Sir John A. Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, PC, QC

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The Rt. Hon. Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, PC, QC

French: The Rt. Hon. Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, CR, c.r.
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
Death: Died in Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
Place of Burial: Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Immediate Family:

Son of Hugh John Macdonald and Helen Shaw
Husband of Susan Agnes Macdonald and Isabella Macdonald
Father of Margaret Mary Theodora Macdonald; Gertrude Macdonald; John Alexander Macdonald, Jr. and Sir Hugh John Macdonald, PC
Brother of William Macdonald; Margaret Macdonald; James Shaw Macdonald and Louisa Jean Macdonald

Occupation: Prime Minister of Canada
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Sir John A. Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, PC, QC

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR JOHN ALEXANDER MACDONALD

First Prime Minister of Canada

John Alexander Macdonald, b. Jan. 11, 1815, d. June 6, 1891, one of the principal founders of the Dominion of Canada, was its first prime minister (1867-73, 1878-91) and its leading political figure from 1867 until his death. Born in Glasgow, Scotland, Macdonald immigrated to Upper Canada (now Ontario) with his parents in 1820, settling near Kingston. He established a law practice there and was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada (present Ontario and Quebec) in 1844. In succeeding years he played a major role in transforming the old Tory party, based on narrow Loyalist and Anglican values, into a broader Conservative grouping that was willing to cooperate with French-speaking Canadians to achieve a union of all British North America. In 1857 he became prime minister of the Province of Canada. As the leader of the English-speaking Conservatives, Macdonald, with his Quebec colleague Sir George Etienne CARTIER and the Liberal George BROWN, formed the coalition administration (1864-67) that achieved Confederation.

Macdonald's vital role in this process earned him the post of first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. The Confederation originally consisted of the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, but he succeeded in extending the limits westward by the acquisition of the Hudson's Bay Company territories in 1870 and the entrance of British Columbia in 1871; it was extended eastward when Prince Edward Island joined in 1873. Macdonald's first efforts to organize a transcontinental railway company led to his political defeat in 1873 as a result of the PACIFIC SCANDAL, but he returned to office 5 years later. The Canadian Pacific Railway was chartered in 1880 and completed in 1885. Meanwhile, Macdonald launched his National Policy for strengthening Canada through protective tariffs and encouragement of western settlement. He was last elected in 1891, when the Conservatives turned back a Liberal campaign aimed at full trade reciprocity with the United States, which Macdonald feared would lead to the political amalgamation of Canada with its powerful southern neighbor.

Biography

John Alexander Macdonald, b. Jan. 11, 1815, d. June 6, 1891, one of the principal founders of the Dominion of Canada, was its first prime minister (1867-73, 1878-91) and its leading political figure from 1867 until his death.

Early life

Sir John always celebrated his birthday on 11 January, even though it was registered on 10 January. Macdonald immigrated to Upper Canada (now Ontario) with his parents in 1820, settling near Kingston. He established a law practice there and was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada (present Ontario and Quebec) in 1844.

In succeeding years he played a major role in transforming the old Tory party, based on narrow Loyalist and Anglican values, into a broader Conservative grouping that was willing to cooperate with French-speaking Canadians to achieve a union of all British North America. In 1857 he became prime minister of the Province of Canada. As the leader of the English-speaking Conservatives, Macdonald, with his Quebec colleague Sir George Etienne Cartier and the Liberal George Brown, formed the coalition administration (1864-67) that achieved Confederation.

Confederation

Macdonald's vital role in the process of c.c.c confederation earned him the post of first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. The Confederation originally consisted of the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, but he succeeded in extending the limits westward by the acquisition of the Hudson's Bay Company territories in 1870 and the entrance of British Columbia in 1871; it was extended eastward when Prince Edward Island joined in 1873. Macdonald's first efforts to organize a transcontinental railway company led to his political defeat in 1873 as a result of the Pacific Scandal, but he returned to office five years later.

Later life

The Canadian Pacific Railway was chartered in 1880 and completed in 1885. Meanwhile, Macdonald launched his National Policy for strengthening Canada through protective tariffs and encouragement of western settlement. He was last elected in 1891, when the Conservatives turned back a Liberal campaign aimed at full trade reciprocity with the United States, which Macdonald feared would lead to the political amalgamation of Canada with its powerful southern neighbor

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Sir John A. Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, PC, QC's Timeline

1815
January 11, 1815
Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
1820
1820
Age 4
1820
Age 4
1847
August 2, 1847
Age 32
New York City, New York, USA
1850
March 13, 1850
Age 35
Kingston, ON, Canada
1869
February 8, 1869
Age 54
Ottawa, Ontario
1891
June 6, 1891
Age 76
Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
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