Skade Tjatsedotter, Queen of Sweden
|Also Known As:||"Skaði"|
|Birthplace:||Trondheim, Trondheim, Sor-Trondelag, Norway|
|Managed by:||Private User|
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About Skade Tjatsedotter, Queen of Sweden
Kone til Njord av Vanir (ingen barn), og deretter Odin.
Kilde: Ynglingesoga, avsnitt 8: "Njord fikk en kone som het Skade, hun ville ikke ha samliv med ham og giftet seg så med Odin; de hadde mange sønner, en av dem het Sæming".
Ifølge "Skaldaskapermål" var faren hennes jotnen Tjatse. "Skaldaskapermål" nevner bare ekteskapet med Njord, ikke med Odin, og har også et annet forhold mellom Njord og æsene enn Ynglingesoga framstiller.
In Norse mythology, Skaði (anglicised as Skadi, pronounced /ˈskɑːði/) or sometimes referred to as Öndurguð or Öndurdís ("Snowshoe Goddess") is a jötunn, daughter of Thjazi, one-time wife of the god Njörðr and stepmother of Freyr and Freyja.
In Skírnismál, after Freyr becomes lovestruck upon seeing the giantess Gerd for the first time, Skaði wonders why he seems upset and urges Skírnir, his messenger and servant, to speak with him to see what is the matter.
In Lokasenna, Skaði is present during the feasting at the hall of Ægir and takes part in the verbal slandering instigated by Loki. After he berates Heimdall, Skaði comes to his defense and taunts Loki about him being bound in the future in a cave with the guts of his son. Loki then makes the claim that he was the "first and foremost" killer of her father. Skaði replies that if that was true, then he would get only baneful words from her, but Loki reminds her that she was gentler in speech when she invited him into her bed. This love affair is not mentioned in other sources.
In the end, things did not turn out very well for Njörðr and Skaði as a couple. According to Gylfaginning, Skaði had wanted to live in Thrymheim, a mountain realm in Jötunheim that belonged to her father when he was alive, but Njörðr wished to remain by the sea in his hall of Noatun, so they tried a compromise.
They agreed to spend nine nights in Thrymheim and three (or, according to one manuscript, nine) in Noatun, alternating between both, but when Njörðr returned to his hall he admitted his dislike of the mountains, preferring the song of the swans over the howling of wolves. Conversely, Skaði complained of not being able to sleep in Noatun because of the screaming of the seagulls.
The two ultimately separated, and Skaði returned to Thrymheim. Skaði then marries Ullr, god of skis. There she travels along the snow on skis and shoots game with her bow. For this reason she is also known as Öndurgud or Öndurdis ("Snowshoe Goddess").
Later, when Loki was bound in a cave as punishment for his murder of Baldr, it was Skaði who placed the venomous serpent above his head dripping poison on his face. This is repeated in the prose ending to Lokasenna.
According to Skáldskaparmál, when the giant Thjazi was killed by the gods following his kidnapping of Iðunn, his daughter Skaði journeyed to Asgard with her armour and weapons in order to avenge his death. The gods instead offered her various forms of compensation to placate her, the first of which was to choose one of the gods for a husband, but she could only make her choice by looking at their feet and nothing else.
One particular pair she thought was exceptionally beautiful and chose that one, thinking it could only belong to Baldr, but it was really that of Njörðr, god of wind and sea, and it is for this reason that a kenning for Skaði is "god bride".
It was also in her terms of settlement that the gods were to perform the seemingly impossible task of making her laugh. Loki then tied one end of a cord around the beard of a goat and the other end around his testicles, and they began pulling each other back and forth, both squealing loudly. Then Loki fell into Skaði's lap and succeeded in making her laugh. The atonement with her was complete. As a further token of good will, Odin placed Thjazi's eyes in the night sky as stars.
Although Skaði is a giantess, she is traditionally counted among the Æsir, similar to Loki, not only because of her marriage to Njörðr, but also from kennings that describe her as a goddess and in various lists of Ásynjur throughout Skáldskaparmál that include her name.
In Ynglinga saga, Snorri speaks of Skaði in euhemeristic terms, stating that after leaving Njörðr she married Odin and bore him many sons, including Saeming, ancestor of a dynasty of jarls. While it may be tempting while reading the Eddas to assume that Skaði is the mother of Freyr and Freyja, Ynglinga saga states that they were the offspring of Njörðr and his sister, which was allowable by Vanir law before their alliance and integration with the Æsir.
Skadi - Daughter of the Giant Thjatsi. Scathing Goddess of wintertime destruction, briefly married to Njord. It didn't last because she didn't like living with the Æsirs. Scandinavia is named after her -- the "land of Skadi". Uller was her husband after Njord. She may have been the third aspect of Nerthus. She brings the snow which insures a good harvest and she leads the Wild Hunt. The wolf and poisonous snake are sacred to her. Her name means "Harm
Skadi De Sweden 1
Birth: About 215 in , , , Sweden 2 3
Changed: 24 Mar 2002 00:00
Spouses & Children
Woutan Odin (Husband) b. About 215 in (, , , Asgard, Asia)
1 4 5 2 3
Marriage: in , , , Asia 6 Nov 2004 14:29
Saeming Odinsson King Of The Norse b. About 239 in (, , , Norway)
Njord De Noatun King Of Swedes (Husband) b. About 214 in (Noatun, Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden)
Marriage: Abt 241 in (, , , Sweden) 6 Nov 2004 14:29
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Title: "Adamic Lineages of Horace Ralph Fuller Family"
Author: Fuller, Robert F., Gerald Ralph, Hortense M.
Publication: (Salem, Massachusetts : Peabody Essex Museum ; Mystic, Conn
. : Mystic Seaport Museum, 1996); Call # 910.4 S796Page: p. 9 (ID# 55b); p. 11 (ID# 55d)
Title: "FamilySearch® Ancestral Fileâ„¢ v4.19"
Author: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Publication: 3 Feb 2001
Title: "Genealogical Research of Kirk Larson"
Author: Larson, Kirk
Publication: Personal Research Works including Bethune & Hohenlohe Desce
ndants, 1981-2001, Kirk Larson, Private Library
n of Gaunt, Son of Edward III, King of England, and Queen PhilipTitle: "Royalty for Commoners: The Complete Known Lineage of Joh
n of Gaunt, Son of Edward III, King of England, and Queen PhilipAuthor: Stuart, Roderick W.
Publication: 13 Feb 2001
Page: p. 230-231
lbert F. Schmuhl, "Title: "Royal Lines & Adamic Genealogy: Genealogical Research of A
lbert F. Schmuhl, "Author: Schmuhl, Albert F.
Publication: e-mail documentation, March 1997, Albert F. Schmuhl, Americ
a Online Posting: Genealogy Forum
In Norse mythology, Skaði (sometimes anglicized as Skadi, Skade, or Skathi) is a jötunn and goddess associated with bowhunting, skiing, winter, and mountains. Skaði is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources; the Prose Edda and Heimskringla, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, and in the works of skalds.
In all sources, Skaði is the daughter of the deceased Þjazi, and Skaði married the god Njörðr as part of the compensation provided by the gods for killing her father Þjazi. In Heimskringla, Skaði is described as having split up with Njörðr and as later having married the god Odin, and that the two produced many children together. In both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, Skaði is responsible for placing the serpent that drips venom onto the bound Loki. Skaði is alternately referred to as Öndurguð (Old Norse "ski god") and Öndurdís (Old Norse "ski lady").
The etymology of the name Skaði is uncertain, but may be connected with the original form of Scandinavia. Some place names in Scandinavia, particularly in Sweden, refer to Skaði. Scholars have theorized a potential connection between Skaði and the god Ullr (who is also associated with skiing and appears most frequently in place names in Sweden), a particular relationship with the jötunn Loki, and that Scandinavia may be related to the name Skaði (potentially meaning "Skaði's island") or the name may be connected to an Old Norse noun meaning "harm". Skaði has inspired various works of art.
The Old Norse name Skaði, along with Sca(n)dinavia and Skáney, may be related to Gothic skadus, Old English sceadu, Old Saxon scado, and Old High German scato (meaning "shadow"). Scholar John McKinnell comments that this etymology suggests Skaði may have once been a personification of the geographical region of Scandinavia or associated with the underworld.
Georges Dumézil disagrees with the notion of Scadin-avia as etymologically "the island of the goddess Skaði." Dumézil comments that the first element Scadin must have had—or once had—a connection to "darkness" "or something else we cannot be sure of". Dumézil says that, rather, the name Skaði derives from the name of the geographical region, which was at the time no longer completely understood. In connection, Dumézil points to a parallel in Ériu, a goddess personifying Ireland that appears in some Irish texts, whose name he says comes from Ireland rather than the other way around.
Alternatively, Skaði may be connected with the Old Norse noun skaði ("harm").
Skaði is attested in poems found in the Poetic Edda, in two books of the Prose Edda and in one Heimskringla book.
In the Poetic Edda poem Grímnismál, the god Odin (disguised as Grímnir) reveals to the young Agnarr the existence of twelve locations. Odin mentions the location Þrymheimr sixth in a single stanza. In the stanza, Odin details that the jötunn Þjazi once lived there, and that now his daughter Skaði does. Odin describes Þrymheimr as consisting of "ancient courts" and refers to Skaði as "the shining bride of the gods". In the prose introduction to the poem Skírnismál, the god Freyr has become heartsick for a fair girl (the jötunn Gerðr) he has spotted in Jötunheimr. The god Njörðr asks Freyr's servant Skírnir to talk to Freyr, and in the first stanza of the poem, Skaði also tells Skírnir to ask Freyr why he is so upset. Skírnir responds that he expects harsh words from their son Freyr.
In the prose introduction to the poem Lokasenna, Skaði is referred to as the wife of Njörðr and is cited as one of the goddesses attending Ægir's feast. After Loki has an exchange with the god Heimdallr, Skaði interjects. Skaði tells Loki that he is "light-hearted" and that Loki will not be "playing [...] with [his] tail wagging free" for much longer, for soon the gods will bind Loki to a sharp rock with the ice-cold entrails of his son. Loki responds that, even if this is so, he was "first and foremost" at the killing of Þjazi. Skaði responds that, if this is so, "baneful advice" will always flow from her "sanctuaries and plains". Loki responds that Skaði was more friendly in speech when Skaði was in his bed—an accusation he makes to most of the goddesses in the poem and is not attested elsewhere. Loki's flyting then turns to the goddess Sif.
In the prose section at the end of Lokasenna, the gods catch Loki and bind him with the innards of his son Nari, while they turn his son Narfi into a wolf. Skaði places a venomous snake above Loki's face. Venom drips from the snake and Loki's wife Sigyn sits and holds a basin beneath the serpent, catching the venom. When the basin is full, Sigyn must empty it, and during that time the snake venom falls on to Loki's face, causing him to writhe in a tremendous fury, so much so that all earthquakes stem from Loki's writhings.
In the poem Hyndluljóð, the female jötunn Hyndla tells the goddess Freyja various mythological genealogies. In one stanza, Hyndla notes that Þjazi "loved to shoot" and that Skaði was his daughter.
In the Prose Edda, Skaði is attested in two books: Gylfaginning and Skáldskaparmál.
In chapter 23 of the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, the enthroned figure of High details that Njörðr's wife is Skaði, that she is the daughter of the jötunn Þjazi, and recounts a tale involving the two. High recalls that Skaði wanted to live in the home once owned by her father called Þrymheimr. However, Njörðr wanted to live nearer to the sea. Subsequently, the two made an agreement that they would spend nine nights in Þrymheimr and then the next three nights in Njörðr's sea-side home Nóatún (or nine winters in Þrymheimr and another nine in Nóatún according to the Codex Regius manuscript). However, when Njörðr returned from the mountains to Nóatún, he said:
"Hateful for me are the mountains, I was not long there, only nine nights. The howling of the wolves sounded ugly to me after the song of the swans."
"Sleep I could not on the sea beds for the screeching of the bird. That gull wakes me when from the wide sea he comes each morning."
The sources for these stanzas are not provided in the Prose Edda or elsewhere. High says that afterward Skaði went back up to the mountains and lived in Þrymheimr, and there Skaði often travels on skis, wields a bow, and shoots wild animals. High notes that Skaði is also referred to as "ski god" (Old Norse Öndurgud) or Öndurdis and the "ski lady" (Öndurdís). In support, the above mentioned stanza from the Poetic Edda poem Grímnismál is cited. In the next chapter (24), High says that "after this", Njörðr "had two children": Freyr and Freyja. The name of the mother of the two children is not provided here.
At the end of chapter 51 of Gylfaginning, High describes how the gods caught and bound Loki. Skaði is described as having taken a venomous snake and fastening it above the bound Loki, so that the venom may dip on to Loki's face. Loki's wife Sigyn sat by his side and held a bowl out. The bowl catches the venom, but when the bowl becomes full Loki writhes in extreme pain, causing the earth the shake and resulting in what we know as an earthquake.
In chapter 56 of the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Bragi recounts to Ægir how the gods killed Þjazi. Þjazi's daughter, Skaði, took a helmet, a coat of mail, and "all weapons of war" and traveled to Asgard, the home of the gods. Upon Skaði's arrival, the gods wished to atone for her loss and offered compensation. Skaði provides them with her terms of settlement, and the gods agree that Skaði may choose a husband from among themselves. However, Skaði must choose this husband by looking solely at their feet. Skaði saw a pair of feet that she found particularly attractive and said "I choose that one; there can be little that is ugly about Baldr." However, the owner of the feet turned out to be Njörðr.
Skaði also included in her terms of settlement that the gods must do something she thought impossible for them to do: make her laugh. To do so, Loki tied one end of a cord around the beard of a nanny goat and the other end around his testicles. The goat and Loki drew one another back and forth, both squealing loudly. Loki dropped into Skaði's lap, and Skaði laughed, completing this part of her atonement. Finally, in compensation to Skaði, Odin took Þjazi's eyes, lunged them into the sky, and from the eyes made two stars.
Further in Skáldskaparmál, a work by the skald Þórðr Sjáreksson is quoted. The poem refers to Skaði as "the wise god-bride" and notes that she "could not love the Van". Prose below the quote clarifies that this is a reference to Skaði's leaving of Njörðr. In chapter 16, names for Loki are given, including "wrangler of Heimdall and Skadi". In chapter 22, Skaði is referenced in the 10th century poem Haustlöng where the skald Þjóðólfr of Hvinir refers to an ox as "bow-string-Var's [Skaði's] whale". In chapter 23, the skald Bragi Boddason refers to Þjazi as the "father of the ski-dis". In chapter 32, Skaði is listed among six goddesses who attend a party held by Ægir. In chapter 75, Skaði is included among a list of 27 ásynjur names.
In chapter 8 of the Heimskringla book Ynglinga saga, an euhumerized account details that Skaði once married Njörðr. Yet while they were together Skaði would not have sex with Njörðr, and later Skaði married Odin. Skaði and Odin had "many sons". Only one of the names of these sons is provided: Sæmingr, a king of Norway. Two stanzas are presented by the skald Eyvindr skáldaspillir in reference. In the first stanza, Skaði is described as a jötunn and a "fair maiden". A portion of the second stanza is missing. The second stanza reads:
. . . Of sea-bones, and sons many the ski-goddess gat with Óthin
Lee Hollander explains that "bones-of-the-sea" is a kenning for "rocks", and opines that this defective stanza undoubtedly referred to Skaði as a "dweller of the rocks" in connection with her association with mountains and skiing.
Another figure by the name of Skaði who appears in the first chapter of Völsunga saga. In the chapter, this Skaði—who is male—is the owner of a thrall by the name of Breði. Another man, Sigi—a son of Odin—went hunting one winter with the thrall. Sigi and the thrall Breði hunted throughout the day until evening, when they compared their kills. Sigi saw that the thrall's kills outdid his own, and so Sigi killed Breði and buried Breði's corpse in a snowdrift.
That night, Sigi returned home and claimed that Breði had ridden out into the forest, that he had lost sight of Breði, and that he furthermore did not know what became of the thrall. Skaði doubted Sigi's explanation, suspected that Sigi was lying, and that Sigi had instead killed Breði. Skaði gathered men together to look for Breði and the group eventually found the corpse of Breði in a snowdrift. Skaði declared that henceforth the snowdrift should be called "Breði's drift," and ever since then people have referred to large snow drifts by that name. The fact that Sigi murdered Breði was evident, and so Sigi was considered an outlaw. Led by Odin, Sigi leaves the land, and Skaði is not mentioned again in the saga.
Scholar Jesse Byock notes that the goddess Skaði is also associated with winter and hunting, and that the episode in Volsunga saga involving the male Skaði, Sigi, and Breði has been theorized as stemming from an otherwise lost myth.
Scholar John Lindow comments that the episode in Gylfaginning detailing Loki's antics with a goat may have associations with castration and a ritual involving making a goddess laugh. Lindow notes that Loki and Skaði appear to have had a special relationship, an example being Skaði's placement of the snake over Loki's face in Lokasenna and Gylfaginning.
Due to their shared association with skiing and the fact that both place names referring to Ullr and Skaði appear most frequently in Sweden, some scholars have proposed a particular connection between the two gods. On the other hand, Skaði may potentially be a masculine form and, as a result, some scholars have theorized that Skaði may have originally been a male deity.
Scholar Hilda Ellis Davidson proposes that Skaði's cult may have thrived in Hålogaland, a province in northern Norway, because "she shows characteristics of the Sami people, who were renowned for skiing, shooting with the bow and hunting; her separation from Njord might point to a split between her cult and that of the Vanir in this region, where Scandinavians and the Sami were in close contact."
Modern works of art depicting Skaði include Skadi und Niurd (illustration, 1883) by K. Ehrenberg and Skadi (1901) by E. Doepler d. J. Skaði also appears in A. Oehlenschläger's poem (1819) Skades Giftermaal. Art deco depictions of both the god Ullr (1928) and Skaði (1929) appear on covers of the Swedish ski annual På Skidor, both skiing and wielding bows. E. John B. Allen notes that the deities are portrayed in a manner that "give[s] historical authority to this most important of Swedish ski journals, which began publication in 1893". A moon of the planet Saturn (Skathi) takes its name from that of the goddess.
Skadi Hunting in the Mountains (1901) by H. L. M. In Norse mythology, Skaði (sometimes anglicized as Skadi, Skade, or Skathi) is a jötunn and goddess associated with bowhunting, skiing, winter, and mountains. Skaði is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources; the Prose Edda and Heimskringla, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, and in the works of skalds. In all sources, Skaði is the daughter of the deceased Þjazi, and Skaði married the god Njörðr as part of the compensation provided by the gods for killing her father Þjazi. In Heimskringla, Skaði is described as having split up with Njörðr and as later having married the god Ullr, and that the two produced many children together. In both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, Skaði is responsible for placing the serpent that drips venom onto the bound Loki. Skaði is alternately referred to as Öndurguð (Old Norse "ski god") and Öndurdís (Old Norse "ski lady").
Om Skade Tjatsedotter, Queen of Sweden (Norsk)
Skade (norrønt Skaði) er i norrøn mytologi datter av den drepte jotnen Tjatse (Thjazi).
Hun benevnes som en skigudinne, en «ondurdis», sammensatt av dis = kvinne, gudinne, og ondur, et gammel norrønt ord for ski (som også ble samtidig brukt). «Ondur» var kanskje mest vanlig i det nordligste områdene, fra Trøndelag og nordover. I Ranværingsdialekten (områdene rundt Mo i Rana) er ordet fortsatt levende. Mo Skilag het f.eks. 'Mo Oinerlag' fram til 1945.
Skade bor i sin far Tjatses hus der det heter Trymheim: Trymheim heter det,der Tjatse budde,den ovsterke jotun;men no byggjer Skade,skire gudebrurpå forne farstufter.
Ulykkelig gift med Njord
I mytene kommer Skade væpnet og ulykkelig til æsenes bolig Åsgard for å kreve bot for drapet på sin far Tjatse, som ble drept da han forfulgte Loke og Idunn. Æsene tilbyr henne et forlik ved at hun skal få en av dem som ektemann. Hun må velge ved kun å se føttene. Hun tror at de reneste må tilhøre Balder, den vakreste av gudene, hun sier «Ikke noe er stygt på Balder!», men det er feil: hun velger i steden Njord.
I tillegg krevde hun at æsene måtte få henne til å le. Loke bant da et rep mellom sin egen pung og skjegget på en geit. Etter å ha blitt trukket fram og tilbake lar han seg falle i Skades fang. Det får Skade til å le. Til sist forvandler Odin hennes far Tjatses øyne til to stjerner på himmelen og fullbyrder således drapsboten.
Den eiendommelige måten å velge ektefelle på, ifølge Britt-Mari Näsström, er «en eldgammel bryllupsrite som vi finner igjen både i det gamle India og i Europa» Det kan også skimtes i eventyret om Askepott hvor det opprinnelige kriteriet var føttene, og hvor skoen er et senere tillegg.
Ekteskapet ender ulykkelig i den gamle vekselgangen mellom å bo på fjellet og ved sjøen. Skade trives ikke ved sjøen, og Njord trives ikke på fjellet. Skade og Njord blir således skilt: «Gudenes brud elsket ikke vanenes ætling», sier kvadet. Hun forlot Njord og kom senere sammen med Odin. Ull giftet seg med Skade, datteren til jotnen Tjatse, etter at hun skilte seg fra Njord.
Gudinne for jord og vinter
'Skade, navnet ble kanskje også benyttet om jotunkvinner (gygrer) generelt, er en jordgudinne og ikke en utpreget fruktbarhetsgudinne som vanene, og hun ble med tiden i betydning fortrengt av mannlige guder som tok herredømme på jorda. Hennes rike er først og fremst den ville, ubebodde natur, de snøbelagte fjell hvor kun skiløpere trives.
I skaldediktet Håløygjatal av Øyvind Skaldespiller, er Skade og Odin foreldre til Sæming som de opprinnelige håløygske ladejarlene mytologisk skal nedstamme fra. Kvadet er et ideologisk høvdingekompleks hvor jotnekvinnene Skade og Gerd har framtredende roller. I skaldediktet Haustlong benevnes Tjatse for Marns far. Marn er derfor et annet navn for Skade. Hennes navn er også satt i forbindelse med betegnelsen Skandinavia ved den romerske forfatteren Plinius i hans Historia Naturalis, hvor det beneves *Skadin-awjo, i betydningen Skades øyer. Näsström nevner at dette sannsynligvis henspiller på «de farlige skjærene utenfor nåværende Skanör, eller også bare henspiller på denne halvøya, som således har gitt navn til hele området»
Det må ha vært en egen, kanskje også omfattende kult rundt Skade i gammelnorrøn dyrkelse. I diktet «Loketretten» sier hun selv: «...så skal kalde råd ramme deg støtt fra mine vé og vanger», altså kultsteder. Mange stedsnavn i Norden er oppkalt etter Skade, for eksempelvis Skåbu (Skades bu) , Skadevid, Skadelunda, Skee, Skea, Skodje, Skadaland med flere; ligger muligens til grunn for Skidar (Skien) og Ski.