Sultan Mataram I - Panembahan Senopati (1587-1601)

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[65] Panembahan Senopati bin Ki Ageng Pamanahan (Danang Sutawijaya), As-Samarqandhi Al-Azmatkhan

Also Known As: "Sayyid Panembahan Senopati (Sultan Mataram I)", "deceased", "Senapati Ingalaga", "Danang Sutawijaya", "Dananjaya", "Raden Ngabehi Loring Pasar", "Panembahan Senopati ing Alaga Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah Tanah Jawa", "Danang Sutawijaya (Panembahan SENOPATI)"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Indonesia
Death: Died in Jenar, Indonesia
Place of Burial: Indonesia
Immediate Family:

Son of [64] Ki Ageng Pamanahan Ki Ageng Enis; As-Sayyid Al-Habib Abdurrahman Hadi Wijaya, As-Samarqhandhi Al-Azmatkhan and [64] Nyi Sabinah bint Ki Ageng Saba
Husband of Raden Ayu Rembe; nyai ageng pati; Roro Lembayung Anak Ki Ageng Giring; [63] Rd. Ayu Ratna Dumillah bint Pangeran Timur; [65] Nyi Adisara bint Fulan and 4 others
Father of Pangeran Purboyo Wotgaleh; <private> Panembahan Senopati (RM Djuminah); Ki Ageng Panembahan Djuminah; Bupati Madiun - Pangeran Adipati Pringgalaya I (1595-1601); Bupati Madiun - Pangeran Adipati Martalaya (1613-1645) and 18 others
Brother of [65] Manduranegara bin Ki Ageng Pamanahan; <private> Ki Ageng Pamanahan; [65] Nyi Ageng Tumenggung Mayang bint Ki Ageng Pamanahan; <private> Ki Ageng Pamanahan; <private> Ki Ageng Pamanahan and 23 others
Half brother of Raden Rara Subrah (Putri Sulong Ki Ageng Pemanahan)

Occupation: Raja Ke I Mataram (1567-1601); Senopati Ing Alaga Sayidiman Panatagama; Danang Sutawidjaja (Ngabei Loring Pasar)
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Sultan Mataram I - Panembahan Senopati (1587-1601)

Nama aslinya ialah Danang Sutowijoyo yang juga dikenal sebagai Sutawijaya. Ia adalah putra Ki Gede Pemanahan yang berjasa membantu Jaka Tingkir membunuh Aryo Penangsang, adipati Jipangpanolan dalam krisis politik di Kesultanan Demak Bintoro pada masa akhir pemerintahan Sultan Trenggana.Setelah Jaka Tingkir menjadi Raja bergelar Sultan Hadiwijaya yang akhirnya mendirikan Kesultanan Pajang, beliau kemudian dianugerahi tanah Mentaok (di Kotagedhe, Yogyakarta sekarang). Bersama-sama ayahnya ia memerintah daerah itu. Karena keraton Sutawijaya berada di sebelah utara pasar maka dia bergelar Ngabehi Loring Pasar (Yang dipertuan di Sebelah Utara Pasar)

Setelah Ki Gede Pemanahan meninggal tahun 1575 M. Sutawijaya memberontak kepada Pajang tahun 1582 M dan membuat Mataram merdeka dari Pajang. Di Pajang sendiri, setelah mangkatnya Sultan Hadiwijaya, tahta berpindah pada putranya Pangeran Benowo, namun ia dikudeta Aryo Pangiri, adipati Demak dan dijadikan adipati di Jipangpanolan. Pangeran Benowo kalah, lalu ia minta bantuan Sutawijaya untuk membantunya melawan Aryo Pangiri. Setelah mengalahkan Aryo Pangiri, Pangeran Benowo menyerahkan pusaka Pajang pada Sutawijaya.

Tahun 1586 M, Sutawijaya akhirnya mengangkat dirinya jadi sultan dengan gelar Panembahan Senopati, Khalifatullah Sayyidin Penatagama (Khalifah/penguasa dan penata agama). Gelar Khalifatullah Sayyidin Penatagama ini juga diberikan pada raja-raja Mataram sesudahnya bahkan pada kerajaan-kerajaan di Surakarta dan Yogyakarta seperti Sultan Hamengkubuwono dari Yogyakarta. Beliau juga mendirikan Kesultanan Mataram yang berpusat di Kotagedhe. Gelar Panembahan Senopati digunakannya karena dia menghormati Pangeran Benowo yang merupakan penerus yang sah Sultan Hadiwijaya dari Kesultanan Pajang sehingga dia tidak memakai gelar Sultan.

Selama pemerintahannya ia banyak menaklukkan daerah seperti Ponorogo, Pasuruan, Kediri, Surabaya, Madiun dan lain sebagainya, dimana beberapa daerah tersebut merupakan daerah wilayah Pajang dan merasa tidak perlu takluk dengan Mataram sebagai kesultanan yang baru.

Sutawijaya wafat tahun 1601 M dan dimakamkan di Kotagedhe, dan diganti putranya Mas Jolang yang bergelar Panembahan Hanyokrowati.


Founder of the Sultanate of Mataram, Central Java, Indonesia
Panembahan Senopati ing Alaga Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah Tanah Jawa

Danang Sutawijaya (lahir: ? - wafat: Jenar, 1601) adalah pendiri Kesultanan Mataram yang memerintah sebagai raja pertama pada tahun 1587-1601, bergelar Panembahan Senopati ing Alaga Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah Tanah Jawa. Tokoh ini dianggap sebagai peletak dasar-dasar Kesultanan Mataram. Riwayat hidupnya banyak digali dari kisah-kisah tradisional, misalnya naskah-naskah babad karangan para pujangga zaman berikutnya.

in 1588 Mataram became a sultanate, and Sutawijaya appoint himself as the sultan titled Senopati Ingalaga Sayidin Panatagama (which means A Warrior Chief and the Cleric that Safeguards the Religion). To legitimize his power, Sutawijaya stated that Mataram inherited Pajang tradition. In this sense, Mataram has the obligation to continue Pajang reign over the whole Jave island.

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Sultan Agung (r. 1613-1645)

Gateway to the burial compund of Ki Ageng Pandanaran at Tembayat

Senopati's successors, Raden Mas Jolang (r. 1601-1613) and Sultan Agung (r. 1613-1645), continued the effort to extend Mataram's authority over all Java. It elevated its port at Jepara to the status of a major commercial center and declared a monopoly over the export of rice. It also launched attacks against other ports on the north coast. Several episodes of warfare erupted in which Matararn succeeded in conquering and in many cases destroying important coastal cities on the north-central and northeast coasts.

The seemingly destructive and aggressive territorial expansion, in which most of the flourishing coastal trading centers were successfully conquered and destroyed, has introduced a confusing element to the endeavour to describe Sultan Agung's reign. It is assumed that Sultan Agung, following the advice of his political, military, and spiritual advisors attempted to establish a kind of 'splendid isolation' aimed at keeping outside influences as far removed as possible from the center of the realm.

However, many modern day Solonese acknowledge the great cultural impact of this period: Sultan Agung consolidated Mataram's political independence, he strongly and actively supported the development of Islam in the regions under Mataram's control, and he succeeded in formulating a strong sense of Javanese identity.

At the same time as Mataram under Sultan Agung was expanding, Dutch merchants established a powerful, armed foothold in the northwest of Java. This later became the city of Batavia, modern-day Jakarta. They were united in the 'Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie', better known by its initials, VOC (or, in Indonesia simply as Kumpeni), founded in 1602. Sultan Agung's troops launched several attacks against the Dutch stronghold in Batavia (in 1628 and 1629), but they were unsuccessful in conquering it, not in the least because it was well fortified and supported by strategically positioned weaponry. During the attacks the European merchants moved to the port of Jepara, on Javas north coast, but returned when Mataram failed to achieve victory.

One reason for its failure to defeat the Dutch garrison was that the Sultan of Banten, in whose territory Batavia was formally situated, did not support Sultan Agung's efforts and refused to sell food to Mataram's army. The demoralized (and underpaid) Mataram troops retreated, after which Sultan Agung seems to have given up his strategy of trying to evict the Dutch from Java. At the end of his reign he had to contend with an ever-expanding Dutch influence, both geographically, economically, and politically. However, even though various Dutch emissaries were sent to his court at Kerto, they never succeeded in meeting him.

Banten, Batavia and Mataram coexisted in a tense relationship of relative equilibrium for the next 50 years. It was a period during which the Dutch were mainly concerned with expanding their control over the trade in spices, from the Moluccas, with Batavia assuming the role of a transfer port rather than a center of trade. But in the late 17 1h century a series of events began which were to lead to a gradual Dutch domination of Java.

After Sultan Agung's death (1645) he was succeeded by his son, Amangkurat I (r. 16451677). The end of the latter's reign was characterized by several years of court intrigue and intense sibling rivalry. The conflicts culminated when one of Arnangkurat I's sons launched a rebellion (in 1677), in alliance with Trunojoyo, a prince from the neighbouring island of Madura.

The rebels besieged Mataram's capital and succeeded in capturing it. Amangkurat I was forced to flee, accompanied by some of his children, his wives, and some of the regalia they managed to take from the palace. On their way northwards, near the town of Tegal, the old king became ill and died; his rebel-son ascended to the throne, taking the title Amangkurat 11 (r. 1677-1703). His brothers however continued to oppose his reign, and in many places armed clashes broke out. To make matters worse, soon after his ascension the new ruler quarreled with Trunojoyo, who threatened to depose him and take the throne.

Trunojoyo had many allies and was supported by the rulers of some of Java's semiautonomous Islamic centers of power, some of whom, such as Raden Kajoran, had repeatedly contested Mataram's authority. Raden Kajoran governed an area in the Klaten region, near modern-day Surakarta. Besides being one of Trunojoyo's strongest supporters, he was also his father-in-law and a well-known religious and spiritual leader. Raden Kajoran's influence was based on kinship ties with Sunan Bayat, the founder of a well-known sacred place (hermitage) known as Tembayat, which is still much visited today. Despite marriage links, the rulers of Kajoran had opposed Matararn from its beginnings. Supported by Kajoran, Trunojoyo staged a revolt against Amangkurat 11.

Amangkurat 11, facing the combined forces of his former ally and Raden Kajoran, requested Dutch military support. The Dutch complied with this plea and a successful expedition was launched against Trunojoyo. Meanwhile the war between Mataram and Kajoran, which had erupted since 1677, ended with Raden Kajoran's defeat, in 1679; hereafter its rulers were to assume a more spiritual role. After Kajoran's defeat Trunojoyo fled eastwards, to Kediri, where he was still able to rally support from some of the heads of Java's other Islamic regions. However, the war ended shortly afterwards, when Trunojoyo was stabbed to death by Amangkurat 11 during a combined Dutch-Javanese military campaign in East Java (1679).

Upon his return to the ruined court at Plered, and in return for its decisive military support, Amangkurat 11 gave the VOC an extensive area of land in West Java, stretching all the way from the north to the south coast, separating Batavia and Mataram. The Kumpeni also obtained the monopoly over the trade in and first rights to the purchase of rice in Java. Furthermore, in the same year (1677) it obtained the monopoly over the imports of textiles and opium, the export of sugar from Semarang and Jepara, and the right to administer and levy duties in the ports of north Java.


Sunan seda Jenar. Raja Mataram 1540. Sultan Pajang kemudian mengangkat Sutawijaya, putra Ki Ageng Pemanahan sebagai penguasa baru di Mataram. Sutawijaya juga disebut Ngabei Loring Pasar karena rumahnya di sebelah utara pasar. Berbeda dengan ayahnya, Sutawijaya tidak mau tunduk pada Sultan Pajang. Ia ingin memiliki daerah kekuasaan sendiri bahkan ingin menjadi raja di seluruh Pulau Jawa.

Tahun 1587 pasukan Pajang yang akan menyerbu Mataram porak-poranda diterjang badai letusan Gunung Merapi. Sutawijaya dan pasukannya selamat.

Tahun 1588 Mataram menjadi kerajaan dengan Sutawijaya sebagai Sultan bergelar Senapati Ingalaga Sayidin Panatagama artinya Panglima Perang dan Ulama Pengatur Kehidupan Beragama. Sebagai dalih legitimasi kekuasaannya, Senapati berpendirian bahwa Mataram mewarisi tradisi Pajang yang berarti bahwa Mataram berkewajiban melanjutkan tradisi penguasaan atas seluruh wilayah Pulau Jawa.

Tahun 1601 Panembahan Senapati wafat dan digantikan putranya, Mas Jolang yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak.