Thomas I, count of Savoy

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Count Thomas of Savoy, the Ghibelline

French: comte Thomas de Savoie, de Maurienne, Italian: conte Tommaso di Savoia, l'Amico dei Comuni
Also Known As: "Thomas the Ghibelline"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Château de Charbonnières, Aiguebelle, Savoie, Rhône-Alpes, France
Death: March 08, 1233 (54)
Moncalieri, Piedmont, Italy
Place of Burial: Aosta, Aosta Valley, Italy
Immediate Family:

Son of Blessed Humbert III, count of Savoy and Béatrice de Savoie, de Mâcon
Husband of Marguerite Beatrice of Savoy
Ex-partner of unknown mistresses
Father of Beraud de Savoie; Benoit de Savoie; Amedee de Savoie, bishop of Maurienne; Amadeus IV, count of Savoy; Humbert comte de Savoie and 12 others
Half brother of Alicia of Savoy; Eleonore de Savoie and contessa Sophie de Savoie, de Maurienne

Occupation: Count of Maurienne & Savoy 1189-1233
Managed by: Sally Gene Cole
Last Updated:

About Thomas I, count of Savoy

Thomas Ι (Tommaso I; 1178 – 1 March 1233) was Count of Savoy from 1189 to 1233. He is sometimes numbered "Thomas I" to distinguish him from his son of the same name, who governed Savoy but was not count.

Thomas was born in Aiguebelle, the son of Humbert III of Savoy and Beatrice of Viennois. His birth was seen as miraculous; his monkish father had despaired of having a male heir after three wives. Count Humbert sought counsel from St. Anthelm, who blessed Humbert three times, and it was seen as a prophecy come true when Thomas was born shortly before Anthelm himself died on 26 June 1178. He was named in honour of Saint Thomas Becket.

Thomas was still a minor when his father died on 4 March 1189, and a council of regency was established, composed of his mother Beatrice, his father's cousin Boniface I of Montferrat, and the Bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne. He had reached his majority by August 1191. Thomas possessed the martial abilities, energy, and brilliance that his father lacked, and Savoy enjoyed a golden age under his leadership. Despite his youth he began the push northwest into new territories. In the same year he granted Aosta Valley the "Charte des Franchises", recognising the right to administrative and political autonomy. This right was maintained until the eve of the French Revolution. Later he conquered Vaud, Bugey, and Carignano. He supported the Hohenstaufens, and was known as "Thomas the Ghibelline" because of his career as Imperial Vicar of Lombardy.

  1. Career
  2. Family and children /!\

THOMAS de Maurienne, son of HUMBERT III Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie & his fourth wife Béatrix de Vienne [Bourgogne-Comt%C3%A9] (Château de Carbonara 1178 after 26 Jun-Moncalieri 1 Mar 1233, bur Saint-Michel de la Cluse). An undated charter records a donation to Saint-Maurice by "felicis memorie Humbertus…Savoie comes" and the confirmation by "Thomas filius eiusdem comitis"[258]. He succeeded his father in 1189 as THOMAS I Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie, under the regency of Guglielmo V Marchese di Monferrato who brokered a favourable settlement to Comte Humbert III's dispute with the empire[259]. As Marchese Guglielmo was absent in Palestine at the time of the death of Comte Humbert III, the regency was presumably held and the negotiations carried out by his son Bonifazio, who succeeded as Marchese di Monferrato in 1192. This hypothesis appears confirmed by the following charter: "Thomas…Mauriannensis comes et marchio Italiæ" confirmed the donations made by "pater meus…[et] domini comitis Humberti…abavi mei" to the canons of Saint-Jean de Maurienne, with the advice of "B. matris mee et…tutore meo Bonifacio marchione Montisferrati", by charter dated 12 Jun 1189[260]. "Thomæ comitis et marchionis…et…Nichola filia comitis Gebennarum" granted privileges to the citizen of Susa by charter dated 25 Feb 1198[261]. He used the title Comte de Savoie: "Thomas comes Sabaud. et Amedeus eius filius" granted rights to the abbey of San Marco by charter dated 5 Mar 1200[262]. Comte Thomas supported the imperial party over the Guelfs, and was appointed Imperial Vicar in Italy. Philipp King of Germany granted him Moudon in Vaud, and Chieri and Testona in Piemonte in 1207. He also acquired Carignano, Pinerolo, Moncalieri, Vigone, Albenga and Savona in Piemonte. "Thomas Maurianensis comes et marchio" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Maurice, with the consent of "filiis suis Amedeo et Humberto", by charter dated 8 Nov 1217[263]. A charter dated 1224 records an agreement between "Thomæ com. Sabaud" and the bishop of Sion, witnessed by "ipse Thomas comes, Amedeus primogenitus illius, Comitissa uxor Thomæ, eorum quatuor filii clerici…Willelmus, Thomas, Petrus et Bonifacius"[264]. He bought the town of Chambéry in 1232. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1232 of "comitis Thome de Sabaudia"[265]. An indication of the precarious financial position of the counts of Savoy is provided by a third testament, dated 2 Nov 1240, made by Thomas´s son "Amadeus com Sab. et marchio in Italia" who repeated the nomination of "Thomæ, Flandriæ comiti, fratri suo" as his heir to "totius comitatus sui Sabaudiæ marchionatus Italiæ et ducatus Chablasii" if he died without male children, on condition that he satisfied all the debts of "Thomæ comitis patris et Humberti fratris ipsorum"[266].

m ( [1196] ) MARGUERITE [Beatrix] de Genève, daughter of GUILLAUME [I] Comte de Genève & his second wife Béatrix de Faucigny (-8 Apr 1257, bur Abbaye de Hautecombe). .. ... ..... ......

 Comte Thomas I & his wife had fourteen children:
 Comte Thomas I had [four] illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:  /!\ 





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Thomas Ier de Savoie

Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre

Thomas Ier de Savoie, né le 27 mai 1178 au château de Charbonnières à Aiguebelle, mort le 8 mars 1233 à Moncalieri en Italie, fut comte de Savoie, d'Aoste et de Maurienne et seigneur de Piémont de 1189 à 1233. Il était le fils d'Humbert III le Bienheureux, comte de Savoie, d'Aoste et de Maurienne, et de Béatrice de Mâcon.

Comte de Savoie à onze ans, Thomas eut pour tuteur Boniface de Montferrat, qui l'amena dans l'alliance des Gibelins. Majeur, il soutint l'empereur Frédéric II contre la papauté : il reçut alors le titre de vicaire impérial. Il étendit ses domaines jusqu'au Bugey, pays de Vaud et au Piémont et prit le titre de seigneur de Piémont. En 1232, il choisit Chambéry pour capitale. Il ne sut pas conserver ses acquisitions territoriales, car elle furent divisées entre ses fils et ce n'est qu'en 1418 que son descendant Amédée VIII parviendra à les réunir à nouveau.

En mai 1196, Thomas Ier épousa Marguerite (ou Béatrice) de Genevois, fille de Guillaume Ier de Genève, comte de Genève et de Vaud, et de Béatrice de Valpergue. Ils auront quinze enfants :

  • 1) Amédée IV (1197 † 1253), comte de Savoie
  • 2) Humbert (1198 † 1223 en Hongrie)
  • 3) Béatrix, (1198 † 1266), mariée en 1219 à Raymond Bérenger V de Provence.
  • 4) Thomas II, (1199 † 1259), prince de Piémont.
  • 5) Aimon de Savoie († 1242), seigneur de Chablais
  • 6) Guillaume († 1239), évêque de Valence (1226-1238), puis évêque de Liège (1238-1239)
  • 7) Boniface, prieur à Nantua
  • 8) Amédée († 1268) évêque de Maurienne (1230-1268)
  • 9) Pierre II, dit le Petit Charlemagne, (1203 † 1268), comte de Savoie.
  • 10) Philippe Ier (1207 † 1285), archevêque de Lyon et évêque de Valence (1246-1267), puis comte de Savoie.
  • 11) Boniface (1207 † 1270), évêque de Belley (1232-1241), archevêque de Canterbury (1246-1267)
  • 12) Alice, abbesse de Saint-Pierre à Lyon en 1250
  • 13) Agathe, abbesse de Saint-Pierre à Lyon
  • 14) Marguerite (1212 † 1270), mariée en 1218 à Hartmann Ier († 1250), comte de Kybourg, puis à Eberhard de Laufenbourg († 1284), comte de Kybourg
  • 15) Avita, peut-être illégitime, mariée en 1237 à Baudouin de Reviers († 1262), 7e comte de Devon

Tomás I o Tommaso I (1176 - 1 de marzo de 1233) Conde de Saboya desde 1189 hasta 1233. Hijo de Humberto III de Saboya y de Beatrice de Viennois. Su nacimiento fue considerado como milagroso; su padre monje estaba desesperado por tener un heredero varón después de tres esposas. El Conde Humberto buscó consejos de San Anselmo, que bendijo a Humberto tres veces, y predijo una profecía que fue verdad, cuando Tomás nació poco después Anselmo murió el 26 de junio de 1178. Lo llamaron así en honor a Santo Tomás Becket.

Tomás era menor de edad cuando su padre murió el 4 de marzo de 1189, y establecieron un consejo de regencia, compeusto por su madre Beatriz, el primo de su padre Bonifacio I de Montferrat, y el obispo de Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne. Tomás alcanzó la mayoría de edad en agosto de 1191. Tomás poseyó las capacidades, la energía, y el brillo que su padre careció, y Saboya gozó de una edad de oro bajo su dirección. A pesar de su juventud comenzó el empuje al noroeste en territorios nuevos. En el mismo año él concedió a Valle de Aosta la "Carta delle Franchigie", reconociendo el derecho de autonomía administrativa y política. Este derecho se mantuvo hasta la Revolución Francesa. Más adelante Tomás conquistó Cantón de Vaud, Bugey, y Carignano. Apoyó a los Hohenstaufen y fue apodado y conocido como “Tomás el Ghibelline” debido a su carrera como vicario imperial de Lombardía.

Familia y Descendientes

En 1195 Tomás efectuó una meboscada a la partida del Conde Guillermo I de Ginebra, que escoltaba a hija del Conde, Margarita, a Francia para casarse con el rey Felipe II de Francia. Tomás se lelvó a Margarita y se casó con ella. De esta unión nacieron ocho hijos y seis hijas.

Amadeo IV, el sucesor inmediato Humberto, muerto entre marzo y nobiembre de 1223 Tommaso, señor y conde de Piamonte y fundador de una línea que se convirtió en Saboya-Achaea Aimone, muerto el 30 de agosto de 1237, señor de Chablais Guglielmo (Guillermo de Saboya), Obispo de Valence and Decano de Vienne Amadeo de Saboya, Obispo de Maurienne Pietro, quién residió mucho en Inglaterra, llegó a ser Conde de Richmond, y en 1263 se convirtió en en Conde de Saboya Filippo, arzobispo de Lyon, quién dimitió, con su amtrimonio se convirtió en Conde Palatino de Borgoña y en 1268 se convirtió en Conde de Saboya Bonifacio que fue Arzobispo de Canterbury Beatriz de Saboya, muerta en 1265 or 1266, se casó en diciembre de 1219 con Ramón Berenguer V de Provenza,(1209-1245) y fue madre de cuatro Reinas consortes Alasia de Saboya, abadesa del monasterio de San Pierre en Lyon Ágatha de Saboya, abadesa del monasterio de San Pierre en Lyon Margarita de Saboya, muerta en 1273, casada en 1218 con Hartmann I de Kyburg Avita de Saboya

Predecesor: Humberto III Conde de Saboya 1189-1233 Sucesor: Amadeo IV

Obtenido de "http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom%C3%A1s_I_de_Saboya"


Thomas I, Count of Savoy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thomas I or Tommaso I (1178, Aiguebelle – 1 March 1233) was Count of Savoy from 1189-1233. He was the son of Humbert III of Savoy and Beatrice of Viennois. His birth was seen as miraculous; his monkish father had despaired of having a male heir after three wives. Count Humbert sought counsel from St. Anthelm, who blessed Humbert three times, and it was seen as a prophecy come true when Thomas was born shortly before Anthelm himself died on 26 June 1178. He was named in honour of Saint Thomas Becket.

Thomas was still a minor when his father died on 4 March 1189, and a council of regency was established, comprising of his mother Beatrice, his father's cousin Boniface I of Montferrat, and the Bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne. He had reached his majority by August 1191. Thomas possessed the martial abilities, energy, and brilliance that his father lacked, and Savoy enjoyed a golden age under his leadership. Despite his youth he began the push northwest into new territories. In the same year he granted Aosta Valley the "Carta delle Franchigie", recognising the right to administrative and political autonomy. This right was maintained up until the eve of the French Revolution. Later he conquered Vaud, Bugey, and Carignano. He supported the Hohenstaufens, and was known as "Thomas the Ghibelline" because of his career as Imperial Vicar of Lombardy.

Family and children

In 1195 he ambushed the party of Count William I of Geneva, which was escorting the count's daughter, Margaret of Geneva, to France for her intended wedding to King Philip II of France. Thomas carried off Marguerite and married her himself, producing some eight sons and six daughters.

      1. Amedeo, his immediate successor
      2. Umberto, d. between March and November 1223
      3. Tommaso, lord and then count in Piedmont and founder of a line that became the Savoy-Achaea
      4. Aimone, d. 30 August 1237, Lord of Chablais
      5. Guglielmo (William of Savoy), Bishop of Valence and Dean of Vienne
      6. Amadeo of Savoy, Bishop of Maurienne
      7. Pietro, who resided much in England, became Earl of Richmond, and ultimately in 1263 became the disputed count of Savoy
      8. Filippo, archbishop of Lyon, who resigned, through marriage became Count Palatine of Burgundy and ultimately in 1268 became the disputed count of Savoy
      9. Bonifacio who became archbishop of Canterbury
     10. Beatrice of Savoy, d. 1265 or 1266, married in December 1219 to Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (1209-1245) and was mother of four Queens-consort
     11. Alasia of Savoy, abbess of the monastery of St Pierre in Lyon (d.1250)
     12. Ágatha of Savoy, abbess of the monastery of St Pierre in Lyon (d.1245)
     13. Margherita of Savoy, d. 1273, married in 1218 to Hartmann I of Kyburg
     14. Avita of Savoy (1215-92) who married Baldwin de Redvers, 7th Earl of Devon and Robert Aguillon (d.1286).

From Medlands:

THOMAS de Maurienne, son of HUMBERT III Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie & his fourth wife Béatrix de Vienne [Bourgogne-Comt%C3%A9] (Château de Carbonara 1178 after 26 Jun-Moncalieri 1 Mar 1233, bur Saint-Michel de la Cluse). An undated charter records a donation to Saint-Maurice by "felicis memorie Humbertus…Savoie comes" and the confirmation by "Thomas filius eiusdem comitis"[258]. He succeeded his father in 1189 as THOMAS I Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie, under the regency of Guglielmo V Marchese di Monferrato who brokered a favourable settlement to Comte Humbert III's dispute with the empire[259]. As Marchese Guglielmo was absent in Palestine at the time of the death of Comte Humbert III, the regency was presumably held and the negotiations carried out by his son Bonifazio, who succeeded as Marchese di Monferrato in 1192. This hypothesis appears confirmed by the following charter: "Thomas…Mauriannensis comes et marchio Italiæ" confirmed the donations made by "pater meus…[et] domini comitis Humberti…abavi mei" to the canons of Saint-Jean de Maurienne, with the advice of "B. matris mee et…tutore meo Bonifacio marchione Montisferrati", by charter dated 12 Jun 1189[260]. "Thomæ comitis et marchionis…et…Nichola filia comitis Gebennarum" granted privileges to the citizen of Susa by charter dated 25 Feb 1198[261]. He used the title Comte de Savoie: "Thomas comes Sabaud. et Amedeus eius filius" granted rights to the abbey of San Marco by charter dated 5 Mar 1200[262]. Comte Thomas supported the imperial party over the Guelfs, and was appointed Imperial Vicar in Italy. Philipp King of Germany granted him Moudon in Vaud, and Chieri and Testona in Piemonte in 1207. He also acquired Carignano, Pinerolo, Moncalieri, Vigone, Albenga and Savona in Piemonte. "Thomas Maurianensis comes et marchio" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Maurice, with the consent of "filiis suis Amedeo et Humberto", by charter dated 8 Nov 1217[263]. A charter dated 1224 records an agreement between "Thomæ com. Sabaud" and the bishop of Sion, witnessed by "ipse Thomas comes, Amedeus primogenitus illius, Comitissa uxor Thomæ, eorum quatuor filii clerici…Willelmus, Thomas, Petrus et Bonifacius"[264]. He bought the town of Chambéry in 1232. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1232 of "comitis Thome de Sabaudia"[265]. An indication of the precarious financial position of the counts of Savoy is provided by a third testament, dated 2 Nov 1240, made by Thomas´s son "Amadeus com Sab. et marchio in Italia" who repeated the nomination of "Thomæ, Flandriæ comiti, fratri suo" as his heir to "totius comitatus sui Sabaudiæ marchionatus Italiæ et ducatus Chablasii" if he died without male children, on condition that he satisfied all the debts of "Thomæ comitis patris et Humberti fratris ipsorum"[266].

m ([1196]%29 MARGUERITE [Beatrix] de Genève, daughter of GUILLAUME [I] Comte de Genève & his second wife Béatrix de Faucigny (-8 Apr 1257, bur Abbaye de Hautecombe). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Margareta filia domni de Fusceneis de matre Guilelmi, filii Humberti comitis Gebenensis" as wife of "comitis Thome de Sabaudia"[267]. As noted below, Marguerite is also called Beatrix in later sources. No explanation has been found for these dual names. The fact that "Beatrix" appears in a seal shows that it was not a transcription error. "Thomæ comitis et marchionis…et…Nichola [presumably a transcription error] filia comitis Gebennarum" granted privileges to the citizen of Susa by charter dated 25 Feb 1198[268]. The Complete Peerage[269] refers to unspecified "later writers" having evolved an incorrect theory that Thomas I Comte de Maurienne was married firstly to Béatrix and, after her death without issue, secondly to Marguerite, daughter of Guillaume de Faucigny, who was the mother of his children. The same source confirms that the two names in fact refer to the same person. A charter dated 1224 records an agreement between "Thomæ com. Sabaud" and the bishop of Sion, witnessed by "ipse Thomas comes, Amedeus primogenitus illius, Comitissa uxor Thomæ, eorum quatuor filii clerici…Willelmus, Thomas, Petrus et Bonifacius"[270]. "M. comitissa Maurian. uxor Thomæ comitis Maurianensis et marchionis Italiæ" donated property, with the consent of "Thomas com. Maurianæ et filii mei Amedeus et Aymo", by charter dated Dec 1227[271]. "M. comitissa Sabaudie et marchisa in Ytalia et…Amedeus, Aymo, W. electus Valentinus, Thomas, Petrus, Bonifacius et Philippus filii Thome Comitis Sab. et marchionis in Ytalia" confirmed donations to Hautecombe abbey by charter dated 26 Feb 1231[272]. "Beatrix uxor comitis Thomæ, Amadeus primogenitus et Aymo filii eius" confirmed the purchase of Chambéry by "Thoma comite" by charter dated 1232, with the seal of "Beatricis comitisse Sabaudie"[273]. "Amedeus comes Sabaudie et in Italie marchio…cum…genetrice sua et fratribus suis B. Bellicensi Electo et Philippo Metensi Primicerio" granted "villam S. Mauritii de Chablaisio" {Saint-Maurice de Chablais} to "soror illorum Margareta comitissa de Kiborch" by charter dated 24 Feb 1240[274]. "Contessa Margarita di Savoia Marchesa in Italia" donated property to "Tomaso suo figlio Conte di Fiandra e d'Hainaut" with the consent of "Conte Amedeo di Savoia suo figlio Primogenito", by charter dated 4 Jan 1244[275]. The Pingonio Chronicon records the death "VI Id Apr" in 1257 of "Domina Beatrix de Gebennis comitissa Sabaudie et domina de Narembors, parens comitum Sabaudie"[276].

Comte Thomas I & his wife had fourteen children:

1. AMEDEE de Savoie (Montmélian, Savoie 1197-Montmélian 13 Jul 1253, bur Abbaye de Hautecombe). "Thomas comes Sabaud. et Amedeus eius filius" granted rights to the abbey of San Marco by charter dated 5 Mar 1200[277]. His parentage is confirmed by, inter alia, Matthew of Paris who specifies that Beatrix de Savoie was "soror comitis Sabaldiæ adhuc viventis Amidei", when he records the marriage of her daughter to Henry III King of England[278]. In a later passage, the same source records Amedée as "primogenitus" among the "filii comitis Sabaudiæ Thomæ avunculi dominæ reginæ Angliæ Alienoræ"[279]. "Thomas Maurianensis comes et marchio" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Maurice, with the consent of "filiis suis Amedeo et Humberto", by charter dated 8 Nov 1217[280]. A charter dated 1224 records an agreement between "Thomæ com. Sabaud " and the bishop of Sion, witnessed by "ipse Thomas comes, Amedeus primogenitus illius, Comitissa uxor Thomæ, eorum quatuor filii clerici…Willelmus, Thomas, Petrus et Bonifacius"[281]. "M. comitissa Maurian. uxor Thomæ comitis Maurianensis et marchionis Italiæ" donated property, with the consent of "Thomas com. Maurianæ et filii mei Amedeus et Aymo", by charter dated Dec 1227[282]. "M. comitissa Sabaudie et marchisa in Ytalia et…Amedeus, Aymo, W. electus Valentinus, Thomas, Petrus, Bonifacius et Philippus filii Thome Comitis Sab. et marchionis in Ytalia" confirmed donations to Hautecombe abbey by charter dated 26 Feb 1231[283]. "Beatrix uxor comitis Thomæ, Amadeus primogenitus et Aymo filii eius" confirmed the purchase of Chambéry by "Thoma comite" by charter dated 1232, with the seal of "Beatricis comitisse Sabaudie"[284]. He succeeded his father in 1233 as AMEDEE IV Comte de Savoie, Marchese in Italy. "Amedeus comes Sabaudie et in Italia marchio" confirmed his father´s grant of privileges to Susa by charter dated 7 Mar 1233[285]. A charter dated 23 Jul 1234 records an agreement between "Amedeum comitem Sabaudie" and "Aymonem et Petrum fratres ipsius" in settlement of a dispute concerning their paternal inheritance[286]. The first testament of "Amedei comitis Sab. et marchionis Italie", dated 23 Sep 1235, appoints "Thomam fratrem suum" as his heir "in comitatu et marchionatu" in default of male children[287]. This document disinherits Thomas´s older brother Aimon. The second testament of "Amedeus comes Sabaudie", dated 19 Jul 1238, repeats the nomination of "Thomam fratrem suum" as his heir, substituting "Philippum, huic autem Petrum fratres suos" if Thomas died without male heirs[288]. He was an active supporter of Emperor Friedrich II. He acquired territories in Vaud and lower Valais. In 1238, Comte Amedée was created Duc de Chablais and Aosta, and nominated Imperial Vicar in northern Italy, by the emperor in reward for his support against the Lombards[289]. Under a third testament, dated 2 Nov 1240, "Amadeus com Sab. et marchio in Italia" repeated the nomination of "Thomæ, Flandriæ comiti, fratri suo" as his heir to "totius comitatus sui Sabaudiæ marchionatus Italiæ et ducatus Chablasii" if he died without male children, on condition that he satisfied all the debts of "Thomæ comitis patris et Humberti fratris ipsorum"[290]. A charter dated 1244 confirmed the peace agreement reached between the bishop of Lausanne and "Amadeus comes Sabaudie et in Italia marcho et…Petrus de Sabaudia…frater suus"[291]. Emperor Friedrich II recognised Amedée's rights over Turin in 1248. On the emperor's death in 1250, Comte Amedée's reconciliation with Pope Innocent IV was sealed by the marriage of the Pope's niece to Comte Amedée's brother Thomas[292]. A fourth testament of "Amedeus comes Sabaudie" is dated 19 Sep 1252, appoints "Bonifacium filium meum" as his heir, under the tutelage of his brother Thomas, substituting "fratri meo Thome de Sabaudia comitis…Beatricem filiam meam uxorem quondam Manfredi marchionis Salutiarum et Margaretam filiam meam uxorem Bonifacii marchionis Montisferrati", and names "Cecilie…uxori nostre…Beatrix filia mea minor"[293]. A fifth testament of Comte Amedée IV is dated 24 May 1253, appoints "Bonifacius filius suus, sub tutela Thomæ comitis" as his heir, substitutes "filiæ Amedei comitis…marchionissæ Beatrix Salutiarum et Margaretha Montisferrati", bequeathes "castrum Montis Meliani" to "Cæciliæ comitissæ", and chooses to be buried at Hautecombe[294]. An epitaph in Hautecombe abbey records the death "III Id Jul" in 1253 of "Dominus Amedeus…comes Sabaudie"[295]. Betrothed (28 Apr 1213) to AGNESE di Saluzzo, daughter of BONIFAZIO Marchese di Saluzzo & his wife Maria di Torres [in Sardinia] (-after 1219). The marriage contract between "Thomam comitem Maurienne…Amedeo f. dicti comitis" and "Manfredum II marchionem de Saluciis…Agnetem f. quondam Bonefacii" is dated 28 Apr 1213[296]. m firstly (before 1221) MARGUERITE de Bourgogne, daughter of HUGUES III Duke of Burgundy [Capet] & his second wife Béatrix Dauphine de Viennois ([1192]-[1228/30] or [1242]). The testament of "Guigo Dalphinus, Vienn. et Albonis comitis", dated 27 Jun 1267, confirmed donations made by "…matertera Margarita vel Domina Ducissa avia mea…meæ amitæ quondam comitissæ Sabaudiæ"[297]. It is not clear from this document whether "matertera Margarita" and "meæ amitæ quondam comitissæ Sabaudiæ" refer to the same person as they are named in the context of two separate donations in different parts of the testament. The use of "matertera" and "amitæ" as two different terms to express the relationship "aunt" suggests that they may have been different individuals. Valbonnais assumes that they were the same person, "Marguerite sœur du dauphin André" who married "Amé fils de Thomas Comte de Savoie", and adds that "la duchesse Beatrix" named "son héritier le Dauphin André son fils…Matilde sa fille aînée femme de Jean Comte de Chalon…Marguerite son autre fille épouse d´Amedée fils du comte de Savoye" in her testament dated 1228[298]. If the suggested second marriage of Comte Amedée is correctly shown below, Marguerite de Bourgogne must have died in [1228/30]. If it is incorrect, her date of death is estimated to [1242]. [m secondly ([1228/30]%29 MARGUERITE de Viennois, daughter of ANDRE de Bourgogne [Capet] Comte d´Albon, Dauphin & his first wife Beatrix de Sabran ([1203/07]-[1242]). The Inventory of the State Archives of Turin[299] mentions a document dated 1230 which refers to the marriage of Comte Amedée with "Marguerite daughter of André dauphin, comte de Viennois", but without giving the context (marriage contract, appointment of proxy etc.). Although her mother is not named, the date of the document suggests that it is likely that Marguerite would have been born from her supposed father's first marriage. However, there is some doubt whether this reference can be correct. As noted above, two primary sources indicate that Comte Amedée IV married Marguerite de Bourgogne as his first wife, one source indicating that she was still alive in 1228. Marguerite de Viennois would therefore have been the niece of Comte Amedée´s first wife. Such a relationship by marriage would have necessitated a papal dispensation, which may not have been easily obtained given the closeness of the affinity. In addition, this supposed second marriage would have taken place during the papacy of Pope Gregory IX, who is recorded as granting only 11 dispensations during his 14 year reign (6 of which related to validating existing marriages), which suggests that he was "averse to dispensing from the impediments of relationship"[300]. Another possibility is that the Inventory of State Archives mistook "daughter" for "sister" in its extract, and that the 1230 document refers to Comte Amedée´s earlier marriage to Marguerite de Bourgogne. Since writing the above comment, an updated version of the online State Archives Inventory now suggests that this possibility may be correct: while the new summary still refers to “Matrimoni. Amedeo IV di Savoia e Margherita figlia di Andrea Delfino conte di Vienna”, a further extract states that the document records that “Margherita di Vienne” gave receipt “al fratello Andrea Delfino di Vienne” for the sum bequeathed to her “in testamento dalla madre Beatrice contessa di Vienne”[301]. The original document has not been consulted to verify how this conflict is resolved. Altogether, this possible second marriage, based only on this index entry, now looks unlikely to be correct.] m [secondly/thirdly] (contract 22 Nov 1244, by proxy Orange 18 Dec 1244) CECILE des Baux, daughter of BARRAL Seigneur des Baux & his wife Béatrice d'Anduze (-21 May 1275). The contract of marriage between "Amedeum comitem Sabaudiæ" and "Cæciliam Barralis domini Baucii filiam" is dated 18 Dec 1243, witnessed by "Humbertum de Seyssel dominum Aquarum…Raymundo de Baucio principe Aurasiæ, Guillelmo de Baucio nepote illius…"[302]. A charter dated 22 Nov 1244 records the agreement for the marriage of “dominum Amedeum comitem Sabaudie” and “dominam Ceciliam, neptem…domini R. comitis Tolosani, filiam…domini Barralli del Bauz”[303]. A charter dated 18 Dec 1244 confirms the celebration by proxy of the marriage between "Amedée IV Comte de Savoie, marquis d'Italie" (represented by "Humbert de Seyssel") and "Cécile fille de Barral de Baux" at the "chapelle Sainte-Marie d'Orange", in the presence of "Raymond de Baux I, son neveu Raymond II prince et co-prince d'Orange, Guillaume de Sabran, et B. de Baux chanoine d'Avignon"[304]. Raymond VII Comte de Toulouse, Marquis de Provence granted all his property beyond the Rhône to "sa niece Cécile de Baux, fille de Barral" by charter dated 24 Feb 1241[305], which may explain why Cécile was such a good marriage prospect for the comte de Savoie. A fourth testament of "Amedeus comes Sabaudie" is dated 19 Sep 1252, appoints "Bonifacium filium meum" as his heir, under the tutelage of his brother Thomas, substituting "fratri meo Thome de Sabaudia comitis…Beatricem filiam meam uxorem quondam Manfredi marchionis Salutiarum et Margaretam filiam meam uxorem Bonifacii marchionis Montisferrati", and names "Cecilie…uxori nostre…Beatrix filia mea minor"[306]. Her husband granted her the castles of Momigliano, La Rocchetta, e Terra della Tarantasia for life by charter dated 24 May 1253[307]. A fifth testament of Comte Amedée IV is dated 24 May 1253, appoints "Bonifacius filius suus, sub tutela Thomæ comitis" as his heir, substitutes "filiæ Amedei comitis…marchionissæ Beatrix Salutiarum et Margaretha Montisferrati", bequeathes "castrum Montis Meliani" to "Cæciliæ comitissæ", and chooses to be buried at Hautecombe[308]. "Amedeus comes Sabaudie" granted "castrum Montis Meliani" to "Cæciliæ comitissæ conjugi suæ" for life, on condition that she allows "Bonifacium filium ex matrimonio eorum procreatum" to live with her[309]. The testament of "Beatricis relictæ Raimundi Berengarii comitis Provinciæ", dated 14 Jan 1264, adds bequests to "…Cæciliæ relictæ Amedei Sabaudiæ comitis…"[310]. "Cæciliæ comitissæ relictæ Amedei quondam comitis Sabaudiæ" donated property by charter dated 19 Jan 1268[311]. "Cecilia Vedova del Conte Amedeo di Savoia" granted property which she inherited after the death of "Bonifacio suo figlio" to "Filippo Conte di Savoia e di Borgonia" by charter dated Oct 1268[312]. Comte Amedée IV & his first wife had two children: a) BEATRIX de Savoie (before 4 Mar 1223-10 May before 1259). The marriage contract between "Alaxiam comitissam Saluciarum et Manfredum marchionem Saluciarum eius nepotem" and "Thomam comitem Maurianæ…neptem suam…Beatrix" is dated 4 Mar 1223[313]. A contract dated 2 Oct 1227 between "Marchese Enrico di Savona" and "il Marchese Manfredo di Saluzzo" refers to the dowry of "Marchese di Savona…sua Consorte, figlia di Amedeo figlio del Conte di Savoia"[314]. Beatrix must have born in the early 1220s as she had three children by her first husband who died in 1244. The Istoria of Saba Malaspina records that "Manfredus" married "natam Amadei comitis Sabaudiæ…Beatricem"[315]. The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro records that "Manfredus" married "dominam Beatricem filiam ducis Sex Viarum, qui prius in virum…marchionem de Salluciis"[316]. Her second marriage was arranged in recognition of the alliance between her father and Emperor Friedrich II. A charter dated 8 May 1246 records the restitution of "castri Ripolarum" by Emperor Friedrich II to "fratribus de Sabaudia, Amedeo comite et Thoma", confirmed by the betrothal of "Manfredum dictum Lancea, filium naturalem imperatoris" and "Beatricem filiam Amedei comitis, relictam Manfredi marchionis Salucensis"[317]. The proxy of marriage between "Manfredo Lanza di Lui [Imperator Federico secundo] figlio" and "la Contessa di Saluzzo figlia del Conte Amedeo di Savoia" is dated Mar 1247[318]. The contract of marriage between "Manfredi Lanceæ filii Friderici Rom. Imperatoris" and "Beatrice marchionissa Salutiensi, filia Amedei comitis Sabaudiæ et in Italia marchionis, relicta Manfredi marchionis Salutiarum" is dated 21 Apr 1247[319]. A fourth testament of "Amedeus comes Sabaudie" is dated 19 Sep 1252, appoints "Bonifacium filium meum" as his heir, under the tutelage of his brother Thomas, substituting "fratri meo Thome de Sabaudia comitis…Beatricem filiam meam uxorem quondam Manfredi marchionis Salutiarum et Margaretam filiam meam uxorem Bonifacii marchionis Montisferrati", and names "Cecilie…uxori nostre…Beatrix filia mea minor"[320]. A fifth testament of Comte Amedée IV is dated 24 May 1253, appoints "Bonifacius filius suus, sub tutela Thomæ comitis" as his heir, substitutes "filiæ Amedei comitis…marchionissæ Beatrix Salutiarum et Margaretha Montisferrati", bequeathes "castrum Montis Meliani" to "Cæciliæ comitissæ", and chooses to be buried at Hautecombe[321]. The absence of any reference to Beatrix´s current husband King Manfred suggests a breakdown in their marriage. m firstly (betrothed 4 Mar 1223 and 2 Oct 1227, Mar 1233) MANFREDO III Marchese di Saluzzo, son of BONIFAZIO di Saluzzo & his wife Maria di Torres [in Sardinia] (-29 Oct 1244). m secondly (Betrothed 8 May 1246, by proxy Mar 1247, contract 21 Apr 1247, [Dec 1248/Jan 1249]) as his first wife, MANFRED von Hohenstaufen, illegitimate son of Emperor FRIEDRICH II King of Sicily & his mistress Bianca Lancia (Venosa 1232-killed in battle Benevento 26 Feb 1266). At the time of his marriage, his father constituted him Lord of territory from Pavia to Genoa. He succeeded as Principe di Tarento in 1250 on the death of his father. Regent of Sicily in 1254, he was crowned MANFREDO King of Sicily at Palermo 10 Aug 1258. b) MARGUERITE de Savoie ([1224/28]-after 14 Jan 1264). "Thomas comes Maurianæ" donated property to "Bonifacio Marchioni Montisferrati" by way of dowry of "Margarethæ futuræ uxoris Bonifacii et filiæ Amedei Sabaudia primogeniti Thomæ comitis" by charter dated 18 Jan 1228[322]. It is unlikely that Marguerite was born much later than 1228 as her mother was at that date already at least 36 years old, and Marguerite herself had at least three children before she died in 1254. The date of her marriage is confirmed by a charter dated 18 Nov 1235, which confirmed a pact between her father and the bishop of Torino, approved by "domina Margarita eius filia…uxor dom. Bonifacii marchionis Montisferrati"[323]. "Bonifacius marchio Montisferrati" donated property to "uxori suæ Margarethæ, Amadei comitis Sab. filiæ" by charter dated 9 Dec 1235[324]. A fourth testament of "Amedeus comes Sabaudie" is dated 19 Sep 1252, appoints "Bonifacium filium meum" as his heir, under the tutelage of his brother Thomas, substituting "fratri meo Thome de Sabaudia comitis…Beatricem filiam meam uxorem quondam Manfredi marchionis Salutiarum et Margaretam filiam meam uxorem Bonifacii marchionis Montisferrati", and names "Cecilie…uxori nostre…Beatrix filia mea minor"[325]. A fifth testament of Comte Amedée IV is dated 24 May 1253, appoints "Bonifacius filius suus, sub tutela Thomæ comitis" as his heir, substitutes "filiæ Amedei comitis…marchionissæ Beatrix Salutiarum et Margaretha Montisferrati", bequeathes "castrum Montis Meliani" to "Cæciliæ comitissæ", and chooses to be buried at Hautecombe[326]. The testament of "Bonefacius Montisferrati marchio", dated 12 Jun 1253, bequeathes property to "Alaxinam filiam meam inpuberem", appoints "Guilelminum filium meum inpuberem" as his heir, substituting in turn "Alaxinam…filia mea" and "Tomam de Saluciis", if his son died childless, and appoints "dominam Margaritam comitissam uxorem mea matrem ipsius Guilelmini et dominum comitem de Sabaldia et dominum Tomam de Sabaldia fratrem suum et Dalfinum de Vianesio et dominum Jacobum de Careto et dominum Georgium et dominum Manuellem de Ceva et Bastardinum de Monteferrato" as guardians of his son[327]. Her second marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[328], although this is inconsistent with her dying in 1254 as shown in another table[329]. The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified. The marriage is not given by Jules Chevalier[330]. It is possible that the dispensation was issued but that the marriage never actually took place. The testament of "Beatricis relictæ Raimundi Berengarii comitis Provinciæ", dated 14 Jan 1264, adds bequests to "…Margarithæ matri marchionis Montisferrati nepti suæ…"[331]. m [firstly] (Betrothed 18 Jan 1228, before 18 Nov 1235) BONIFACIO II Marchese di Monferrato, son of GUGLIELMO VI Marchese di Monferrato & his second wife Berta di Clavesana (-[12 Jun 1253/10 Dec 1255]). [m secondly (Papal dispensation 26 Jan 1255) as his second wife, AYMAR [III] Comte de Valentinois, son of GUILLAUME II Comte de Valentinois & his wife Flotte de Royans (-[6 May/17 Jun] 1277, bur Bonlieu).] Comte Amedée IV & his [second/third] wife had four children: c) BONIFACE de Savoie (-Turin [7 Jun] 1263, bur Saint-Jean de Maurienne, transferred to Saint-Michel de la Cluse). A fourth testament of "Amedeus comes Sabaudie" is dated 19 Sep 1252, appoints "Bonifacium filium meum" as his heir, under the tutelage of his brother Thomas, substituting "fratri meo Thome de Sabaudia comitis…Beatricem filiam meam uxorem quondam Manfredi marchionis Salutiarum et Margaretam filiam meam uxorem Bonifacii marchionis Montisferrati", and names "Cecilie…uxori nostre…Beatrix filia mea minor"[332]. A fifth testament of Comte Amedée IV is dated 24 May 1253, appoints "Bonifacius filius suus, sub tutela Thomæ comitis" as his heir, substitutes "filiæ Amedei comitis…marchionissæ Beatrix Salutiarum et Margaretha Montisferrati", bequeathes "castrum Montis Meliani" to "Cæciliæ comitissæ", and chooses to be buried at Hautecombe[333]. "Amedeus comes Sabaudie" granted "castrum Montis Meliani" to "Cæciliæ comitissæ conjugi suæ" for life, on condition that she allows "Bonifacium filium ex matrimonio eorum procreatum" to live with her He succeeded his father in 1253 as BONIFACE "Roland" Comte de Savoie. He led campaigns in Flanders and Piemonte which were disastrous for Savoy[334]. d) BEATRIX de Savoie (-Escalona Nov 1290 or 23 Feb 1292). A fourth testament of "Amedeus comes Sabaudie" is dated 19 Sep 1252, appoints "Bonifacium filium meum" as his heir, under the tutelage of his brother Thomas, substituting "fratri meo Thome de Sabaudia comitis…Beatricem filiam meam uxorem quondam Manfredi marchionis Salutiarum et Margaretam filiam meam uxorem Bonifacii marchionis Montisferrati", and names "Cecilie…uxori nostre…Beatrix filia mea minor"[335]. Amedée IV Comte de Savoie granted money to "Beatrici juniori, filiæ suæ e Cecilia prognatæ", at the request of "Cæciliæ uxoris suæ", by charter dated 28 May 1253[336]. Zurita records the betrothal of “Infante Don Iayme” and “una hija del Conde Amadeo de Saboya...Beatriz” in 1263[337]. The testament of "Beatricis relictæ Raimundi Berengarii comitis Provinciæ", dated 14 Jan 1264, orders "Contissona filia Amedei comitis…" to fulfil religious bequests[338]. The following reference shows that Beatrix was known as "Contesson". "Contessa Beatrice detta Contesson figlia del fu Conte Amedeo di Savoia e della Contessa Cecilia" renounced her rights of succession with the consent of her mother and "Pietro Boverio di Lei Marito" in favour of "Conte Filippo di Savoia di Lei Patruo" by contract dated 21 Oct 1268[339]. Pope Clement IV wrote 11 Aug 1266 to "Jacobo…filii…Regis Aragonum" requiring him to comply with the marriage contract with "filiam B. natam bonæ memoriæ Comitis Sabaudiæ"[340]. Although this document does not name the Comte de Savoie in question, Comte Amedée IV was the only one who was recently deceased ("bonæ memoriæ") at the date of the letter. If this is correct, the betrothed must have been his daughter Beatrix, the only one whose name began with the letter b. Under another testament dated 7 May 1268, "Petrus comes Sabaudia" granted bequests to "…B. filiam Amedei comitis…fratris nostri quondam…"[341]. "Pietro Bovero figlio del Conte Gioanni di Borgogna e Signore di Salins" donated property to "Beatrice figlia del Conte Amedeo di Savoia sua future Sposa" by contract dated "la Festa di S. Luca 1269"[342]. The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified. The Chronicon Domini Joannis Emmanuelis records the marriage in 1275 of “Infans Dns Emmanuel cum Comitissa” in the same month as the death of his son Alfonso[343]. The Chronicon Domini Joannis Emmanuelis records the death in Nov 1290 of “Comitissa, mater Dni Joannis, in Escalona”[344]. Betrothed (1263, contract broken before 11 Aug 1266) to Infante don JAIME de Aragón, son of don JAIME I "el Conquistador" King of Aragon & his second wife Iolanda of Hungary (Barcelona [or Montpellier?] 1243-Palma de Mallorca 29 May 1311). He succeeded his father in 1276 as JAIME II King of Mallorca. m firstly (21 Oct 1268) PIERRE "le Bouvier" de Salins Seigneur de Châtelbelin, son of JEAN I "l'Antique/le Sage" Seigneur de Salins [Bourgogne-Comt%C3%A9] & his second wife Isabelle de Courtenay (-[21 Jul 1272/29 Apr 1274]). m secondly (1275) as his second wife, Infante don MANUEL de Castilla y León, Señor de Escalona y Peñafiel, son of FERNANDO III “el Santo” King of Castile & his first wife Elisabeth von Hohenstaufen (Carrión de los Condes 1234-Peñafiel 25 Dec 1283, bur Uclés, Santiago convent). e) ELEONORE de Savoie. She is not mentioned in either the 19 Sep 1252 or 24 May 1253 testaments of her father[345], which suggests that she may have born posthumously, in which case she must have been the twin of her sister Constance. The testament of "Beatrice Vedova del Re Berengario Conte di Provenza" dated 14 Jan 1264 makes bequests "…a Contesson…più ad Eleonora altra sua figlia…"[346]. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. m (1269) GUICHARD de Forez, son of RENAUD Comte de Forez [Albon] & his wife Isabelle Dame de Beaujeu. f) CONSTANCE de Savoie (-[before 14 Jan 1264]). Guichenon names Constance as daughter of Comte Amedée IV, adding that she died unmarried[347]. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. She is not mentioned in either the 19 Sep 1252 or 24 May 1253 testaments of her father[348], which suggests that she may have born posthumously, in which case she must have been the twin of her sister Eléonore. She probably died before 14 Jan 1264, the date of the testament of "Beatrice Vedova del Re Berengario Conte di Provenza" under which her two older sisters received bequests and in which she is not named[349].

2. HUMBERT de Savoie ([1198]-in Hungary 1223). "Thomas Maurianensis comes et marchio" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Maurice, with the consent of "filiis suis Amedeo et Humberto", by charter dated 8 Nov 1217[350]. An indication of Humbert´s precarious financial position is provided by a third testament, dated 2 Nov 1240, made by Thomas´s son "Amadeus com Sab. et marchio in Italia" who repeated the nomination of "Thomæ, Flandriæ comiti, fratri suo" as his heir to "totius comitatus sui Sabaudiæ marchionatus Italiæ et ducatus Chablasii" if he died without male children, on condition that he satisfied all the debts of "Thomæ comitis patris et Humberti fratris ipsorum"[351]. The testament of "Thomas de Sabaudia comes" dated 26 Jun 1248 remembers the souls of "bonæ memoriæ Thoma quondam comite Sabaudiæ patre meo…fratribus meis Umberto…Aymone et Vuillermo quondam electo Valentinensi"[352]. Europäische Stammtafeln[353] shows two sons of Comte Thomas I both named Humbert, without any dates of birth or death for the second. The 26 Jun 1248 testament of Humbert's brother Thomas de Savoie[354] includes bequests for masses for the souls of his "late brothers Humbert, Aimon, Guillaume", indicating that there was only one brother of each name.

3. AYMON de Savoie ([1200]-1242). "M. comitissa Maurian. uxor Thomæ comitis Maurianensis et marchionis Italiæ" donated property, with the consent of "Thomas com. Maurianæ et filii mei Amedeus et Aymo", by charter dated Dec 1227[355]. "M. comitissa Sabaudie et marchisa in Ytalia et…Amedeus, Aymo, W. electus Valentinus, Thomas, Petrus, Bonifacius et Philippus filii Thome Comitis Sab. et marchionis in Ytalia" confirmed donations to Hautecombe abbey by charter dated 26 Feb 1231[356]. "Beatrix uxor comitis Thomæ, Amadeus primogenitus et Aymo filii eius" confirmed the purchase of Chambéry by "Thoma comite" by charter dated 1232, with the seal of "Beatricis comitisse Sabaudie"[357]. "Haymo filius quondam bonæ memoriæ Thome com. Sab. et march. in Italia" donated property to Hautecombe by charter dated 1233[358]. A charter dated 23 Jul 1234 records an agreement between "Amedeum comitem Sabaudie" and "Aymonem et Petrum fratres ipsius" in settlement of a dispute concerning their paternal inheritance[359]. The disagreement must have persisted, at least in the case of Aymon, as he was disinherited under the testament of "Amedei comitis Sab. et marchionis Italie", dated 23 Sep 1235, which appointed his younger brother "Thomam fratrem suum" as his heir "in comitatu et marchionatu" in default of male children[360]. Seigneur d´Agaune. "Aymo dominus Agaunensis frater comitis Sabaudie" confirmed a donation to Hautecombe abbey by charter dated Oct 1235[361]. Seigneur de Chablais. "Aymo de Sabaudia dominus de Chablasio, filius bonæ mem. Thomæ, ill. Sabaud. comitis" founded the hospital of Villeneuve, for the souls of and with the support of his mother and four brothers (all named) by charter dated 25 Jun 1236[362]. The mention of his older brother suggests that the dispute with Aymon had been resolved by this date. Nevertheless, Aymon is also passed over as heir in the second testament of his older brother "Amedeus comes Sabaudie" dated 19 Jul 1238, which repeats the nomination of "Thomam fratrem suum" as his heir, substituting "Philippum, huic autem Petrum fratres suos" if Thomas died without male heirs[363]. An indication of the precarious financial position of the counts of Savoy is provided by a third testament, dated 2 Nov 1240, made by Thomas´s son "Amadeus com Sab. et marchio in Italia" who repeated the nomination of "Thomæ, Flandriæ comiti, fratri suo" as his heir to "totius comitatus sui Sabaudiæ marchionatus Italiæ et ducatus Chablasii" if he died without male children, on condition that he satisfied all the debts of "Thomæ comitis patris et Humberti fratris ipsorum"[364]. This charter suggests that financial considerations may have played their part in Aymon´s continued disinheritance in favour of his brother Thomas, the latter having made a profitable marriage with the Ctss of Flanders. The testament of "Thomas de Sabaudia comes" dated 26 Jun 1248 remembers the souls of "bonæ memoriæ Thoma quondam comite Sabaudiæ patre meo…fratribus meis Umberto…Aymone et Vuillermo quondam electo Valentinensi"[365]. Europäische Stammtafeln[366] shows two sons of Comte Thomas I both named Aymon, without any dates of birth or death for the second. Seigneur de Chillon, de Villeneuve et de Chablais. He died of leprosy.

4. GUILLAUME de Savoie ([1201]-poisoned Viterbo 1 Nov 1239, bur Abbaye de Hautecombe). A charter dated 1224 records an agreement between "Thomæ com. Sabaud " and the bishop of Sion, witnessed by "ipse Thomas comes, Amedeus primogenitus illius, Comitissa uxor Thomæ, eorum quatuor filii clerici…Willelmus, Thomas, Petrus et Bonifacius"[367]. Elected Bishop of Valence 1224. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "alter filiorum eius [comitis Thome de Sabaudia] Guilelmus" was elected bishop of Valence[368]. "M. comitissa Sabaudie et marchisa in Ytalia et…Amedeus, Aymo, W. electus Valentinus, Thomas, Petrus, Bonifacius et Philippus filii Thome Comitis Sab. et marchionis in Ytalia" confirmed donations to Hautecombe abbey by charter dated 26 Feb 1231[369]. He was named in the Feb 1233 testament of his brother Pierre[370]. The Annals of Dunstable record that “electus Valenciæ, avunculus reginæ nostræ” arrived in England in 1237 and was made the king´s principle adviser (“consiliarius regis principalis”) and granted the honor of Richmond[371]. Matthew of Paris records that he was adviser to Henry III King of England but left the country after quarrelling with the barons, but was permitted to return by the king[372], which represents the earliest reference in this source to the problems caused by relations of Queen Eléonore. The king proposed his election as Bishop of Winchester in 1238, but the church council elected Ralph Neville, whose election was quashed by the Pope after intervention by the king[373]. He was elected Bishop of Liège in 1238. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the election “in crastino sancti Iohannis” in 1238 of the new bishop of Liège, where “primicerius Metensis Iacobus...prepositus Leodiensis et frater ducis de Nanceio” supported the candidacy of “preposito Ottoni Aquensi”, while “archdyaconus...Galtherus frater comitis de Retest” supported “fratri comitis Flandrie...electo Valentie Guillelmo”. The same source records that “ille de Traiecto vel de Aquis” was elected first by “Conradum Coloniensem electum et per Conradum filium imperatoris et per ipsum imperatorem”, while “electus Valencie” was visiting Cremona where he also received “regalia sua ab imperatore”. Both candidates then went to Rome where the Pope annulled the election of “pontifex Traiectensem Ottonem” and confirmed “electum Valentie Guillelmum” as bishop of Liège[374]. Matthew Paris records the death "die omnium Sanctorum…venenatus Viterbii" in 1239 of "Guillelmus de Sabaudia electus Valentinus"[375]. The Chronicle of Hautecombe records the death in 1239 of "dominus Guillermus de Sabaudia electus Valencie" and his burial "III Non Mai" (presumably in 1240)[376]. The Aegidii Aurævallensis Gesta Episcoporum Leodiensium records the death “in partibus Transalpinis” in Oct 1239 of Bishop Guillaume and his burial “in civitate Florentia”[377]. The testament of "Philippi de Sabaudia electi Lugdunensis", dated 26 May 1256, names "Petrus de Sabaudia frater et Beatrix comitissa Provinciæ" as his heirs, chooses burial at Hautecombe, and founds an anniversary at Valence for the soul of "defuncti fratris sui Willelmi, electi illius ecclesiæ"[378].

5. THOMAS de Savoie (Château de Montmélian [1202]-Chambéry 7 Feb 1259, bur Aosta Cathedral). The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "tertius [filiorum comitis Thome de Sabaudia] Thomas" was "cassatus de episcopatu Laurensi et archiepiscopatu Lugdunensis"[379]. He succeeded in 1253 as THOMAS II Comte de Savoie, as regent or co-ruler with his nephew.

6. PIERRE de Savoie (castle of Susa [1203]-Pierre Châtel [14] May 1268, bur 16 May 1268 Abbaye de Hautecombe). A charter dated 1224 records an agreement between "Thomæ com. Sabaud " and the bishop of Sion, witnessed by "ipse Thomas comes, Amedeus primogenitus illius, Comitissa uxor Thomæ, eorum quatuor filii clerici…Willelmus, Thomas, Petrus et Bonifacius"[380]. Canon at Lausanne in Nov 1226. Provost at Aosta from before 2 May 1227. Provost at Geneva Apr 1229. Coadjutor at Lausanne. "M. comitissa Sabaudie et marchisa in Ytalia et…Amedeus, Aymo, W. electus Valentinus, Thomas, Petrus, Bonifacius et Philippus filii Thome Comitis Sab. et marchionis in Ytalia" confirmed donations to Hautecombe abbey by charter dated 26 Feb 1231[381]. The first testament of "Petrus filius quondam Thome comitis Sabaudie" dated Feb 1234 (N.S.) appoints the children to be born from his marriage to "Annete filia nob. viri Ay. Dni Fuciniaci" and names "Dni Wi electi Valent. et Ay de Sabaudia fratrum"[382]. A charter dated 23 Jul 1234 records an agreement between "Amedeum comitem Sabaudie" and "Aymonem et Petrum fratres ipsius" in settlement of a dispute concerning their paternal inheritance[383]. He resigned his ecclesiastical appointments in 1236. He was seized and imprisoned in [1237] by the sons of Guillaume II Comte de Genève, for which Pierre was later compensated with the castle of Arlod and 20,000 marks of silver (reduced to 10,000 marks in 1250). The second testament of "Amedeus comes Sabaudie", dated 19 Jul 1238, repeats the nomination of "Thomam fratrem suum" as his heir, substituting "Philippum, huic autem Petrum fratres suos" if Thomas died without male heirs[384], although it is unclear why the youngest brother Philippe should have been given precedence over Pierre in this document. Matthew of Paris records that Henry III King of England, married to his niece Eléonore de Provence, gave him the honour of Richmond 20 Apr 1240, invited him to England towards the end of the same year and knighted him 5 Jan 1241[385]. On the death of his brother Aymon in 1242, he received the towns of Milden and Romont[386]. "Peter de Sabaudia" was granted the "honour of Richemund" dated 20 Apr 1240[387]. Although known popularly as Earl of Richmond, this title was never accorded him officially. King Henry III made him numerous grants between 1241 and 1249, including creating him Constable of the castles of Lewes and Rochester and Warden of the Cinque Ports, and granting him a house in London, on the site of which the Savoy Hotel was later built[388]. "The king´s uncle Peter de Sabaudia" was granted numerous manors in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire in the honour of Richmond, with the right to assign them to "any of his brothers or kinsmen", dated 6 May 1241[389]. A charter dated 1244 confirmed the peace agreement reached between the bishop of Lausanne and "Amadeus comes Sabaudie et in Italia marcho et…Petrus de Sabaudia…frater suus"[390]. "Peter de Sabaudia the king´s uncle" was granted "houses on the Thames…in the street called la Straunde" [presumably located on the site later occupied by the Savoy Hotel] dated 12 Feb 1246[391]. Matthew of Paris records in 1246 that Pierre de Savoie brought foreign girls to England as brides for English nobles, which was widely criticised in England[392]. He invaded Dauphiné in 1250, forcing the Seigneur de la Tour du Pin to become his vassal. An arbitral judgment dated 16 Feb 1254 settled a dispute between "Conte Amedeo di Savoia…Tomaso suo fratello, il Conte Bonifacio suo figlio pupillo, e Pietro di Savoia Zio di questo" under which the last-named claimed the fifth part of assets which belonged to "Conte Tomaso suo Padre, Aymone, e Guglielmo suoi fratelli, della di Lui Madre, e di di due Sorelle morte ab intestato", under which Chillon, Conthey, Saillon and lands in Chablais and Valais were awarded to Pierre[393]. The testament of "Petri de Sabaudia", dated 8 Jun 1255 at London, names "Beatrix filia sua…Eleonora Angliæ regina…Philippum electrum Lugdunensem fratrem suum, Agneti…Fuciniacensi uxori suæ", and names Henry III King of England as his executor[394]. Back in England, he at first supported the barons in their dispute with King Henry, but changed sides and reconciled the king with his son in 1260, helping to induce Henry to disregard the Provisions of Oxford in 1261. He was obliged to leave England in 1262 due to the growing hostility towards foreigners, his English lands were confiscated but later restored to him by the king[395]. He succeeded his nephew in 1263 as PIERRE II "le Petit-Charlemagne" Comte de Savoie. His great-nephew, Richard Earl of Cornwall, confirmed Comte Pierre as Imperial Vicar in Italy after his installation as King of the Romans in 1263[396]. The testament of "Beatricis relictæ Raimundi Berengarii comitis Provinciæ", dated 14 Jan 1264, confirms her previous testaments appointing "…fratrum suorum Bonifacii archiepiscopi Cantuar. et Petri comitis Sabaudiæ" as her heirs[397]. Comte Pierre campaigned against the Bishop of Sion in 1265/66, and against Rudolf I Graf von Habsburg in 1265/67. Comte Pierre increased the family's domains considerably through conquests in western Switzerland, mainly at the expense of the Comte de Genève. He also increased his authority over many local seigneuries by appointing local châtelains and baillis who reported directly to him[398]. The testament of "Conte Pietro di Savoia", dated Sep 1264, chose his burial "in abbatial S. Mauricii Agaunensi" if he died at sea or "in ecclesia Londinensi" if he died in England, appointed "filiam suam Beatricem uxorem Guigonis Dalphini" as his heir, named "neptem suam Alienoram Angliæ reginam…Philippo electo Lugdun. fratri suo…filius quondam Thomæ de Sabaudia alterius fratris sui…major natu aliorum filiorum dicti Thomæ…Agneti conjugi suæ", and appointed "Philippi elect. Lugdun. fratris sui, Soffredi de Amaysino" as his executors[399]. Under another testament dated 7 May 1268, "Petrus comes Sabaudia" chose burial "in Alta Comba", appointed "filiam nostrum B. Dalphinam de Vienneisio" as his heir, granted bequests to "nepotibus nostris filiis Dom. Thome de Sabaudie…fratres nostri…domine nostre Alienore Regine Anglie…comitatum Richemundensem…in comitatu…Sabaudie…fratrem nostrum Philippum de Sabaudia comitem Burgundie…uxori nostre Agneti domine Fucigniaci…domine Margarete comitisse de Quiburgo…sorori nostre…B. filiam Amedei comitis…fratris nostri quondam…" as well as numerous bequests to religious institutions[400]. Under a codicil to his testament dated 14 May 1268, "Petrus comes Sabaudia" dated 7 May 1268 appointed "fratri nostro Philippo de Sabaudia comiti Burgundie…[et] filiam nostrum B. Dalphinam de Vienneisio" as his heirs, and named "comitis Foren. et Dni de Turre et Dni de Jez" as his fief-holders[401]. m (Betrothed Feb 1234, after 25 Jun 1236) AGNES de Faucigny, daughter and heiress of AYMON [II] Seigneur de Faucigny & his first wife Béatrix de Bourgogne[-Comt%C3%A9] (-11 Aug 1268, bur Faucigny, Abbaye de Contamine). The testament of "Aymo dominus Fuciniaci" is dated Feb 1234, appoints "Agnetem filiam suam", betrothed to "Petro de Sabaudia filio condam Thome Comit. Sabaud.", as his heir in default of male heirs, and reserves the dowry of "alterius filiarum suarum Beatricis"[402]. She succeeded her father in 1253 as Dame de Faucigny. The testament of "Petri de Sabaudia", dated 8 Jun 1255 at London, names "Beatrix filia sua…Eleonora Angliæ regina…Philippum electrum Lugdunensem fratrem suum, Agneti…Fuciniacensi uxori suæ", and names Henry III King of England as his executor[403]. The testament of "Agnetis dominæ Fuciniaci" dated 17 Oct 1262 appoints "Petrum de Sabaudia maritum suum…et Beatricem filiam suam uxorem Guigonis Dalphini Viennensis" as her heirs[404]. A second testament of "Agnetis dominæ Fuciniaci conjugis Petri de Sabaudia" dated 16 Nov 1262 elects her burial "in ecclesia Contaminæ", and appoints "Beatricem filiam suam uxorem Guigonis Dalphini, Vienn. et Albon. comitis" as her heir in one third of her property and her husband as heir in the other two thirds[405]. The testament of "Beatricis relictæ Raimundi Berengarii comitis Provinciæ", dated 14 Jan 1264, adds bequests to "…Agneti comitissæ Sabaudiæ dominiæ Fuciniaci…"[406]. The testament of "Conte Pietro di Savoia", dated Sep 1264, named "…Agneti conjugi suæ"[407]. Under another testament dated 7 May 1268, "Petrus comes Sabaudia" granted bequests to "…uxori nostre Agneti domine Fucigniaci…"[408]. The testament of "Agnetis dominæ Fuciniaci", dated 9 Aug 1268, appointed "Beatricem comitissam Viennensem et Albonensem filiam suam" as her heir, chose her burial "in ecclesia Contaminæ in Fuciniaco", and made bequests to "dominæ Beatrici dominæ de Thoria et Villario sorori suæ et filiis suis…Simoni de Joinville dom. de Jaiz fratri suo"[409]. Comte Pierre & his wife had one child: a) BEATRIX de Savoie ([1237]-21 Apr 1310, bur Faucigny, Chartreuse convent of Melans). The marriage contract of "Guigoni Dalphino comiti Viennensi et Albonensi" and "Aymo dominus Fuciniaci…Beatricem filiam Agnetis filiæ suæ ex Petro de Sabaudie" is dated 4 Dec 1241[410]. The testament of "Petri de Sabaudia", dated 8 Jun 1255 at London, names "Beatrix filia sua…Eleonora Angliæ regina…Philippum electrum Lugdunensem fratrem suum, Agneti…Fuciniacensi uxori suæ", and names Henry III King of England as his executor[411]. The Aymari Rivalli De Allobrogibus records the marriage of "Guigonem quartum" and "Beatricem, Petri comitis Sabaudiæ filiam"[412]. The contract of marriage between "Guigone Delfino di Vienna e d'Albona" and "Beatrice figlia di Pietro di Savoia" is dated 4 Dec 1241[413]. The marriage between "Vienna e Beatrice figlia di Pietro di Savoia" was confirmed as valid despite a prior verbal agreement between "detto Delfino e Cecilia di Beaux figlia del Conte Barallo di Beaux, ed indi Moglie d'Amedeo quarto Conte di Savoia", by judgment dated 10 Mar 1261[414]. The testament of "Agnetis dominæ Fuciniaci" dated 17 Oct 1262 appoints "Petrum de Sabaudia maritum suum…et Beatricem filiam suam uxorem Guigonis Dalphini Viennensis" as her heirs[415]. A second testament of "Agnetis dominæ Fuciniaci conjugis Petri de Sabaudia" dated 16 Nov 1262 elects her burial "in ecclesia Contaminæ", and appoints "Beatricem filiam suam uxorem Guigonis Dalphini, Vienn. et Albon. comitis" as her heir in one third of her property and her husband as heir in the other two thirds[416]. The testament of "Conte Pietro di Savoia", dated Sep 1264, appointed "filiam suam Beatricem uxorem Guigonis Dalphini" as his heir[417]. The testament of "Guigo Dalphinus, Vienn. et Albonis comitis", dated 27 Jun 1267, appointed "Johannem filium meum" as his heir, and made bequests to "Annam et Catharinam filias meas…Beatrix uxor mea"[418]. Under another testament dated 7 May 1268, "Petrus comes Sabaudia" appointed "filiam nostrum B. Dalphinam de Vienneisio" as his heir[419]. She succeeded her mother in 1268 as Dame de Faucigny, the territory strengthening considerably the power of the Dauphiné de Viennois. The testament of "Agnetis dominæ Fuciniaci", dated 9 Aug 1268, appointed "Beatricem comitissam Viennensem et Albonensem filiam suam" as her heir[420]. Regent in Dauphiné during the minority of her son 1269-1273. The marriage contract of "Beatrix Dalphina Viennensis domina de Fulciniaco filia quondam Dni Petri comitis Sabaudie" and "domino Gastoni vicecomiti Bearnensi" is dated 2 Apr 1273[421]. Her second marriage is confirmed by the agreement dated 15 Dec 1284 under which "Gastone Visconte di Bearn Signore di Montricher e Castelvecchio" and "Beatrice figlia del Conte Pietro di Savoia Dama di Faussign sua Consorte" reached agreement with "Umberto Signore di Thoire ed Anna Delfina sua Consorte" concering Comte Gaston's claim to the county of Vienne[422]. "Beatrice figlia di Pietro Conte di Savoia Dama di Faussign" transferred her husband's property to "Gioanni figlio d'Umberto Signore della Torre e di Cologny" by charter dated Sep 1282[423]. She transferred her lands between Seyssel and Freiburg to her cousin Amedée V Comte de Savoie 29 Apr 1294, and the barony of Faucigny 15 Sep 1296 to her son-in-law Humbert de La Tour, for the benefit of one of his sons, reserving the usufruct to herself[424]. A powerful force in the region, she claimed Savoy for her grandson Hugues. Allying herself with the Seigneur de Gex, the Comte de Genève and the Bishops of Lausanne and Geneva, she triggered conflicts within the family which were to last many generations[425]. m firstly (Betrothed 4 Dec 1241, [before 22 Apr 1253]) GUIGUES Dauphin de Viennois Comte d'Albon, son of ANDRE Comte d´Albon [Bourgogne-Capet] & his third wife Beatrice di Monferrato ([1225]-[Aug/Nov] 1269, bur Chartreuse Abbaye de Prémol). m secondly (contract 2 Apr 1273) as his second wife, GASTON VII Vicomte de Béarn, son of GUILLEN de Moncada Vicomte de Béarn & his wife Gersende de Provence [Aragon-Barcelona] (1225-26 Apr 1290).

7. BEATRIX de Savoie ([1205]-Dec 1266 or 4 Jan 1267). Matthew of Paris names her as daughter of "comitis Sabaldiæ Thomæ iam mortui, sororem comitis Sabaldiæ adhuc viventis Amidei", when he records the marriage of her daughter to Henry III King of England[426]. It is improbable that she was born much later than 1205 as she gave birth to her first child in 1221. The contract of marriage between "Thomas…comes Sabaldie et marchio in Ytalia…filia sua" and "Raimundi Berengarii…comitis Provinciæ et Forcalquerii" is dated 5 Jun 1219, and names "A. et V. filii Thomæ comitis et A. cometissa uxor eius" as guarantors[427]. She transformed the court at Aix into one of the most celebrated in Europe. After quarrelling with her son-in-law Charles Comte d'Anjou over the usufruct of the county of Provence she retired to Echelles in Savoy[428]. The marriage of her daughter Eléonore with Henry III King of England in 1236 signalled the establishment of close ties between the English court and the house of Savoy, the foreign immigrants becoming increasingly unpopular in England and contributing to the difficulties experienced by the king with his barons. The testament of "Beatricis relictæ Raimundi Berengarii comitis Provinciæ", dated 14 Jan 1264, confirms her previous testaments appointing "Reginarum filiarum suarum Margarethæ Franciæ et Alienoræ Angliæ, fratrum suorum Bonifacii archiepiscopi Cantuar. et Petri comitis Sabaudiæ" as her heirs, chooses burial "in hospitali Scalarum", and adds bequests to "Philippo electo Lugdun. fratri suo altero…Agneti comitissæ Sabaudiæ dominiæ Fuciniaci, Cæciliæ relictæ Amedei Sabaudiæ comitis, Beatrici relictæ Thomæ de Sabaudia comitis...Contissoni…Eleonoræ aliæ filiæ Thomæ comitis…Contissoni dominæ Medullionis nepti suæ…Margarithæ matri marchionis Montisferrati nepti suæ, Rodulpho archiepiscopo Tarantas, A. episcopo de Dyone consanguineo testatricis, Petro episcopo Hereford…filiabus Rodolphi et Henrici de Gebennis, et filiæ domini de Camera" as well as numerous bequests to religious institutions, orders "Contissona filia Amedei comitis…Eleonoræ filiæ Thomæ fratris sui" to fulfil religious bequests, and appoints "Johannem archiepiscopum Viennensem et Rodulphum Tarantasiensem, Philippum electum Lugdun. fratrem suum, episcopum Gratianopolitanum, Humbertum abbatem Altacumbæ et Stephanum archidiaconum Cantaruensium" as her executors[429]. A second testament of "Beatrix relicta…Dom. Reymundi Berengarii comitis provinciæ", dated 22 Feb 1264, chooses burial "in ecclesia Hospitalis S. Joannis Hierosolymitani", adds bequests to "Thomam Amedeum et Ludovicum filios quondam Dom. Thome fratris mei…Alienore filie predicti comitis Thome…filie Contissone de Medullione…filie domini de Camera…Beringarie filie Dom. Benedicti de Castellione…Beatrice Andegavie comitisse"[430]. The testament of "Bonifacius archiepiscopus Cantuarensis", dated 11 Oct 1264, made bequests to "sorori suæ comitissæ Provinciæ…sorori suæ alteræ comitissæ de Quiborc…"[431]. A second necrology of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne records the death "II Non Jan" of "vidua dna comitssa Provincie"[432]. m (Betrothed 5 Jun 1219, Dec 1220) RAIMOND BERENGER IV Comte de Provence, son of ALPHONSE II Comte de Provence [Aragon-Barcelona] & his wife Gersende de Sabran Ctss de Forcalquier ([1198]-19 Aug 1245, bur Aix-en-Provence, église de Saint Jean de Jérusalem).

8. BONIFACE de Savoie (Château de Sainte-Hélène du Lac [1206]-Château de Sainte-Hélène-des-Millières 14 Jul 1270, bur Abbaye de Hautecombe). A charter dated 1224 records an agreement between "Thomæ com. Sabaud " and the bishop of Sion, witnessed by "ipse Thomas comes, Amedeus primogenitus illius, Comitissa uxor Thomæ, eorum quatuor filii clerici…Willelmus, Thomas, Petrus et Bonifacius"[433]. Europäische Stammtafeln[434] shows two sons of Comte Thomas I both named Boniface, the second being "prior at Nantua". As in the case of his other supposed brothers with duplicate names, it is likely that the references are to the same person. The absence of a second Boniface in the 26 Jun 1248 testament of his supposed brother Thomas de Savoie[435] provides a good indication that this is correct. In addition, the 1224 agreement between his supposed father and the Bishop of Sion refers to "four clerical sons", whereas the second Boniface would have been a fifth. "M. comitissa Sabaudie et marchisa in Ytalia et…Amedeus, Aymo, W. electus Valentinus, Thomas, Petrus, Bonifacius et Philippus filii Thome Comitis Sab. et marchionis in Ytalia" confirmed donations to Hautecombe abbey by charter dated 26 Feb 1231[436]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "unus filiorum comitis Thome de Sabaudia" was elected bishop of Belley in 1232 after the death of Bishop Bernard but does not name him[437]. Administrator of the bishopric of Belley 1234. Along with his brothers, he established himself at the English court soon after the marriage in 1236 of his niece Eléonore de Provence to Henry III King of England. "Amedeus comes Sabaudie et in Italie marchio…cum…genetrice sua et fratribus suis B. Bellicensi Electo et Philippo Metensi Primicerio" granted "villam S. Mauritii de Chablaisio" {Saint-Maurice de Chablais} to "soror illorum Margareta comitissa de Kiborch" by charter dated 24 Feb 1240[438]. He was confirmed as Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of England, in 1243, consecrated in 1244 at Lyon by the Pope[439]. Bishop of Durham. The testament of "Beatricis relictæ Raimundi Berengarii comitis Provinciæ", dated 14 Jan 1264, confirms her previous testaments appointing "…fratrum suorum Bonifacii archiepiscopi Cantuar. et Petri comitis Sabaudiæ" as her heirs[440]. The testament of "Bonifacius archiepiscopus Cantuarensis", dated 11 Oct 1264, chose burial "infra ecclesiam Christi Cantuar" if he died in England and "Pontiniacum" if he died elsewhere overseas and if he died "circa Montem Cinisium…apud Altam Combam", made bequests to "sorori suæ comitissæ Provinciæ…sorori suæ alteræ comitissæ de Quiborc…fratri suo Dom. P. comiti Sabaudiæ…fratri suo Philippo elect. Lugdun…filios fratris testatoris Thomæ comitis" as well as to numerous religious foundations[441]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "XV Kal Aug apud Baleys" of "Bonifacius Cantuarensis archiepiscopus"[442]. The necrology of La Cour-Dieu records the death “XV Kal Aug” of “Bonifacius Cantuarensis archiepiscopus, monachus”[443]. He was beatified in 1838.

9. PHILIPPE de Savoie (Aiguebelle [1207]-Château de Roussillon, Bugey 16 Aug 1285, bur Abbaye de Hautecombe). His parentage is established, inter alia, by the 1264 testament of his brother Boniface[444]. Archdeacon of Metz 1229. "M. comitissa Sabaudie et marchisa in Ytalia et…Amedeus, Aymo, W. electus Valentinus, Thomas, Petrus, Bonifacius et Philippus filii Thome Comitis Sab. et marchionis in Ytalia" confirmed donations to Hautecombe abbey by charter dated 26 Feb 1231[445]. The second testament of "Amedeus comes Sabaudie", dated 19 Jul 1238, repeats the nomination of "Thomam fratrem suum" as his heir, substituting "Philippum, huic autem Petrum fratres suos" if Thomas died without male heirs[446], although it is unclear why the youngest brother Philippe should have been given precedence over Pierre in this document. He was elected Bishop of Lausanne in 1239. "Amedeus comes Sabaudie et in Italie marchio…cum…genetrice sua et fratribus suis B. Bellicensi Electo et Philippo Metensi Primicerio" granted "villam S. Mauritii de Chablaisio" {Saint-Maurice de Chablais} to "soror illorum Margareta comitissa de Kiborch" by charter dated 24 Feb 1240[447]. Bishop of Valence 1245. Archbishop of Lyon 1246. The testament of "Philippi de Sabaudia electi Lugdunensis", dated 26 May 1256, names "Petrus de Sabaudia frater et Beatrix comitissa Provinciæ" as his heirs, chooses burial at Hautecombe, and founds an anniversary at Valence for the soul of "defuncti fratris sui Willelmi, electi illius ecclesiæ"[448]. The testament of "Beatricis relictæ Raimundi Berengarii comitis Provinciæ", dated 14 Jan 1264, adds bequests to "Philippo electo Lugdun. fratri suo altero…", and appoints "…Philippum electum Lugdun. fratrem suum…" as her executors[449]. The testament of "Conte Pietro di Savoia", dated Sep 1264 named "…Philippo electo Lugdun. fratri suo…" and appointed "Philippi elect. Lugdun. fratris sui, Soffredi de Amaysino" as his executors[450]. He resigned his ecclesiastical appointments in 1267. Comte Palatin de Bourgogne 1267-1279, by right of his wife. He succeeded his brother in 1268 as PHILIPPE I Comte de Savoie. He faced the continual opposition of his niece Beatrix Dauphine de Viennois, daughter of his predecessor, who claimed Savoy for her grandson Hugues de la Tour. Comte Philippe was able to reaffirm his authority over Turin by defeating Guglielmo VII Marchese di Monferrato[451]. Pope Gregory X awarded him the title Gonfalionere of the Holy Church. The testament of "Filippo Vescovo de Lione" dated 26 Jul 1256 names "Pietro di Savoia e Beatrice Contessa di Provenza, di Lui fratello e Sorella…Conte Tommaso di Lui fratello" and chooses to be buried "nella Chiesa de Haute Combe"[452]. The necrology of Saint-Rambert-en-Bugey records the death "XVI Kal Sep" of "Philippus comes Sabaudiæ"[453]. The necrology of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne records the death "XVI Kal Sep" of "dni Philippi quondam comitis Sabaudie"[454]. m (11 Jun 1267) as her second husband, ALIX [Adelheid] Ctss Palatine de Bourgogne, widow of HUGUES de Chalon Seigneur de Salins [Bourgogne-Comt%C3%A9], daughter of OTTO I von Andechs Comte Palatin de Bourgogne Duca di Merano & his first wife Beatrix von Hohenstaufen Ctss Palatine de Bourgogne (-Evian 8 Mar 1279). "Hugo dux Burgundie" requested the abbot of Cluny to recognise the rights of “Ph Sabaudie et Burgundie comiti et A. comitisse uxori sue” in “comitatu Burgundie…cessionis nobis facte a domina B, comitissa Orlemunde, sorore dicte A. comitissa”, by charter dated Apr 1270[455]. The testament of "Alis de Sauoye et de Bergoigne, Contesse Palatine" dated Nov 1278, made with the consent of "nostre…Signor et Mary Philippe de Sauoye et de Bergoigne Comte Palatin", appoints "nostre…fils ainsnés Messire Othes de Bourgoigone Sires de Salins soit Cuens de Bergoigne" as her heir in the county, makes bequests to "nostre…fil Renalt" and names "nostre…fils Iohans"[456].

10. daughter (-before 1254). The existence of two daughters who died young is confirmed by the arbitral judgment dated 16 Feb 1254 which settled a dispute between "Conte Amedeo di Savoia…Tomaso suo fratello, il Conte Bonifacio suo figlio pupillo, e Pietro di Savoia Zio di questo" under which the last-named claimed the fifth part of assets which belonged to "Conte Tomaso suo Padre, Aymone, e Guglielmo suoi fratelli, della di Lui Madre, e di due Sorelle morte ab intestato"[457].

11. daughter (-before 1254). The existence of two daughters who died young is confirmed by the arbitral judgment dated 16 Feb 1254 which settled a dispute between "Conte Amedeo di Savoia…Tomaso suo fratello, il Conte Bonifacio suo figlio pupillo, e Pietro di Savoia Zio di questo" under which the last-named claimed the fifth part of assets which belonged to "Conte Tomaso suo Padre, Aymone, e Guglielmo suoi fratelli, della di Lui Madre, e di due Sorelle morte ab intestato"[458].

12. [ALIX de Savoie (-1277, bur Abbaye de Hautecombe). Guichenon names Alix as daughter of Comte Thomas I and his wife, stating that she was abbess of Saint-Pierre, Lyon in 1250, referring to "Titre de l´abbaye de Saint-Pierre de Lyon" with no precise citation reference[459]. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. She is not mentioned in the 11 Oct 1264 testament of her supposed brother Boniface Archbishop of Canterbury (which refers to his "sister the Ctss of Provence" and his "other sister the Ctss of Quibourc")[460], although this is not conclusive to dismiss her affiliation. One possibility is that Alix was the illegitimate daughter of Comte Thomas I.]

13. [AGATHE de Savoie (-after 1279). Guichenon names Agathe as daughter of Comte Thomas I and his wife, stating that she was nun and later abbess of Saint-Pierre, Lyon in 1279, referring to "Titre de l´abbaye de Saint-Pierre de Lyon" with no precise citation reference[461]. She is not mentioned in the 11 Oct 1264 testament of her supposed brother Boniface Archbishop of Canterbury (which refers to his "sister the Ctss of Provence" and his "other sister the Ctss of Quibourc")[462], although this is not conclusive to dismiss her affiliation. One possibility is that Agathe was the illegitimate daughter of Comte Thomas I.]

14. MARGUERITE de Savoie ([1212]-1/2 Sep 1270 or 1273[463]). The contract of marriage between "Thomas comes Savoyæ…filiam suam Margaritham…infra nubiles annos" and "comiti Hartmanno filio comitis Ulrici de Kyburg" is dated 1 Jun 1218, stating that "Dni Bertholdi comitis de Novocastro et Dni Wilhelmi de Stavayé" acted as guarantors, and with the consent of "Ulricus comes de Kyburg et comes Garnerius frater eius et comitissa uxor comitis de Kyburg"[464]. Her marriage date is confirmed by the charter dated 1230 under which her husband "H. comes de Kiburch" confirmed donations "propter nuptias uxori sue filie comitis Sabaudie", with the consent of "fratris sui Ul. Constantiensis canonici et H. filii fratris sui beate memorie Wer. quondam comitis de Kiburch"[465]. The Chronicon Colmarense records that "comes…[Kiburc]" married "filiam comitis de Sabaudia"[466]. "Conte Amedeo di Savoia Marchese in Italia" donated "Castello di Monteuz" to "Contessa di Kibourg Margarita di Savoia sua Sorella" by charter dated "Festa di S. Gallo 1239"[467]. "Amedeus comes Sabaudie et marchio Italie" granted "castrum…Monteys" {Montheys} to "sorori mee Margarete comitisse de Kiborch" by charter dated 16 Oct 1239[468]. "Amedeus comes Sabaudie et in Italie marchio…cum…genetrice sua et fratribus suis B. Bellicensi Electo et Philippo Metensi Primicerio" granted "villam S. Mauritii de Chablaisio" {Saint-Maurice de Chablais} to "soror illorum Margareta comitissa de Kiborch" by charter dated 24 Feb 1240[469]. "H. comes de Kyburch" granted "castra Windegge, Oltingen…advocatiam et predium in Shennis, Wizennanc et Kemanatvn" to "uxori mee" by way of dower, with the consent of "fratruelis mei H", by charter dated 28 May 1241[470]. The same collection includes several other charters relating to this grant, dated between 9 Jul 1241 and 1243[471]. The testament of "Bonifacius archiepiscopus Cantuarensis", dated 11 Oct 1264, made bequests to "sorori suæ comitissæ Provinciæ…sorori suæ alteræ comitissæ de Quiborc…"[472]. Under another testament dated 7 May 1268, "Petrus comes Sabaudia" granted bequests to "…domine Margarete comitisse de Quiburgo…sorori nostre…"[473]. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[474], Marguerite de Savoie married secondly Eberhard von Habsburg-Laufenburg, son of Rudolf III Graf von Habsburg-Laufenburg & his wife Gertrud von Regensberg. Apart from the unlikelihood of Graf Eberhard (who at the time must have been at least 40 years old) marrying as his first wife a lady over 50 years old, his marriage to Anna heiress of Kyburg is recorded[475] as having taken place in [30 Oct/12 Dec] 1271 when Marguerite was still alive. In addition, the Chronicle of Hautecombe refers to Marguerite as "Margarita comitissa de Quiborch in Alemania" when she died, with no mention of Habsburg-Laufenburg. m (contract Mouden 1 Jun 1218, 1230) HARTMANN von Kiburg, son of ULRICH Graf von Kyburg & his wife Anna von Zähringen [Baden] (-27 Nov 1264, bur Wettingen). He succeeded in 1227 as HARTMANN III joint Graf von Kiburg.

Comte Thomas I had [four] illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

15. BERAUD (-after Jun 1263). Guichenon states that Berold and Benoît were illegitimate sons of Comte Thomas I, adding that they swore homage to Pierre I Comte de Savoie at Aiguebelle in Jun 1263 (without citing the corresponding primary source)[476].

16. BENOÎT (-after Jun 1263). Guichenon states that Berold and Benoît were illegitimate sons of Comte Thomas I, adding that they swore homage to Pierre I Comte de Savoie at Aiguebelle in Jun 1263 (without citing the corresponding primary source)[477].

17. [AMEDEE (-19 Jan 1256). Europäische Stammtafeln[478] shows two sons of Comte Thomas I both named Amedée, the second one being a monk at Grenoble and Bishop of Maurienne in 1220. It is unlikely that this second Amedée was the legitimate son of Comte Thomas. He is not referred to in the 26 Jun 1248 testament of his supposed brother Thomas de Savoie[479], unlike all the other known brothers whether deceased or alive. In addition, the 1224 agreement between his supposed father and the Bishop of Sion refers to "four clerical sons", whereas Amedée would have been a fifth. A possible explanation is that this second Amedée was an illegitimate son of Comte Thomas I. However, this hypothesis appears disproved by the charter dated 12 Jan 1270 which records donations by Pierre Bishop of Maurienne to found anniversaries for his predecessors "…dominus Amedeus Maurianensis episcopus frater quondam domini Villelmi de Miribello"[480], assuming that the latter refers to the bishop who died in 1256. The Pingonio Chronicon records the death "XIV Kal Feb" in 1256 of "Amedeus episcopus Maurianensis"[481].]

18. [AVOIE [Marguerite] de Savoie (-shortly before 14 May 1292). Matthew of Paris reports that "Baldewinus de Ripariis, domina regina procurante, quondam alienigenam ducit in uxorem, Sabaudiensem, ipsius reginæ consanguineam"[482]. According to L'Art de vérifier les Dates[483], Avoie was the daughter of Thomas I Comte de Savoie. The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. It is argued in the Complete Peerage[484] that the wife of Baldwin de Reviers, 7th Earl of Devon, could not have been the daughter of Comte Thomas because she was referred to as 'Margaret' in other sources, Comte Thomas I's daughter of that name being the wife of Hartmann III Graf von Kyburg at the time of the Earl's marriage. The Complete Peerage[485] also refers to a writ on the Patent Roll of 52 Henry III "from which it appears that the king had given to the daughter [unnamed] of Thomas, sometime Count of Savoy, 500 marks on her marriage", this presumably being the widowed Countess of Devon on the occasion of her second marriage. The date of the writ matches the supposed second marriage of Avoie de Savoie. The Complete Peerage[486] assumes that the Count Thomas in question must have been Thomas II. However, the latter's second marriage (from which all his known surviving legitimate children were born) took place in 1251. This would exclude the Earl and Countess of Devon having a son "John who died an infant"[487]. The possibilities therefore seem to be (a) that the Countess of Devon was the illegitimate daughter of either Comte Thomas I or of Comte Thomas II; (b) that she was the legitimate daughter of Comte Thomas I, called either Avoie or Marguerite despite his having another legitimate daughter named Marguerite; or (c) that 'Thomas' in the Patent Roll writ was an error for another Count of Savoy (although it is unclear who this might have been as all other possibilities appear to be excluded). It is recognised that Avoie could not have been born much later than 1220 if she was the legitimate daughter of Comte Thomas I, and therefore would have been at least 17 years older than her first husband the Earl of Devon. Avoie is not mentioned in the 11 Oct 1264 will of her supposed brother Boniface Archbishop of Canterbury which made bequests to "sorori suæ comitissæ Provinciæ…sorori suæ alteræ comitissæ de Quiborc…"[488]. Although this omission is not conclusive as the testator's other presumed two sisters, abbesses Alix and Agathe, were not mentioned either, it is somewhat surprising that he would not have mentioned a legitimate sister who was then living in England, if he had one. The most likely probability is that Avoie was illegitimate. For presentation purposes in this document she is shown as the illegitimate daughter of Comte Thomas I, but it is recognised that Comte Thomas II is an alternative possible father. m firstly (1257) BALDWIN de Reviers Earl of Devon, son of BALDWIN de Reviers Earl of Devon & his wife Amice de Clare (1 Jan 1236-in France 1262 before 13 Sep, bur Breamore Priory, Hampshire). [489]m secondly (1269) as his second wife, Sir ROBERT Aguillon of Watton, Hertfordshire (-12 Feb 1286). Some details about the earlier history of the Aguillon family near Chartres are set out by the editor of the cartulary of Notre-Dame de Josaphat[490].]


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Thomas I, count of Savoy's Timeline

1178
May 27, 1178
Château de Charbonnières, Aiguebelle, Savoie, Rhône-Alpes, France
1188
1188
Age 9
Count of, Savoy
1188
Age 9
Count of, Savoy
1188
Age 9
Count of, Savoy
1189
1189
Age 10
Count of Savoy
1197
1197
Montmélian, Savoie, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France
1198
1198
Savoy, France
1199
1199
Montmélian, Savoie, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France
1200
1200