby village of Bram and had their eyes gouged out and their ears, noses and lips cut off. One prisoner, left with a single good eye, led them into the village as a warning. Simon's part in the crusade had the full backing of his feudal superior, the King of France, Philip Augustus. But historian Alistaire Horne, in his book Seven Ages of Paris, states that Philip "turned a blind eye to Simon de Montfort's crusade... of which he disapproved, but readily accepted the spoils to his exchequer". Following the latter's success in winning Normandy from John Lackland of England, he was approached by Innocent III to lead the crusade but turned this down. He was heavily committed to defend his gains against John and against the emerging alliance among England, the Empire and Flanders. But, Philip claimed full rights over the lands of the house of St Gilles; some historians believe his dispatch of de Montfort and other northern barons to be, at the very least, an exploratory campaign to reassert the rights of the French Crown in Le Midi. Philip may well also have wanted to appease the papacy after the long dispute over his marriage, which had led to excommunication. He also sought to counter any adventure by King John of England, who had marriage and fealty ties also with the Toulouse comtal house. Meanwhile, others have assessed Philip's motives to include removing over-mighty subjects from the North, and distracting them in adventure elsewhere, so they could not threaten his increasingly successful restoration of the power of the French crown in the north. Simon is described as a man of unflinching religious orthodoxy, deeply committed to the Dominican order and the suppression of heresy. Dominic Guzman, later Saint Dominic, spent several years during the war in the Midi at Fanjeau, which was Simon's headquarters, especially in the winter months when the crusading forces were depleted. Simon had other key confederates in this enterprise, which many historians view as a conquest of southern lands by greedy men from the north. Many of them had been involved in the Fourth Crusade. One was Guy Vaux de Cernay, head of a Cistercian abbey not more than twenty miles from Simon's patrimony of Montfort Aumary, who accompanied the crusade in the Languedoc and became bishop of Carcassonne. Meanwhile, Peter de Vaux de Cernay, the nephew of Guy, wrote an account of the crusade. Historians generally consider this to be propaganda to justify the actions of the crusaders; Peter justified their cruelties as doing "the work of God" against morally depraved heretics. He portrayed outrages committed by the lords of the Midi as the opposite. Simon was an energetic campaigner, rapidly moving his forces to strike at those who had broken their faith with him - and there were many, as some local lords switched sides whenever the moment seemed propitious. The Midi was a warren of small fortified places, as well as home to some highly fortified cities, such as Toulouse, Carcassonne and Narbonne. Simon showed ruthlessness and daring as well as being particularly brutal with those who betrayed their pledges - as for example, Martin Algai, lord of Biron.[5] In 1213 Simon defeated Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of Muret. This completed the defeat of the Albigensians, but Simon carried on the campaign as a war of conquest. He was appointed lord over all the newly acquired territory as Count of Toulouse and Duke of Narbonne (1215). He spent two years in warfare in many parts of Raymond's former territories; he besieged Beaucaire, which had been taken by Raymond VII of Toulouse, from 6 June 1216 to 24 August 1216.

Plaque commemorating the death of Simon de Montfort Raymond spent most of this period in the Crown of Aragon, but corresponded with sympathisers in Toulouse. There were rumours in September 1216 that he was on his way to Toulouse. Abandoning the siege of Beaucaire, Simon partially sacked Toulouse, perhaps intended as punishment of the citizens. Raymond returned in October 1217 to take possession of Toulouse. Simon hastened to besiege the city, meanwhile sending his wife, Alix de Montmorency, with bishop Foulques of Toulouse and others, to the French court to plead for support. After maintaining the siege for nine months, Simon was killed on 25 June 1218 while combating a sally by the besieged. His head was smashed by a stone from a mangonel, operated, according to one source, by the donas e tozas e mulhers ("ladies and girls and women") of Toulouse.[6] He was buried in the Cathedral of Saint-Nazaire at Carcassonne.[7] His body was later moved by one of his sons to be reinterred at Montfort l'Amaury. A tombstone in the South Transept of the Cathedral is inscribed "of Simon de Montfort". Legacy[edit] Simon left three sons: his French estates passed to his eldest son, Amaury VI de Montfort, while his younger son, Simon, eventually gained possession of the earldom of Leicester and played a major role in the reign of Henry III of England. He led the barons' rebellion against Henry during the Second Barons' War, and subsequently became de facto ruler of England. During his rule, de Montfort called the first directly elected parliament in medieval Europe. For this reason, de Montfort is regarded today as one of the progenitors of modern parliamentary democracy. Another son, Guy, was married to Petronille, Countess of Bigorre, on 6 November 1216, but died at the siege of Castelnaudary on 20 July 1220. His daughter, Petronilla, became an abbess at the Cistercian nunnery of St. Antoine's. Another daughter, Amicia, founded the convent at Montargis and died there in 1252. Notes[edit] Jump up ^ Complete Peerage, vii p. 716 Jump up ^ Maddicott, John Robert (1994). Simon de Montfort. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 5. Jump up ^ Crowley, Roger (2011). City of Fortune: How Venice won and lost a Naval Empire. London: Bloomsberry House. p. 54. Jump up ^ Phillips, Jonathan. The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople, 2004. page 137. Jump up ^ Sumption, Jonathan (1978). The Albigensian Crusade (1999 paperback ed.). Faber. p. 149. ISBN 0-571-20002-8. Jump up ^ Chanson de la Croisade Albigeoise laisse 205. Jump up ^ Chanson de la Croisade Albigeoise laisse 206; Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay, Historia Albigensis 615. References[edit] Lippiatt, G.E.M. Simon V of Montfort and Baronial Government, 1195-1218, 2017 Sumption, Jonathan. The Albigensian Crusade, 2000 Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Simon de Montfort". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. External links[edit]

Media related to Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester at Wikimedia Commons

Peerage of England Preceded by Robert de Beaumont Earl of Leicester 1206–1218 Succeeded by Simon de Montfort Regnal titles Preceded by Raymond Roger Viscount of Béziers, Albi and Carcassone 1209–1218 Succeeded by Amaury Preceded by Bernard Ato VI Viscount of Nîmes 1214–1218 Preceded by Raymond VI — DISPUTED — Count of Toulouse 1215–1218 Disputed by Raymond VI Succeeded by Raymond VI

About Simon IV de Montfort, comte de Toulouse (Français)

Seigneur de Montfort-l'Amaury de 1188 à 1218, comte de Leicester en 1204, vicomte d'Albi, de Béziers et de Carcassonne de 1213 à 1218, comte de Toulouse de 1215 à 1218. Principale figure de la croisade contre les Albigeois.

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Simon IV de Montfort, 5th Earl Leicester's Timeline

1175
1175
Montfort, Yvelines, Ile-de-France, France
1184
1184
Age 9
Leicestershire, England, United Kingdom
1195
1195
Age 20
Leicestershire, England, United Kingdom
1200
1200
Age 25
Normandy, France
1205
1205
Age 30
Seine-et-Oise, France
1208
May 23, 1208
Age 33
Castle Montfort-l'Amaury, Ile de France, France
1211
1211
Age 36
Seine-et-Oise, France
1213
1213
Age 38
Normandy, France
1218
June 25, 1218
Age 43
Toulouse, Midi-Pyrénées, France
1218
Age 43
Messimy, Rhône-Alpes, France