Solomiya Amvrosiivka Krushelnytsky

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Solomiya Amvrosiivka Krushelnytsky (Krushelnytska)

Ukrainian: Соломі́я Амвро́сіївна Крушельни́цька
Also Known As: "Salome", "Solomia", "Solomiia", "Solomya", "solomija", "Salomea", "Kruszelnicka", "Krusceniski", "Krushelnytskaya"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Bilyavyntsi, Ukraine
Death: November 16, 1952 (80)
Lviv, Ukraine
Place of Burial: L'viv, Ukraine
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Reverend Amvrozij Vasilyevich Krushelnytsky and Maria Teodora Krushelnytska
Wife of Cesare Alfredo Augusto Riccioni
Sister of Antin Krushelnytsky; Osipo / Josypa Bandrivsky; Olena Krushelnytsky; Emilia Sterniuk; Maria Krushelnytsky and 2 others

Occupation: Ukranian operatic soprano
Managed by: Matti Kullervo Sorakivi
Last Updated:

About Solomiya Amvrosiivka Krushelnytsky

Solomiya Amvrosiivka Krushelnytska (Ukrainian: Соломі́я Амвро́сіївна Крушельни́цька) was a Ukrainian soprano, considered to be one of the brightest opera stars of the first half of the 20th century. She was born in Biliavyntsi, Ukraine, then a part of the autonomous province of Galicia in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Salomea Krushelnytska was born on September 23, 1872 in the village of Biliavyntsi near Buchach, Ukraine (Ternopil region), daughter of Amvroziy Krushelnytskyi (the village priest) and Teodora (a daughter of a well known Ukrainian writer Hryhoriy Savchynskyi). Her godparents wew Jakiv Hudyk and Josyfa Konashevych. Salomea was baptized by Rev. Wasyl Krushelnytsky, the parish priest in the village of Soroky, now Buczacz district, Ternopil Oblast. Her family moved to Osivtsi, then to Tysivtsi then to Petlykivtsi and then settled in at Bila near Ternopil, where her father was the parish priest.

In a letter written to her friend Mykhailo Pavlychko, she wrote: " you ask where I was born?... I was born in the Podil Region, growing upin the village of Tysiv near Bolekhiv, and came of age in Podillia, in Bila, near Ternopil".

EARLY YEARS

Salomea sat at the piano for the first time when she was six years old and loved to practice her talents on it and at seven could play a few simple tunes. There was no Ukrainian school at the village; older children attended Polish school and younger ones were being educated byAmvrozij himself. Salomea had older sisters Yosyfa (Osypa) and Olena,brothers Antin and Volodymyr, younger sisters, Maria, Emillia and Hanusia (Nusya). All children were helping around the house and garden.

During Salomea's adolescence they had a governess, who helped with children education - madam Buer, a divorced Rumanian, who spoke French and German. She also helped Salomea with piano lessons. However she didnot stay very long and left for a better job in Lviv.

Amvrozij, during the recovery from a broken leg started to give children singing lessons. Soon he had a choir going, giving concerts to visitors, singing in national costumes not only folk songs but also classics of Shubert, Mendelsohn and Glinka. Salomea often sang solo to the accompaniment of Amvrozij on the violin.

Beside her talents of singing and playing piano, Salomea, to a great amusement of other children, could very skillfully imitate various characters of the village; and indication of her ability of stage acting.Soon she and her brother Volodymyr decided to stage a play - a popular Ukrainian operetta "Natalka Poltavka". To this play they invited a famous Ukrainian poet Ivan Franko, who came with Osypa's fiancee KarloBandrivskyj. They were impressed by the play and Salomea's appearanceand singing.

With years the Choir directed by Amvrozij Krushelnytsky in the village Bila went from strength to strength. Soon it consisted of forty singers and people came from all neighbouring villages to hear Ukranian folk songs. On several occasions Salomea was conducting this choir. At the age of ten, Salomea joined the Ukrainian choir "Besida" in Ternopil. Later she appeared in amateur plays and concerts there.

As time went on Osypa (Yuzya) married Karlo Bandrivskyj and Salomea became engaged to Zenon Hutkovskyj, son of her father's friend - another priest. It was a family tradition since all known Amvrozij ancestors were priests. Zenon was a handsome man but he did not appreciate music and considered the circus to be better than opera. He also maintained that it is not proper for a woman to appear on stage. It did not suit Salomea and shortly before the wedding day, when Zenon asked her to select a wedding ring, she curtly replied "None!". Thereupon, to her delight and sorrow to her parents, the wedding was called off. After that the Krushelnytsky's were shunned by the clerical society and none of Salomea's sisters married priests.

Salomea continued to develop her voice and practice the piano. In herendeavours, in spite of material difficulties, she was supported by her parents and encouraged, after hearing her voice, by already accomplished singers.

At sixteen years Salomea was a tall, slender girl with grayish-green eyes and long, fair braids. Tastefully dressed, she created an impression of a wellbred, intelligent young woman.

EDUCATION AND START OF CAREER

In the Autumn of 1890, Salomea's parents borrowed some money and enrolled Salomea at the Conservatory of Music in Lviv. At first she stayedwith her mother's uncle, who later found and paid for her lodging near the Conservatory. The landlady, who recently lost her daugther, wasvery sympathetic and made Salomea's life there very comfortable.

Salomea studied hard and successfully. Her teachers - Vladyslav Vshelachynsky (piano), Valerij Vysotsky and Myshuha (singing), were very pleased with her progress. Besides her studies, Salomea participated in the choir "Boyan", where she became famous for her solo parts and duets with Oleksander Myshuha.

In the Spring of 1893, while still a student, Salomea made her debut (April 15, 1893) at Lviv Opera theatre Skarbeck (now the M. Zankovetsky Theatre) in "La Favorita" by Donizetti in the role of Leonora. Shewas supported and advised by Oleksander Myshuha, who also appeared in this opera and recognized her talent. Her appearance gained a wide publicity and favourable comments in the press. Also Salomea met a group of Italian singers, who were appearing in Lviv Opera; they told herabout the excellent singing study opportunities in Italy. In Autumn of 1893, after Salomea completed her studies at the Conservatory, her father Amvrozij obtained a bank loan and took her for further studies in Milan. For this fatherly act of love, Salomea was forever greatful.There she stayed with the mother of Italian singer Gemma Bellicioni, who she befriended in Lviv, and took singing lessons from world famousprofessor Fausta Crespi and stage acting with professor Conti. The first thing that Salomea learned from professor Fausta Crespi was that her voice was not mezzo soprano as she previously was made to believe but lyric-dramatic soprano. Therefore she had to practically start fromscratch. After a few months Salomea took part at the concert of the school of music and drama - L'Armonia. She sang arias from operas: "Faust", "L'Africaine" and "Cardinal's Daughter". A certain English lady -Miss Alexandra heard her voice and offered financial help for her learning efforts.

Ukrainian literary figure and community activist Mykhailo Pawlyk played an influential role in Salomea's life while in Italy. Longing for her home, Salomea searched for companionship. A friend gave her the address of Pawlyk and they began to correspond. He was twenty years older than her but still played a major role in her life. Being a friend or a close aquaintance to many progressive people of that time, Mykhailo Pawlyk was concerned that Salomea read good literature, that she beaware of the different progressive movements and that she develop notonly as a singer but as an individual too. He would choose and regularly send her literature, and as a supporter of the emancipation of women, Mykhailo Pawlyk would at the same time remind her not to interrupther singing career for anything including marriage. It is said by some that Pawlyk took a liking to Salomea (he never married) not only asa deep and interesting person to talk to and as a singer, but also asa wife. But their friendship never took that road. Interestingly, Salomea's correspondence with Pawlyk is the only written source that shows and portrays her inner thoughts and personal views.

There would be other suitors. Jurist and politician, who was elected several times to the Galician Sejm, Teofil Okunewsky was a school friend in her early years. Lawyer Mykola Shukhewych who travelled especially for her to Italy to ask for her hand in marriage but was refused. According to his memoirs he kissed Salomea's long hair and with not another word he returned home. The wealthy Galician doctor, who settled in Northern Africa, Ivan Bilynsky: having the desire to marry a Ukrainian girl, he having heard about Salomea travelled to Italy to visit her. They spoke frequently, talked about their memories of Ukraine and departed as friends. Though he was very much in love with Salomea (he would send her many exotic presents and at her request became a benefactor to talented Ukrainians who studied abroad) he soon realized that she desired her own path in life.

Salomea had her own unique talent - to extinguish the flame of love in her suitors and turning them into close friends. One can also mention Ukrainian literary figure Wasyl Stefanyk, who was also very fond ofSalomea. During their friendship he was studying medicine in Krakow when Salomea was invited to Krakow to replace the primadona in Wagner'sLohengrin. But when the handsome Stefanyk saw how many adoring fans were around Salomea, he did not have the nerve to fight for her and they remained friends. There were many other suitors for her heart, but her singing career remained paramount.

In April 1894 Lviv opera invited Salomea for a series of appearances.Although her teacher - Faust Crespi did not want her to interrupt thelessons, she accepted due to financial hardship. In Lviv Salomea sang, among her lead roles, in "Faust", "Aida", "The Troubadour", "Masquerade Ball", "Halka", "L'Africaine" and "Cardinal's Daughter". Most of the roles she did for the first time, which was hard for a young singer. However, she successfully overcame all difficulties and, although she did not earn much money, she gained extensive experience and repertoire.

After a five month contract with Lviv opera, Salomea, accompanied by her elder sister Olena, returned to Milan and rented a small flat at 19 Santa Paulo Street. There she continued with her education: after five to six hours of daily singing and music lessons with professor Crespi she studied stage acting with professor Conti. She also learned music theory, read Ukrainian and foreign literature (she knew seven foreign languages).

In Autumn she came back to Lviv for a string of appearances on the stage of the Opera Theatre. Winter was very harsh that year, Salomea became ill with lung inflammation and recuperated at her parents home in the village of Bila till Spring of 1895.

After recovery Salomea with her father and sister Olena travelled to Vienna, where she studied operas of Richard Wagner. Then unexpectedly Salomea received an invitation from Krakow, to replace an Italian prima donna in opera "The Troubadour". Her appearances in this opera, and in the next days in Wagner's "Lohengrin", were enthusiastically received by Polish audience, especially the youth. She was greeted there by Ukrainian writer Wasyl Stefanyk and painter Ivan Trush; they discussed arts and literature.

After a number of appearances at various towns in Galicia (Western Ukraine), Salomea and Olena returned to Milan. From there Salomea was engaged by the Cremona Opera for the 1895-1896 winter season. She appeared in Puccini's "Manon Lescant", Ponchielli's "Marion Delorm", Bizet's"Carmen" and Meyerbeer's "Les Huguenots". There she became acquaintedwith Puccini himself and his family. This opera season was very successful and Puccini was very pleased because it improved his popularity.Then following appearances in other Italian cities: Bergamo (Verdi's birthplace), where Salomea sang in Wagner's operas, also Zaru and Udine. In general Italians were very friendly to Salomea, although there were a few unpleasant incidents caused by professional jealousy. As part of an Italian troupe, Salomea travelled to San Remo on the French Riviera, however for unknown reasons, the French government refused to give them permission to appear. Then they were invited to Trieste in Austria, where Salomea sang in Mascagni's opera "Force of Fate". This opera attracted several Ukrainians, among them was Ivan Bilynskyj - thepharmacist of the Egyptian king from Cairo. He fell in love with Salomea and later together with other Ukrainian sponsors helped Salomea and other Ukrainian artists. (In 1910 Salomea, during a tour of Egypt with Puccini, visited Ivan Bilynskyj there).

In December 1896, Salomea, as the prima donna of an Italian opera company, was engaged by the Odessa Opera. She travelled by train with Olena through Vienna and Lviv, arriving in Odessa late evening. They werefirst accommodated in a hotel and later at a private home near the opera house. Salomea's singing and acting delighted the Odessa public in"Faust", "Othello", "Cardinal's Daugther", "Giaconda", "The Troubadour", "Masquerade Ball" and "Tangeyser". She received many favourable comments by art critics in the press.

On the way back from Odessa, in March 1897, Salomea managed to visit her family in Bila and then appeared in Lviv at the concert in memory of Taras Shevchenko. On her return to Italy, Salomea was invited to Santiago, Chile in South America, as a member of an Italian opera company - "Grand Compania de Lyrica Italiana".

Salomea and her sister Olena left Milan on May 1, 1897 for Paris, then travelled by sea from Calais to the Chilean port of Valparaiso. On arrival by train in Santiago they settled in a hotel, but already on the third day Salomea was asked to take part, as the first soprano, in the role of "Aida". Later she sang in "Faust", "Cardinal's Daugther", "Masquerade Ball" and other operas. Flowers, newspaper articles with large portraits of Salomea, and release of white doves (which is an expression of great praise, honour and fame in this country) triumphantlyreceived all her appearances.

From South America, Salomea and Olena returned to Italy, where Salomea was invited to Bergamo to sing at the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the birth of the composer Gaetano Donizetti. For her performance she was awarded the jubillee medal.

In the Autumn of 1897 and the winter of 1898, Salomea sang in Paris (Puccini's "La Bohem"), Brescia and Bergamo (Wagner's "Lohengrin"). Later she toured Milan, Turin, Zara and Trieste. In the Spring of 1898, Salomea and Olena returned to their homeland, at first to Bila then, with concerts to Ternopil, Lviv, Stanislav, Berezhany, Stryi and other towns and cities of Western Ukraine. During appearances of Salomea in Stryi, Olena met her future husband - Volodymyr Okhrymovych. Later in 1898, Salomea signed a contract with Warsaw's Grand Theatre and went there with her younger sister Emilia, who stayed with her in Warsaw and later in Sankt-Petersburg.

FAME AND RESPECT

During 1898 - 1902 season at the Warsaw's Grand Theatre, where at thetime appeared Caruso, Battistini and other famouse singers, Salomea sang in the operas "Tangeiser", "Valkyrie", "Othello", "Aida" , "Don Carlos", "L'Africaine", "Cardinal's Daughter", "Masquerade Ball". "Forceof Fate", "Demon",

"Les Huguenots", "Verter", "Giaconda", "Tosca", "Village Honour", "Fra-Diabolo", "Ernani", "Manon", Maria de Rogan", "The Barber of Seville", "Eugen Onegin", "Queen of Clubs", "Faust", "Robert-Diabolo",

"Hero and Leander", "Halka", "Grafynia", "Goplana", "Livia Kvintilia"and "Mazeppa".

In Warsaw, Salomea quickly gained fame and respect. Polish audiences considered her unsurpassed in all roles especially in Polish national operas such as "Halka" and "Grafynia". All Polish critics were unanimous in praise for her performances.

On March 14, 1899 a benefit concert in honour of Salomea Krushelnytska took place at the Warsaw Grand Theatre, where she appeared as Halkain Moniushko's opera "Halka". At the conclusion she was endlessly called back on stage, applauded and showered with flowers. During her triumphant season in Warsaw, Salomea also travelled to Sankt-Petersburg where she sang within an Itlaian troupe together with Caruso, Battistini, Arimondi, Tetraccini, Arnoldson, Kutchini and Silvestri. there shesang, among others, in "Troubadour", "Othello", "Aida" , Maria de Rogan", "Lohengrin", "Carmen", "Eugen Onegin", "Queen of Clubs", "Halka". Russian critics also praised her performances and talent of the young singer. They called her "Shalapin woman", which was considered a great praise in the homeland of this great singer. At the invitation of the Russian Tsar himself, she sang in the imperial palace. As a matterof fact, she did not lose this opportunity to sing several Ukrainian songs, as she did at all of her concerts. When the Tsar asked her whatlanguage it was, she replied proudly: "These are the songs of my nation, Ukrainian nation...".

Salomea also made several guest appearances in Vilnius, hometown of the great Polish composer Stanislav Moniushko, where she sang in his opera "Halka". At the end of the year 1900, Warsaw celebrated the 500th performance of this opera, which turned into a celebration of Polish culture. The role of Halka was given to Salomea, the performance was very successful and gained wide publicity in the press throughout Poland.

However some people in Poland were not happy that the leading lady ofPolish opera was of Ukrainian nationality. They started rumours that Salomea was reluctant to perform in operas by Polish composers and also contributed to the deletion of "Mazeppa" from the repertoire. Although Salomea denied these rumours and was supported by leading Polish cultural personalities and ordinary music lovers, she left Warsaw in 1901.

After visiting her family at Bila, Salomea continued with her appearances in Russian opera houses. In the Spring of 1902, Salomea was invited to sing in the Paris opera. After a short rehearsal she performed as Elsa in "Lohengrin" by Richard Wagner together with the famous tenor Yan Reshke. It was not easy to excite French audiences by a German opera but there were two successful repeat performances at public request; and critics were also very kind.

In January 1903 Salomea went to Naples where, as she performed for the first time in the role of "Aida", the news came of the death of herfather. Her mother then sold the property in Bila and moved to Lviv. In September, at Lviv Opera House, Salomea sang in "Cardinal's Daughter", "Hugentots", "Manon", "Halka", "Grafynia" and "The Troubadour". The audience always rewarded her with enthusiastic applause, many curtain calls and flowers.

In 1904 Giacomo Puccini composed the opera "Cio-Cio-San", later knownas "Madam Butterfly". The composer and many music lovers expected great things from this Opera. However the premiere in February at "La Scala" theatre in Milan turned out to be a big flop. As the story goes, on February 14, 1904 "La Scala" opera house in Milan was filled with public eagerly anticipating to enjoy the premiere of "Madama Butterfly"by the renowned composer Puccini. The composer, who was very confident of the success of his new creation, became bewildered when it became apparent that the audience did not appreciate the performance. People booed and whistled loudly. Distressed Rosina Storkio, who with suchlove and care performed the role of the tragic Japanese girl - Cio-Cio-San, later cried together with Puccini and the other performers. Sadand thoughtful, Puccini spent several days at home before regaining his former spirit for creativity.

This event caused a big stir in Italy and when the news reached Salomea she studied this opera, decided that it was a very good work of artand contacted Puccini saying" "Your tender, colourful butterfly will survive! It may need a few minor corrections... And then an effort to stage it. Please permit me to play the role of the Japanese geisha. I understand this poor girl...".

Puccini agreed and after negotiation with several Italian cities, thesecond premiere of "Madama Butterfly" was performed in Brescia in May1904. At 9 pm, Sunday May 29, 1904 many people including arts personalities from all parts of Italy and the world came to the "Grande Theatre" in Brescia for the second Premiere of "Madama Butterfly". Many people came from Milan to hear the opera again. This time the opera survived. The public was enchanted and rewarded Puccini and Salomea with a generous applause and ovations; the ressurection of "Butterfly" was accomplished thanks to the remarkable performance of the Ukrainian artist - Salomea Krushelnytska. Salomea, who impressed everybody with her dramatism and brilliant performing talent, was truly the main reason for the success of this opera. The public stayed on long after the final curtain fall. Everybody was happy with the rebirth of "Madama Butterfly" and wanted to congratulate Puccini on that occasion. In November another performance of "Madama Butterfly" was staged in Genoa, attended by some three thousand people. One newspaper commented: "The performance could not be more perfect. Krushelnytska is an artist with an exceptional taste and without any faults. She loves art and puts all her soul into it".

Then followed new years of triumph for the famous singer in Rome and,when Milan's "La Scala" prepared to stage the premiere of "Salomea", the renowned conductor Arturo Toscanini insisted on giving the lead role to Krushelnytska. The triumph of the opening night at "La Scala" in1906, mainly due to the phenomenal talent of Toscanini and the wonderful singing and acting of Salomea Krushelnytska, indeed justified his choice. There were even gold, silver and bronze medallions made with Salomea Krushelnytsky's profile in one of her roles. The relationship between Salomea and Toscanini through the years was a deep spiritual bond, and when Salomea was not present, the maestro would suffer deeply through her absence.

Two other new operas awaited the greatest soprano of those days: "Elektra" by Richard Strauss and "Fedra" by Piccetti, where Salomea bestowed, upon the heroines of both operas, the character of her bold temperament and reflection of her inimitable individuality.

Year after year followed excellent appearances of Salomea from "La Scala" in Milan to "San Carlo" in Naples, from "Regio" in Torino to "Messino" in Palermo, from Alexandria to Cairo, from Madrid to Lisbon and Buenos Aires. By that time she had over fifty operas in her repertoire. In 1910 Salomea married an Italian lawyer, Cesare Riccioni. They settled in Viareggio, Italy - Cesare's home town. Salomea was known for her fashion and she was refered to as the most elegant "segnora" in Viareggio. The town memorialized Salomea's 100th anniversary of the Madam Butterfly performance with a commemorative plaque at the building she resided in. She enjoyed hazardous games, she was able to drive a car and was in top physical shape. Her last opera performances were at "La Scala" in Milan (February 1915) in the premiere of Piccetti's "Fedra", then in Monte Carlo ("Eugen Onegin" and "Demon" in 1916-1917), Lisbon ("Madama Buttefly" in 1916), and her very last opera appearances were in Naples in 1920 ("Lohengrin" and "Lorelea"). Further popularization of Ukrainian song came from the concerts of the Ukrainian opera singer Salomea Kryshelnytska, who was invited, by Ukrainian Canadians, to come to Canada, taking advantage of her tour of the United States. She performed at two concerts only, in Winnipeg and Toronto.

The musical circles in Europe and the Americas recognized Salomea Krushelnytska as one of the greatest opera singers of the first quarter twentieth century. Indeed, at the start of the 20th Century, the operastages were dominated by four singers - Battistini, Caruso, Ruffo andShalapin. And only one woman managed to reach their height and stay at their level. It was Salomea Krushelnytsky. She graced the stage in Rome, Paris, Warsaw, St. Petersburg, Buenos Aeres, Madrid, New York and Ottawa.

In the wide world, where she triumphantly appeared on opera stages, they called her "unforgettable Aida", "the only in the world Giaconda","the most charming Cio-Cio-San", "inimitable Halka", "ideal Brunhilde", "unsurpassed Salome", "exceptional Lorelea". The characters that she portrayed on the stage were unforgettable. According to the great conductor Arturo Toscanini, Salomea Krushelnytsky was unsurpassed in the operas of Wagner, Strauss, Picetti, Catalini and Puccini.

Her repertoire consisted of 61 various opera roles, which she always performed in great detail as required to portray any given character she played. She also made 35 records in Italian, Polish and Ukrainian languages. She was fluent in seven languages. Famous composers, conductors, singers, musicians, writers and poets of the world were her friends and admirers of her great talent.

LIFE AFTER OPERA

In 1923, at the peak of her fame, Salomea Krushelnytsky abandoned opera and dedicated herself to chamber music concerts in Ukraine and abroad. She popularized Ukrainian folk songs in Europe, Chile, United States and Canada. Among her more successful appearances was the 1932 concert in Venice, where she performed songs of classic composers. The audience, as always, rewarded her with loud ovation and several curtain calls.

After the death of her husband Cesare Riccioni in 1936, she began to contemplate a return to Ukraine. In August 1939 she settled in Lviv and continued with her concert appearances. Together with her sister Osypa Bandrivsky they spent time in the village of Dubyna in the Carpathians. In the winter of 1940 Salomea fell on an icy Lviv street and broke her leg. She was hospitalized for a long period of time, and she could not walk without the help of a cane. From 1946 she taught at the Lysenko Conservatory in Lviv and in October 1952 became a professor there (only if she took Soviet citizenship - 1948). She died a month later. The Soviet authorities had confiscated her building, leaving the Krushelnytsky family with only one apartment on the second floor and Salomea was forbidden to leave the borders of the USSR (her Italian ciizenship was revoked). Soviet lawyers sold her villa in Viareggio, Italywithout her knowing about it. She gave her last concert at age 77 in 1950, died of throat cancer on November 16, 1952 and was mourned by a multitude of people at a state funeral. She was buried at the Lychakivsky cemetary in Lviv near that of the great Ukrainian poet Ivan Franko. Today in the very building that Solomia Krushelnytsky had resided in Lviv is now on Krushelnytsky Street and the building now houses theKrushelnytsky music memorial museum.

On September 15, 2006 in one of the world's most renowned theatres, Italy's "La Scala", a bust of Salomea Krushelnytska was enveiled. Whileon September 23, the Lviv community commemorated the 134th anniversary of her birth.

SHORT VERSION: Salomea learned to sing Ukrainian folk songs from peasants; sang in "Ukrainian Besida" choir in Ternopil. Studied singing inLviv Conservatory and graduated with a medal and distinction; sang inconcerts of Lviv Musical Society "Boyan". Made her debut in 1892 at Lviv Opera in "La Favorita", then appeared at Krakow. Continued studiesMilan 1893-6 and Vienna. During 1895-6 season at Cremona she appearedin Puccini's "Manon Lescant" and in "Les Huguenots" After Ukraine, Poland, Russia and France 1898-1902 she continued her triumphant international career. Sang Cio-Cio-San at Brescia 1904 where Puccini's Madam Butterfly had its first success after its Milan fiasco. From 1906, first "Elektra" in Italy then created title role in Bizet's "Fredra" thenLa Scala (1907, 1909 and 1915), Spain and Buenos Aires (1906-1913). In 1910 Salomea married an Italian lawyer, Cesare Riccioni. Her repertory of over 50 roles included Brunhilde, Salome, Gioconda and Aida. Her last opera appearance was in Naples 1920 after which she sang only in concerts - United States, Canada, Ukraine, Chile. In August 1939 she settled in Lviv and from 1946 she taught at the Lysenko Conservatory there. She died on November 16, 1952.

Encyclopedia of Ukraine, Vol. II reference: Salomia Krushelnytsky wasborn on September 23, 1972 in Biliavyntsi, Buchach county, Galicia and died November 16, 1952 in Lviv. World-famous singer (dramatic soprano). Upon graduating from the Lviv Conservatory (1893), where she studied under W. Wysocki, she made her debut with the Lviv Opera as Leonora in G. Donizetti's "La favorita" and went to Milan to study under F.Crespi (1893-96). From 1896 she performed with most of the great opera companies of Europe and South America: Odessa (1896-97), Warsaw (1898-1902), St. Petersburg (1901-02), Paris (1902), Naples (1902, 1904),Rome (1904-05), Milan (La Scala, 1898, 1904, 1907, 1909, 1915), and Buenos Aires (1906, 1908, 1910-13). Her performance as Aida (1903) wasa triumph, and her rendition of the title role in G. Puccini's "Madame Butterfly" in 1904 contributed to its admission to the world repertoire. Because of her and A. Toscanini, R. Strauss's "Salome" was a great success at La Scala (1906). In 1915 she sang the title role in the world premiere of I. Pizzetti's "Fedra" at La Scala. Her operatic repertoire numbered close to 60 roles, including the title roles in R. Strauss's "Salome" and "Elektra". Brunnhilde in R. Wagner's "Die Walkure"and Isolde in his "Tristan und Isolde", and the title roles in A. Ponchielli's "La Giaconda" and S. Moniuszko's "Halka". Many of the performances in which she starred were conducted by A. Toscanini. Krushelnytsky combined a colourful voice of great range (three octaves) with a fiery temperament and enormous acting ability. In the mid-1920s she turned from opera to concert recitals. Her concert repertoire included works by C. Monteverdi, C. Gluck, W. Mozart, M. Mussorgsky, M. Lysenko. D. Sichynsky, and S. Liudkevych. She enjoyed performing Ukrainian folksongs on her own piano accompaniment. Returning to Lviv in 1939, she taught solo singing at the Lviv Conservatory (1944-1952).

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Solomiya Amvrosiivka Krushelnytsky's Timeline

1872
September 23, 1872
Bilyavyntsi, Ukraine
1952
November 16, 1952
Age 80
Lviv, Ukraine
????
L'viv, Ukraine