Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle
|Birthplace:||London, Greater London, UK|
|Death:||Died in Camden Town, Greater London, UK|
Son of Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham of Laughton and Lady Grace Holles
|Occupation:||Prime Minister of Great Britain|
|Managed by:||Carlos F. Bunge|
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About Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle
- 'Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme1
- 'M, #105993, b. 1 July 1693, d. 17 November 1768
- Last Edited=13 Feb 2011
- Consanguinity Index=0.01%
- 'Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme was born on 1 July 1693.3 He was the son of Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham of Laughton and Lady Grace Holles.3 He married Lady Henrietta Godolphin, daughter of Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin and Henrietta Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, on 2 April 1717.1 He died on 17 November 1768 at age 75, without issue.3
- ' Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme was baptised with the name of Thomas Pelham.3 He was educated at Westminster School, Westminster, London, England.4 On 1711 his name was legally changed to Thomas Pelham-Holles after inheriting the estates of his uncle, Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne.3 He succeeded to the title of 5th Baronet Pelham, of Laughton, co. Sussex [E., 1611] on 23 February 1711/12.5 He succeeded to the title of 2nd Baron Pelham of Laughton, co. Sussex [E., 1706] on 23 February 1711/12.3 He was educated at Clare Hall, Cambridge University, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England.4 He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Middlesex and Westminster between 1714 and 1762.4 He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire between 1714 and 1762.5 He was created 1st Earl of Clare [Great Britain] on 19 October 1714, with special remainder to his brother, Henry Pelham.3 He was created 1st Viscount Haughton, co. Nottingham [Great Britain] on 19 October 1714, with special remainder to his brother, Henry Pelham.3 He was created 1st Marquess of Clare [Great Britain] on 11 August 1715, with special remainder to his brother, Henry Pelham.3 He was created 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne [Great Britain] on 11 August 1715, with special remainder to his brother, Henry Pelham.3 He was invested as a Privy Counsellor (P.C.) in 1717.4 He held the office of Lord Chamberlain between 1717 and 1724.4 He was invested as a Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) in 1718.4 He held the office of Secretary of State for the South between 1724 and 1748.4 He held the office of Secretary of State for the North between 1748 and 1754.4 He held the office of Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury between 1754 and 1756.4 He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire between 1756 and 1758.4 He was created 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme [Great Britain] on 17 November 1756, with special remainder to Henry Clinton, Earl of Lincoln (husband of his neice Catherine).3 He held the office of Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury between 1757 and 1762.4 He held the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex between 1761 and 1762.4 He was sponsor for George Ashburnham, 3rd Earl of Ashburnham at his baptism on 29 January 1761 at St. George's Church, St. George Street, Hanover Square, London, England.6 He was created 1st Baron Pelham of Stanmer, co. Sussex [Great Britain] on 4 May 1762, with a special remainder to his cousin, Thomas Pelham.7 He held the office of Lord Privy Seal between 1765 and 1766.4
- ' On his death, all of his titles excpet for the Dukedon of Newcastle-under-Lyme, the Barony Pelham of Stanmer and his baronetcy became extinct.3
- 1.[S8] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition, 2 volumes (Crans, Switzerland: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), volume 2, page 1867. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 106th edition.
- 2.[S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family."
- 3.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume III, page 251. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
- 4.[S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 1, page 772. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
- 5.[S37] Charles Mosley, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition, volume 1, page 771.
- 6.[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume I, page 273.
- 7.[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume III, page 195.
- 'Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne, KG, PC (21 July 1693 – 17 November 1768) was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. He is commonly known as the Duke of Newcastle.
- 'A protégé of Sir Robert Walpole, he served under him for more than twenty years until 1742. He held power with his brother, Henry Pelham (the Prime Minister of Great Britain), until 1754. He had at this point served as a Secretary of State continuously for thirty years—dominating British foreign policy.
- 'After Henry's death, the Duke would hold his late brother's position for six years (in two separate periods). While his first premiership was not particularly notable, Newcastle precipitated the Seven Years War, which would cause his resignation from his high position. After his second term as Prime Minister, he served for a short while in Lord Rockingham's ministry, before retiring from government.
- Early life
- 'Thomas Pelham was born in London on 21 July 1693 the eldest son of the 1st Baron Pelham, by his second wife, the former Lady Grace Holles, younger sister of the 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He studied at Westminster School and was admitted a fellow-commoner at Clare College, Cambridge in 1710. His uncle died in 1711, and his father the next year, both leaving their large estates to him. When he came of age in 1714, Lord Pelham was one of the greatest landowners in the kingdom, enjoying enormous patronage in the county of Sussex. One stipulation of his uncle in his inheritance, was that he add Holles to his name, which he faithfully did—thereafter styling himself as Thomas Pelham-Holles. A long-standing legal dispute over the estate with his Aunt was finally settled in 1714.
- 'In 1718 the Duke married Lady Harriet Godolphin, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Godolphin and granddaughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. The Duchess suffered from poor health and the couple had no children.
- 'In 1731, at Houghton Hall, Sir Robert Walpole's country house in Norfolk, the Duke, with the Duke of Lorraine (later the Holy Roman Emperor), was made a Master Mason by the Grand Master, Lord Lovell, at an Occasional Lodge. In 1739, at the creation of London's Foundling Hospital, he acted as one of the charity's founding governors.[citation needed
- 'With the prospect that the dukedom of Newcastle upon Tyne would become extinct once again, King George II also created the Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne in 1756, with a special remainder for inheritance through his nephew, the 9th Earl of Lincoln.
- 'In addition, in 1762 he was also created Baron Pelham of Stanmer, with inheritance to his cousin and male heir, Thomas Pelham.
- 'On his death in 1768, the title Baron Pelham of Stanmer, together with the bulk of the Pelham estates in Sussex and the Duke's private papers, were left to Thomas, who was later created Earl of Chichester.
- 'The Holles/Clare estates, meanwhile, together with his Newcastle dukedom, were inherited by Lord Lincoln, from whom the Duke had by then become estranged.
- Titles from birth to death
- 'Mr. Thomas Pelham (1693–1706)
- 'The Hon. Thomas Pelham (1706–1712)
- 'The Rt. Hon. The Lord Pelham (1712–1714)
- 'The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Clare (1714–1715)
- 'His Grace The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1715–1717)
- 'His Grace The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, PC (1717–1718)
- 'His Grace The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, KG, PC (1718–1768)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766. Faber and Faber, 2000.
- Browning, Reed. The Duke of Newcastle. Yale University Press, 1975.
- Field, Ophelia. The Kit-Cat Club: Friends who Imagined a Nation. Harper Collins, 2008.
- Hibbert, Christopher. George III: A Personal History. Penguin Books, 1999.
- McLynn, Frank. 1759: The Year Britain Became Master of the World. Pimlico, 2005.
- Murphy, Orville T. Charles Gravier: Comte de Vergennes: French Diplomacy in the Age of Revolution. New York Press, 1982.
- Pearce, Edward. The Great Man: Sir Robert Walpole Pimlico, 2008.
- Rodger, N.A.M. Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain 1649–1815. Penguin Books, 2006.
- Rodger, N.A.M. The Insatiable Earl: A Life of John Montagu, Fourth Earl of Sandwich, 1718–1792. Harper Collins, 1993.
- Simms, Brendan. Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire. Penguin Books, 2008.
- Whiteley, Peter. Lord North: The Prime Minister who lost America. The Hambledon Press, 1996.
Hogg, Bruce; Freemasons and the Royal Society ed 2; Library and Museum of Freemasonry; January 2012; page 90
Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle's Timeline
July 21, 1693
London, Greater London, UK
March 16, 1754
- November 16, 1756
July 2, 1757
- May 26, 1762
November 17, 1768
Camden Town, Greater London, UK