About Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset
Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset
Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset (1536 – 19 April 1608) was an English statesman, poet, and dramatist. He was the son of Richard Sackville, a cousin to Anne Boleyn. He was a Member of Parliament and Lord High Treasurer.
He first entered Parliament as MP for Westmorland in 1558, followed by election as MP for East Grinstead in 1559 and Aylesbury in 1563.
Thomas Sackville was the author, with Thomas Norton, of the first English drama to be written in blank verse, Gorboduc (1561), which deals with the consequences of political rivalry. He also contributed to the 1563 edition of The Mirror for Magistrates, with the poem Complaint of Henry, Duke of Buckingham. Sackville's first important work was the poem Induction which describes the poet's journey to the infernal regions, where he encounters figures representing forms of suffering and terror. The poem is noted for the power of its allegory and for its sombre stateliness of tone.
He travelled to Rome, Italy, in 1566, and was detained there as a prisoner for fourteen days, for reasons not clear. The first important employment which Lord Buckhurst had was in 1571, when he was sent on a special mission to king Charles IX of France to congratulate him on his marriage with Elizabeth of Austria, the daughter of the Emperor Maximilian, and also to negotiate the matter of the proposed alliance of Queen Elizabeth and the Duke of Anjou, brother of the French king.
In 1572, he was one of the peers that sat on the trial of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk. In 1586 he was selected to convey to Mary, Queen of Scots, the sentence of death confirmed by the English Parliament. In 1587 he went as ambassador to the United Provinces, upon their complaint against the Earl of Leicester; but, though he performed his trust with integrity, the favourite had sufficient influence to get him recalled; and on his return, he was ordered to confinement in his own house, for nine or ten months. He incurred her displeasure by what she called his "shallow judgement in diplomacy".
In 1591, Sackville became Chancellor of the University of Oxford. He succeeded William Cecil, Lord Burghley as Lord Treasurer for life in 1599, and was a capable, if uninspired, financial manager. In 1604, Sackville bought Groombridge Place in Kent. His other houses included, Knole House, at Knole in Kent, and Michelham Priory, in East Sussex.
Sackville was created Baron Buckhurst, of Buckhurst in the County of Sussex, in 1567. Sackville acquired a large fortune through his real estate dealings in many counties, as well as his investments in the iron foundry business. He was an advocate of stronger enforcement of the Sumptuary Laws, which regulated the types of clothing allowed to be worn by the various social classes, within the military. Specifically, he dictated that only soldiers holding the rank of Colonel or above should be permitted to wear silk and velvet, and that Captains and all ranks below should "make do with fustian and spend the remaining money on their arms.".
In around 1587, Sackville was granted a royal licence to commission an armour from the Royal Workshops at Greenwich. The finely etched, blued and gilt armour, a garniture for the field, is one of the finest and best-preserved examples of the Greenwich school of armour-making known to exist. It is now part of the Wallace Collection in London. Another, similar armour, featuring the same construction and decorative scheme, which belonged to Sir James Scudamore, can be seen at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
Queen Elizabeth I acquired Bexhill Manor in 1590 and granted it to Sackville. He was also the last Sackville to be Lord of the Manor of Bergholt Sackville (named after the Sackville family) and Mount Bures in Essex when he sold them in 1578 to Mrs Alice Dister. Both estates had been in the family for 459 years. He was created Earl of Dorset in 1604.
He died suddenly at the council table, having apparently suffered a stroke, referred to as "a dropsy on the brain". His funeral took place at Westminster Abbey and he is buried in The Sackville family vault at Withyham parish Church, East Sussex
Sackville married Cicely Baker in 1555 and had seven children, including his heir Robert, and Sir William Sackville, knighted by Henry IV of France.
- Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 50
- Sackville, Thomas by Sidney Lee
- SACKVILLE, THOMAS, first Earl of Dorset and Baron Buckhurst (1536–1608), only son of Sir Richard Sackville [q. v.], was born in 1536 at Buckhurst in the parish of Withyham, Sussex. He seems to have attended the grammar school of Sullington, Sussex, and in 1546 was nominated incumbent of the chantry in the church there, a post from which he derived an income of 3l. 16s. a year. There is no documentary corroboration of the reports that he was a member of Hart Hall at Oxford and of St. John's College, Cambridge. Subsequently he joined the Inner Temple, of which his father was governor, and he was called to the bar (Abbot, Funeral Sermon, 1608). In early youth he mainly devoted himself to literature. About 1557 he planned a poem on the model of Lydgate's ‘Fall of Princes.’ The poet was to describe his descent into the infernal regions after the manner of Virgil and Dante, and to recount the lives of those dwellers there who, having distinguished themselves in English history, had come to untimely ends. Sackville prepared a poetical preface which he called an ‘Induction.’ Here ‘Sorrow’ guides the narrator through Hades, and after the poet has held converse with the shades of the heroes of antiquity he meets the ghost of Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham, who recites to him his tragic story. Sackville made no further contribution to the design, which he handed over to Richard Baldwin [q. v.] and George Ferrers [q. v.] They completed it—adopting Sackville's seven-line stanzas—under the title of ‘A Myrrovre for Magistrates, wherein may be seen by example of others, with howe grievous plages vices are punished, and howe frayle and unstable worldly prosperity is founde even of those whom fortune seemeth most highly to favour.’ A first volume was issued in 1559, and a second in 1563. Sackville's ‘Induction,’ though obviously designed to introduce the work, appears towards the end of the second volume. It is followed by his ‘Complaint of the Duke of Buckingham.’ These contributions give the volumes almost all their literary value. In dignified, forcible, and melodious expression Sackville's ‘Induction’ has no rival among the poems issued between Chaucer's ‘Canterbury Tales’ and Spenser's ‘Faërie Queene.’ Spenser acknowledged a large indebtedness to the ‘Induction,’ and he prefixed a sonnet to the ‘Faërie Queene’ (1590) commending the author—
- Whose learned muse hath writ her own record
- In golden verse, worthy immortal fame.
- Other editions of the ‘Mirror’ are dated 1563, 1571, 1574, 1587, 1610, and 1815 [see art. Baldwyn, William; Blenerhasset, Thomas; Higgins, John; Niccols, Richard]. Of equal importance in literary history, if less interesting from the literary point of view, was Sackville's share in the production of the first English tragedy in blank verse, ‘The Tragedy of Gorboduc.’ It was first acted in the hall of the Inner Temple on Twelfth Night 1560–1. Sackville was alone responsible (according to the title-page of the first edition of 1565) for the last two acts. These are by far the ‘most vital’ parts of the piece, although Sackville's blank verse is invariably ‘stiff and cumbersome.’ There is no valid ground for crediting him with any larger responsibility for the undertaking. The first three acts were from the pen of a fellow student of the law, Thomas Norton [see art. Norton, Thomas, (1532–1584), for bibliography and plot of ‘Gorboduc’]. Sackville's remaining literary work is of comparatively little interest. Commendatory verses by him were prefixed to Sir Thomas Hoby's ‘Courtier,’ a translation of Castiglione's ‘Cortegiano,’ 1561, and he has been credited with a poem issued under the signature ‘M. S.’ in the ‘Paradise of Dainty Devices,’ 1576. That he wrote other poems that have not been identified is clear from Jasper Heywood's reference to ‘Sackvyles Sonnets, sweetly sauste,’ in his preface to his translation of Seneca's ‘Thyestes’ (1560). George Turberville declared him to be, in his opinion, superior to all contemporary poets. In his later years William Lambarde eulogised his literary efforts; and Bacon, when sending him a copy of his ‘Advancement of Learning,’ reminded him of his ‘first love.’ His chaplain, George Abbot, spoke in his funeral sermon of the ‘good tokens’ of his learning ‘in Latine published into the world;’ but the only trace of his latinity survives in a Latin letter prefixed to Bartholomew Clerke's Latin translation of Castiglione's ‘Cortegiano’ (1571). Literature was not the only art in which Sackville delighted. Music equally attracted him. Throughout life he entertained musicians ‘the most curious which anywhere he could have’ (Abbot). Among his other youthful interests was a zeal for freemasonry, and he became in 1561 a grand master of the order, whose headquarters were then at York. He resigned the office in 1567, but while grand master he is stated to have done the fraternity good service by initiating into its innocent secrets some royal officers who were sent to break up the grand lodge at York. Their report to the queen convinced her that the society was harmless, and it was not molested again (Dr. James Anderson, New Book of Constitutions of the Fraternity of Freemasons, 1738, p. 81; Preston, Illustrations of Masonry; Hyneman, Ancient York and London Grand Lodges, 1872, p. 21). Politics, however, proved the real business of Sackville's life. To the parliament of Queen Mary's reign which met on 20 Jan. 1557–8 he was returned both for Westmoreland and East Grinstead, and he elected to serve for Westmoreland. In the first parliament of Queen Elizabeth's reign, meeting on 23 Jan. 1558–9, he represented East Grinstead, and he represented Aylesbury in the parliament of 1563. On 17 March he conveyed a message from the house to the queen. The queen recognised his kinship with her—his father was Anne Boleyn's first cousin—and she showed much liking for him, ordering him to be in continual attendance on her. But extravagant habits led to pecuniary difficulties, and, in order to correct his ‘immoderate courses,’ he made about 1563 a foreign tour, passing through France to Italy. At Rome an unguarded avowal of protestantism involved him in a fourteen days' imprisonment. While still in the city news of his father's death—on 21 April 1566—reached him, and he hurried home to assume control of a vast inheritance.
- Rich, cultivated, sagacious, and favoured by the queen, he possessed all the qualifications for playing a prominent part in politics, diplomacy, and court society. He was knighted by the Duke of Norfolk in the queen's presence on 8 June 1567, and was raised to the peerage as Lord Buckhurst on the same day. His admission to the House of Lords was calculated to strengthen the protestant party there. In the spring of 1568 he was sent to France, and, according to Cecil's ‘Diary,’ he persuaded the queen-mother to make ‘a motion for a marriage of Elizabeth with her second son, the Duke of Anjou.’ Later in the year he was directed to entertain the Cardinal Chatillon at the royal palace at Sheen, which he rented of the crown, and where he was residing with his mother. Early in 1571 he paid a second official visit to France to congratulate Charles IX on his marriage with Elizabeth of Austria. He performed his ambassadorial functions with great magnificence (cf. Holinshed, s.a. 1571), and did what he could to forward the negotiations for the queen's marriage with Anjou, privately assuring the queen-mother that Elizabeth was honestly bent on going through with the match (cf. Froude, History, ix. 368–70). Later in the year—in August—he was in attendance on Paul de Foix, a French ambassador who had come to London to continue the discussion of the marriage. On 30 Aug. he accompanied the ambassador from Audley End to Cambridge, where he was created M.A.
- Buckhurst joined the privy council, and found constant employment as a commissioner at state trials. Among the many prisoners on whom he sat in judgment were Thomas, duke of Norfolk (15 Jan. 1571–2), Anthony Babington (5 Sept. 1586), and Philip, earl of Arundel (14 April 1589). Although nominated a commissioner for the trial of Mary Queen of Scots, he does not seem to have been present at Fotheringay Castle or at Westminster, where she was condemned; but he was sent to Fotheringay in December 1586 to announce to Mary the sentence of death (cf. Amias Poulet, Letter Book; Froude, xii. 219–21). He performed the painful duty as considerately as was possible, and the unhappy queen presented him with a wood carving of the procession to Calvary, which is still preserved at Knole.
- Next year he once again went abroad on political service. Through the autumn of 1586 Leicester's conduct in the Low Countries caused the queen much concern, and Leicester urged that Buckhurst might be sent to investigate his action and to allay the queen's fears that he was committing her to a long and costly expedition. ‘My lord of Buckhurst would be a very fit man,’ Leicester wrote, ‘… he shall never live to do a better service’ (Leycester Correspondence, pp. 304, 378). At the end of the year Leicester came home, and in March 1587 Buckhurst was directed to survey the position of affairs in the Low Countries. His instructions were to tell the States-General that the queen, while she bore them no ill-will, could no longer aid them with men or money, but that she would intercede with Philip of Spain in their behalf. He faithfully obeyed his orders, but the queen, perceiving that it was incumbent on her to continue the war, abruptly recalled him in June. She severely reprimanded him by letter for too literally obeying his instructions. She expressed scorn of his shallow judgment which had spilled the cause, impaired her honour, and shamed himself (Motley, United Netherlands, chaps. xv. and xvi.; Froude, xii. 301). On arriving in London he was directed to confine himself to his house. For nine months the order remained in force, and Buckhurst faithfully respected it, declining to see his wife or children.
- On Leicester's death he was fully restored to favour, and for the rest of her reign the queen's confidence in him was undisturbed. In December 1588 he was appointed a commissioner for ecclesiastical causes. On 24 April 1589 he was elected K.G., and was installed at Windsor on 18 Dec. Mean- while he engaged anew in diplomatic business. He went on an embassy to the Low Countries in November 1589, and in 1591 he was one of the commissioners who signed a treaty with France on behalf of the queen. In 1598 he joined with Burghley in a futile attempt to negotiate peace with Spain, and in the same year went abroad, for the last time, to renew a treaty with the united provinces, which relieved the queen of a subsidy of 120,000l. a year.
- High office at home finally rewarded his service abroad. He was one of the four commissioners appointed to seal writs during the vacancy in the office of chancellor after the death of Sir Christopher Hatton (20 Nov. 1591) and before the appointment of Puckering on 3 June 1592. In August 1598 Lord-treasurer Burghley died, and court gossip at once nominated Buckhurst to the vacant post (Chamberlain, Letters, pp. 31, 37); but it was not until 19 May 1599 that he was installed in the office of treasurer. He performed his duties with businesslike precision. Every suitor could reckon on a full hearing in his turn, and he held aloof from court factions. His character and position alike recommended him for the appointment in January 1601 of lord high steward, whose duty it was to preside at the trials of the Earl of Essex and his fellow-conspirators.
- The accession of James I did not affect his fortunes. On 17 April 1603 he was reappointed lord treasurer for life. He attended Elizabeth's funeral at Westminster on the 28th of that month, and on 2 May met the king at Broxbourne. He was graciously received. He was one of the peers who in November 1603 sat in judgment on Henry, lord Cobham, and Thomas, lord Grey de Wilton, and he was created Earl of Dorset on 13 March 1603–4. In May 1604 he was nominated a commissioner to negotiate a new treaty of peace with Spain, which was finally signed on 18 Aug. The king of Spain showed his appreciation of Dorset's influence in bringing the negotiations to a satisfactory issue by bestowing on him a pension of 1,000l. in the same month, and by presenting him with a gold ring and a richly jewelled chain.
- Dorset's wealth and munificence in private life helped to confirm his political position. His landed property—inherited or purchased—was extensive. He resided in early life at Buckhurst, Sussex, where he employed John Thorpe to rebuild the manor-house between 1560 and 1565. In 1569 he obtained from King's College, Cambridge, a grant of the neighbouring manor of Withyham and the advowson of the church there in exchange for the manor and advowson of Sampford-Courtenay in Devonshire. The church of Withyham was the burial-place of his family. He built a house, which was soon burnt down, on part of the site of Lewes Priory, which had been granted to his father. He had been joint lord lieutenant of Sussex as early as 1569, and he somewhat humorously distinguished himself in that capacity in 1586, when, a false alarm having been given that fifty Spanish ships were off the coast, he hastily summoned the muster of the county and watched with them all night between Rottingdean and Brighton, only to discover in the morning that the strangers were innocent Dutchmen driven near the coast by stress of weather.
- Meanwhile, in June 1566, the queen granted to him the reversion of the manor of Knole, near Sevenoaks in Kent, subject to a lease granted by the Earl of Leicester, to whom the estate had been presented by the queen in 1561 (Hasted, Kent, i. 342). It was not until 1603 that Dorset came into possession of the property. He at once set to work to rebuild part of the house from plans supplied at an earlier date by John Thorpe. Two hundred workmen were employed on it, and it was completed in 1605 (cf. Archæologia Cantiana, vol. ix. pp. xl et seq.).
- Another office of dignity which Dorset long filled was that of chancellor of the university of Oxford. He was elected on 17 Dec. 1591. His competitor was Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, but the queen's influence was thrown decisively on the side of Lord Buckhurst. On 6 Jan. 1591–2 he was incorporated, at his residence in London, M.A. in the university. In September 1592 he visited Oxford, and received the queen there with elaborate ceremony (Nichols, Progresses, iii. 149 seq.). He gave books to Bodley's Library in 1600, and a bust of the founder, which is still extant there, in 1605 (Macray, Annals, pp. 20, 31). In August 1605 he entertained James I at Oxford, keeping open house at New College for a week. The earl sent 20l. and five brace of bucks to those who had disputed or acted before the king, and money and venison to every college and hall (Nichols, Progresses of James I, i. 539 seq.).
- One of Dorset's latest acts in his office of lord treasurer was to interview privately the barons of the exchequer (November 1606) while they were sitting in judgment on the great constitutional case of the merchant Bates who had refused to pay the impositions that had been levied by the crown without parliamentary sanction. Dorset had previously assured himself that judgment would be for the crown, but he apparently wished the judges to deliver it without stating their reasons (Gardiner, History, ii. 6–7). He died suddenly at the council-table at Whitehall on 19 April 1608. His body was taken to Dorset House, Fleet Street, and was thence conveyed in state to Westminster Abbey on 26 May. There a funeral sermon was preached by his chaplain, George Abbot [q. v.], dean of Winchester, and afterwards archbishop of Canterbury. In accordance with his will he was buried in the Sackville Chapel, adjoining the parish church of Withyham. His tomb was destroyed by lightning on 16 June 1663, but his coffin remains in the vault beneath.
- Dorset is credited by Naunton with strong judgment and self-confidence, but in domestic politics he showed little independence. His main object was to stand well with his sovereign, and in that he succeeded. He was a good speaker, and the numerous letters and state papers extant in his handwriting exhibit an unusual perspicuity. In private life he was considerate to his tenants. By his will, made on 7 Aug. 1607, a very detailed document, he left to his family as heirlooms rings given him by James I and the king of Spain, and a portrait of Queen Elizabeth, cut in agate and set in gold. This had been left him by his sister Ann, lady Dacre. Plate or jewels were bequeathed to his friends, the archbishop of Canterbury, Lord-chancellor Ellesmere, the Earls of Nottingham, Suffolk, Worcester, Northampton, Salisbury, and Dunbar. The Earls of Suffolk and Salisbury were overseers of his will, and his wife and eldest son were joint executors. He left 1,000l. for building a public granary at Lewes, 2,000l. for stocking it with grain in seasons of scarcity, and 1,000l. for building a chapel at Withyham.
- He married, in 1554, Cecily, daughter of Sir John Baker of Sissinghurst in Kent; Dorset speaks of her in his will in terms of warm affection and respect. She survived till 1 Oct. 1615. By her he was father of four sons and three daughters: the eldest son was Robert Sackville, second earl of Dorset [q. v.]; William, born about 1568, was knighted in France by Henry IV in October 1589, and was slain fighting against the forces of the league in 1591; Thomas, born on 25 May 1571, distinguished himself in fighting against the Turks in 1595, and died on 28 Aug. 1646. Of the daughters, Anne was wife of Sir Henry Glemham of Glemham in Suffolk (cf. Cal. State Papers 1603–10, pp. 499, 575); Jane was wife of Anthony Browne, first viscount Montague [q. v.]; and Mary married Sir Henry Neville, ultimately Lord Abergavenny.
- His poetical works, with some letters and the preamble to his will, were collected and edited in 1859, by the Rev. Reginald W. Sackville West, who prefixed a memoir.
- There are portraits of the Earl of Dorset at Knole and Buckhurst (by Marcus Gheeraerts the younger [q. v.] ; while in the picture gallery at Oxford there is a painting of him in the robes of chancellor, with the blue ribbon, George, and treasurer's staff. This was presented by Lionel, duke of Dorset, in 1735. There are engravings by George Vertue, E. Scriven, and W. J. Alais.
- [Cooper's Athenæ Cantabr. ii. 484–92, supplies the most detailed account of his official career. George Abbot's Funeral Sermon, 1608, dedicated to the widowed countess, gives a contemporary estimate of his career (esp. pp. 13–18). W. D. Cooper's memoir in Shakespeare Society's edition of Gorboduc and Sackville West's memoir in his Collected Works, 1859, are fairly complete. See also Naunton's Fragmenta Regalia, ed. Arber, pp. 55–6; Owen's Epigrams, 1st ser. ii. 65; Strype's Annals; Correspondance Diplomatique de Fénelon, iii. iv. v. vii.; Birch's Queen Elizabeth; Camden's Annals; Doyle's Official Baronage; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1571–1608; Warton's Hist. of English Poetry; Ritson's Bibliographia Anglo-Poetica; Brydges's Memoirs of the Peers of James I.]
- From: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Sackville,_Thomas_(DNB00)
- Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset1
- M, #57777, b. between 1527 and 1536, d. 19 April 1608
- Father Sir Richard Sackville, Chancellor of the Exchequer2 d. 21 Apr 1566
- Mother Winifred Bruges2 b. c 1501, d. c 16 Jun 1586
- Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset was born between 1527 and 1536 at Buckhurst, Withyam, Sussex, England.1 He married Cecily Baker, daughter of Sir John Baker, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Speaker of the House of Commons, Ambassador to Denmark, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Under-Sheriff & Recorder of London and Elizabeth Dineley, in 1555.1 Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset left a will on 11 August 1607.1 He died on 19 April 1608 at Whitehall, London, Middlesex, England; Supposedly age 81.1 He was buried on 26 May 1608 at Westminster Abbey, London, Middlesex, England.1 His estate was probated on 31 January 1609.1
- Family Cecily Baker b. c 1535, d. 1 Oct 1615
- Robert Sackville, 2nd Earl of Dorset1 b. 1561, d. 27 Feb 1609
- Jane Sackville+3 b. c 1570
- 1.[S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. IV, p. 423-424.
- 2.[S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. IV, p. 422.
- 3.[S11568] The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, by George Edward Cokayne, Vol. IX, p. 100.
- From: http://our-royal-titled-noble-and-commoner-ancestors.com/p1923.htm#i57777
- Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset1
- M, #14416, b. 1527, d. 19 April 1608
- Last Edited=23 Nov 2012
- Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset was born between and 1536 in 1527.3 He was the son of Sir Robert Sackville and Winifred Brydges. He married Cecily Baker, daughter of Sir John Baker, in 1555.3 He died on 19 April 1608, with another son:.3
- 1st EARL OF DORSET.3 He was County Sussex (both E).3 Allegedly educ Hart Hall Oxford and St John's College Cambridge.3 He was barrister Inner Temple, Member of Parliament (M.P.) Westmorland /8, E Grinstead 1559 and Aylesbury 1563–67, knighted 1567, Amb to States (foreunner of The Netherlands) in the Low Countries in revolt against Spain in 1557.3 In 1563 author ‘Induction' and the ‘Complaint of Buckingham' in the edn of A Mirror for Magistrates (anthology of didactic poetry) and Acts IV and V (Thomas Norton being responsible for Acts I–III, or so the 1st edn of 1565 claims) of Gorboduc (first perf.3 He was created 1st Baron of Buckhurst, Sussex [England] on 8 June 1567.4 On 8 June 1567 as also earlier BARON OF BUCKHURST.3 He was Privy Counsellor (P.C.) (between and Feb 1595/6) in 1582.3 He was Jt Ld-Lt Sussex , Jt Commissioner of Gt Seal 1591–92, Chllr Oxford U 1591–1608, Lord High Treasurer 1599–1608 in 1587.3 He was Knight, Order of the Garter (K.G.) in 1589.3 On 13 March 1603 so created /4.3 He was created 1st Earl of Dorset [England] on 13 March 1603/4.4 He held the office of Lord Treasurer [England].1
- Children of Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset and Cecily Baker
- 1.Jane Sackville+
- 2.Lady Mary Sackville+1
- 3.Lady Anne Sackville+5
- 4.Thomas Sackville6
- 5.Robert Sackville, 2nd Earl of Dorset+ b. 1561, d. 25 Feb 1609
- 6.William Sackville6 b. 1570
- 1.[S6] G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 37. Hereinafter cited as The Complete Peerage.
- 2.[S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family."
- 3.[S37] BP2003 volume 3, page 3456. See link for full details for this source. Hereinafter cited as. [S37]
- 4.[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 384.
- 5.[S6] Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume II, page 37.
- 6.[S37] BP2003. [S37]
- From: http://www.thepeerage.com/p1442.htm#i14416
- Thomas SACKVILLE (1° E. Dorset)
- Born: 1527/1536, Buckhurst, Withyam, Sussex, England
- Acceded: 1604
- Died: 19 Apr 1608, Whitehall
- Buried: 26 May 1608, Withyam, Sussex, England
- Notes: See his Biography.
- Father: Richard "Fill Sack" SACKVILLE (Sir Knight)
- Mother: Winifred BRYDGES (M. Winchester)
- Married: Cecily BAKER 1555
- 1. Robert SACKVILLE (2º E. Dorset)
- 2. Mary SACKVILLE
- 3. Jane SACKVILLE (V. Montagu)
- 4. Anne SACKVILLE
- From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/SACKVILLE.htm#Thomas SACKVILLE (1° E. Dorset)
- Sir Thomas Sackville, Baron Buckhurst, Member of her Majesty's Privy Council, Lord Lieutenant of Sussex, Exchequer to her Majesty the Queen and Commissioner over state trials. Born 1535/6. Second of three children of Richard "Fill Sack" Sackville, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Winifred Brydges, dau. of Sir John Brydges, Mayor of London. Educated Sullington (Lullington?) g.s.; Hart? Hall, Oxford; Jesus?, Cambridge; Inner Temple, admitted 1 Jul 1555, called; Cambridge, MA 1571; Oxford incorp. 1592. Married 1555, Cecily, daughter of Sir Thomas Baker of London and Sissinghurst, Kent, and had 4 sons, including Robert, and 3 daughters; 1 son illegitimate.
- Succeeded father 21 Apr 1566. Knighted 8 Jun 1567; K.G. nominated 22 Apr, installed 18 Dec 1589. Created Baron of Buckhurst 8 Jun 1567, Earl of Dorset 13 Mar 1604. Member of Parliament for Westmoreland 1558, East Grinstead 1559, Aylesbury 1563. Justice of the peace, Kent, Sussex 1558/1559-death; feodary, duchy of Lancaster, Sussex 1561; joint lord lieutenant Sussex 1569; Ambassador to France 1571-72, 1591, to the Netherlands 1586, 1598; trier of petitions in the Lords, Parliaments of 1572, 1584, 1586, 1589, 1593, 1597; custos rot. Sussex 1573/4-death; chief butler, England 1590; high steward, Winchester c. 1590; joint commissioner of great seal Nov 1591-May 1592; chancellor, Oxford University 1591; Lord treasurer May 1599-death.
- His elder sister Anne (who he would in later years argue extensively with regarding the ownership of Sir Thomas More's estate Beaufort which she did inherit from her mother, then Marchioness of Winchester, and Thomas had led average lives for children of their era and station and had also survived the third sibling a second daughter who passed on at an early age.
- His education went as planned as his father would say, where upon at the age of fifteen; he was had been educated out of Hart Hall, in Oxford. Two years later in 1553 at the age of seventeen; he left his childhood home and took residence in London where he began pursuing his life as a poet and playwright.
- He received the bulk his wealth from his father Sir Richard Sackville a wealthy landowner whose acquisitiveness earned him the nickname of 'Fill Sack' and was noted for reasons of his great wealth and vast patrimony. He continue to live in such a manner as his father did, knowing how to spend his moneys well and in such a way that he and his family could live in a comfortable fashion.At nineteen years of age in 1555, he met, fell in love with and married the daughter of a member of the Privy Council under Queen Mary, Cicely Baker of Kent. His father's exclusion from office under Mary did not significantly delay Thomas Sackville's entry upon public life for it was not long after his coming of age that he sat in his first Parliament. His election at the beginning of 1558 for East Grinstead, where his father had wielded great influence, had the appearance of a safeguard against his failing to carry off the knighthood for Westmoreland; after he had done so and entered the House as junior knight for that shire, the vacancy at East Grinstead was filled by another Sackville nominee, Thomas Farnham. The circumstances of Sackville's election for Westmoreland are not made easier of explanation by the damaged state of the return, on which the surname is represented only by the fragment 'sa...' A century ago the name was read as 'salkeld'. The accuracy of this reading is borne out by the appearance of that name, afterwards erased and replaced by 'sackvell', on one of the two remaining copies of the Crown Office list; the other and later copy has 'sackveld' alone. It is thus possible that a Thomas Salkeld, presumably of the prominent Westmoreland family of that name, was elected but was afterwards superseded by Sackville. What is more likely, however, is that Sackville was elected and that instead of his unfamiliar name its near counterpart was entered on the return, to be copied on the Crown Office list and only corrected when Sackville appeared in the House. Who procured his election is a matter of speculation. Neither he nor his fellow-knight Anthony Kempe, another Sussex man, had any standing in Westmoreland, but both could claim a marriage connection with Henry Clifford, 2º Earl of Cumberland, hereditary sheriff of the county, and with his father-in-law the 3rd Lord Dacre of Gillesland; Cumberland must also have had dealings with both Sackville's father, and ex-chancellor or augmentations, and his father-in-law Sir John Baker, one of whom doubtless made the approach. For Sackville, as for Kempe, a knighthood of the shire was not to recur; he was to sit as a burgess in the first two Elizabethan Parliaments and in the third he took his seat in the Lords.
- Sackville had appeared on the pardon roll in Oct 1553 as of London. On 8 Mar 1557, together with Thomas Swynton, he purchased various properties in Kent and Sussex for £1,221. In co-operation with Thomas Norton he wrote "The Tragedie of Gorboduc" but he handed over his other literary project "A myrroure for magistrates" to George Ferrers and William Baldwin after completing the 'Introduction'.
- In 1558 upon the death of Queen Mary; her half sister Elizabeth Tudor, third cousin on her mother Anne Boleyn's side; ascended England's throne.
- In addition during the year of 1561 he received the title of "Grandmaster of the Order of Freemasons". In 1563 he was once again elected to Parliament this time for Aylesbury. When he became thirty one years of age, he was knighted and raised to peerage as Lord Buckhurst which did take place on the eighth day of Jun of that year. One year prior to receiving the title of Lord Buckhurst; Queen Elizabeth awarded a piece of property to keeping known as Knole.
- Much of the fabric of Knole dates from the second half of the fifteenth century. On 30 Jun 1456 William Fiennes sold the estate £266 13s 4d to Thomas Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury (and for a brief period in 1455-6, Lord Chancellor of England). Between that date and his death in 1486, Bourchier built himself a substantial but relatively austere palace grouped around a series of courtyards, and containing all of the elements that one would expect to see in the house of an important medieval prelate - a great hall with a day parlour and first-floor solar at one end and kitchens and domestic offices at the other, a chapel, and lodgings for his large household.
- When Bourchier died - at Knole - he left the estate to the See of Canterbury, and it functioned as an archiepiscopal palace until 1538, when Henry VIII bullied Thomas Cranmer into presenting it to the Crown. The King considerably enlarged the house by building three new ranges of lodgings and a turreted and crenellated gatehouse in the front of the Archbishop's original gatehouse, thus forming what is now known as the Green Court, the main entrance court at Knole. After his death, the house went through a rather confused series of occupancies. Edward VI assigned it to John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, who for some reason returned it two years later. Mary he granted it to Cardinal Pole for life in 1556; when he died in Nov 1558 (on the same day as the Queen) it reverted to the Crown. Elizabeth granted it to John Dudley's son, Robert, Earl of Leicester, who promptly sublet it, before returning it, still sublet in 1566. In Jun 1566 the Queen presented the estate to his keeping, under whom Knole has finally settled down to a more stable period of ownership. But throughout his career as one of her Majesty’s chief advisers, he had been unable to even live at Knole, in the stead he had managed replace the old Archbishop's palace with a Theobalds or a Holdenby for his Queen's entertainment. Although he had been granted the house and estate in 1566, it currently occupied by the Lennard family, tenants who had moved in as the Earl of Leicester handed the property back to the Crown.
- In 1568 he had been commissioned to traveled to France on an official visit, his mission was to persuaded the Queen Mother to make a motion for the marriage of Elizabeth with her second son, the Duke of Anjou. In 1569 at the age of thirty-three years old, he was honoured to be placed in the office of Lord Lieutenant of Sussex. Two years later in 1571, he returned to France to congratulate Charles IX on his marriage afterwhich he did return to England bringing Paul du Foix along to continue the discussion of the impending marriage. Also within that year he had been bestowed a Master of Arts from Cambridge. In 1572, he became a member of her Majesty's Privy Council and became employed as Commissioner at state trials.
- As a member of her Majesty's Privy Council, he was considered a protégée of William Cecil, Baron Burghley and he tends to agree with most of the issues Burghley is in favor of.
- His career took Sackville to the treasurership and an Earldom before he died at the council table on 19 Apr 1608.
- From: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Bios/ThomasSackville(1EDorset).htm
- SACKVILLE, Thomas (1535/36-1608), of London.
- b. 1535/36, prob. 1st s. of Richard Sackville II. educ. ‘Sullington’ (?Lullington) g.s.; ?Hart Hall, Oxf. ?Jesus, Camb.; I. Temple, adm. 1 July 1555, called, Camb. MA 1571; Oxf. incorp. 1592. m. 1555, Cecily, da. of (Sir) John Baker I of London and Sissinghurst, Kent, 4s. inc. Robert† 3da.; ?1s. illegit. suc. fa. 21 Apr. 1566. Kntd. 8 June 1567; KG nom. 22 Apr., inst. 18 Dec. 1589. cr. Baron of Buckhurst 8 June 1567, Earl of Dorset 13 Mar. 1604.1
- Offices Held
- J.p. Kent, Suss. 1558/59-d.; feodary, duchy of Lancaster, Suss. 1561; jt. ld. lt. Suss. 1569; ambassador to France 1571-2, 1591, to the Netherlands 1586, 1598; trier of petitions in the Lords, Parlts. of 1572, 1584, 1586, 1589, 1593, 1597; custos rot. Suss. 1573/74-d.; chief butler, England 1590; high steward, Winchester c.1590; jt. commr. of great seal Nov. 1591-May 1592; chancellor, Oxf. Univ. 1591; ld. treasurer May 1599-d.2
- His father’s exclusion from office under Mary did not significantly delay Thomas Sackville’s entry upon public life for it was not long after his coming of age that he sat in his first Parliament. His election at the beginning of 1558 for East Grinstead, where his father wielded great influence, has the appearance of a safeguard against his failing to carry off the knighthood for Westmorland; after he had done so and entered the House as junior knight for that shire, the vacancy at East Grinstead was filled by another Sackville nominee, Thomas Farnham. The circumstances of Sackville’s election for Westmorland are not made easier of explanation by the damaged state of the return, on which the surname is represented only by the fragment ‘Sa ...’ A century ago the name was read as ‘Salkeld’. The accuracy of this reading is borne out by the appearance of that name, afterwards erased and replaced by ‘Sackvell’, on one of the two remaining copies of the Crown Office list; the other and later copy has ‘Sackveld’ alone. It is thus possible that a Thomas Salkeld, presumably of the prominent Westmorland family of that name, was elected but was afterwards superseded by Sackville. What is more likely, however, is that Sackville was elected and that instead of his unfamiliar name its near counterpart was entered on the return, to be copied on the Crown Office list and only corrected when Sackville appeared in the House. Who procured his election is a matter of speculation. Neither he nor his fellow-knight Anthony Kempe, another Sussex man, had any standing in Westmorland, but both could claim a marriage connexion with the 2nd Earl of Cumberland, hereditary sheriff of the county, and with his father-in-law the 3rd Lord Dacre of Gilsland; Cumberland must also have had dealings with both Sackville’s father, an ex-chancellor of augmentations, and his father-in-law Sir John Baker, one of whom doubtless made the approach. For Sackville, as for Kempe, a knighthood of the shire was not to recur: he was to sit as a burgess in the first two Elizabethan Parliaments and in the third he took his seat in the Lords.3
- Sackville had appeared on the pardon roll in October 1553 as of London. On 8 Mar. 1557, together with Thomas Swynton, he purchased various properties in Kent and Sussex for £1,221. In co-operation with Thomas Norton he wrote The Tragedie of Gorboduc, but he handed over his other literary project A myrroure for magistrates to George Ferrers and William Baldwin after completing the ‘Induction’. His career took Sackville to the treasurership and an earldom before he died at the council table on 19 Apr. 1608. Several portraits of him in old age survive.4
- From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1509-1558/member/sackville-thomas-153536-1608
- SACKVILLE, Thomas (1535/6-1608), of Buckhurst, nr. East Grinstead, Suss. and Sackville House (later Dorset House), Fleet Street, London.
- b. 1535/6, prob. 1st s. of Sir Richard Sackville by Winifred, da. of Sir John Brydges† of London. educ. Sullington (?Lullington) g.s.; ?Hart Hall, Oxf., ?St. John’s, Camb.; I. Temple 1555, called; Camb. MA 1571; Oxf. incorp. 1592. m. Cecily (d.1615), da. of Sir John Baker†, of London and Sissinghurst, Kent, 4s. inc. Robert 3da.; ?1s. illegit. suc. fa. Apr. 1566. Kntd. and cr. Baron of Buckhurst 8 June 1567; KG 1589; Earl of Dorset 1604.
- Offices Held
- J.p. Kent, Suss. from 1559; feodary, duchy of Lancaster lands in Suss. 1561; jt. ld. lt. Suss. 1569; commr. trial Duke of Norfolk 1572; ambassador to France 1571-2, 1591, to Netherlands 1587, 1598; trier of petitions in the Lords, Parlts. of 1572, 1584, 1586, 1589,1593, 1597; custos rot. Suss. c.1573-d.; PC 1586; commr. trial Mary Queen of Scots 1586; high steward, Winchester c.1590; chief butler, England 1590; jt. commr. of great seal Nov. 1591-May 1592; chancellor, Oxf. Univ. 1591; ld. treasurer 1599; ld. high steward for trial of the Earl of Essex Feb. 1601; jt. commr. for office of earl marshal 1601.1
- Sackville was returned to Elizabeth’s first Parliament for his family’s local borough and in 1563 for Aylesbury, probably through the intervention of his relation Thomas Smythe I. He made no known contribution to the business of the House, and soon after the end of the 1563 session he went to France and Italy. At Rome he was first imprisoned, then received in audience by Pope Pius IV, an obscure episode open to conflicting interpretation. He was back in England early in 1566, when his departure for Vienna on government business was delayed by his father’s illness and death. He succeeded to estates in Essex, Kent, Oxfordshire, Sussex and Yorkshire, and was granted the reversion to Knole, though he had to wait nearly 40 years for possession. However, just over a year after his father’s death, after being knighted by the Duke of Norfolk in the Queen’s presence at Westminster, he was, on the same day, made a peer, the first of only two really new peerages to be granted in the reign, the other being Secretary Cecil’s four years later. Thenceforth Buckhurst was frequently a trier of petitions in the Lords, exercised parliamentary patronage at Arundel, Lewes and Steyning, and from his eponymous seat in Sussex he held sway as lord lieutenant, while remaining above all a courtier and diplomat. The most important of his embassies was the so-called ‘expostulatory mission’ to the Low Countries from March to July 1587, after Leicester’s return to England. Though close to Burghley, Buckhurst was not, it appears, against Leicester until, in the Netherlands, he saw the result of Leicester’s ‘might’, ‘malice’ and ‘intolerable errors’, as Buckhurst put it to the Queen. But this frankness now resulted in his own recall and banishment from court. He had still not been allowed back in February 1588, but Leicester’s death in the following September altered the balance of power: Buckhurst was restored to favour and soon afterwards made KG. It was he who signed the treaty of peace with Henri IV of France in 1591. In 1598 he joined Burghley in an unsuccessful attempt to achieve peace with Spain, and went again to the Netherlands to make a new treaty. There are frequent references of his entertainment of foreign ambassadors in England.
- He was made lord treasurer by Elizabeth in May 1599 in succession to Burghley, and re-appointed by James I. The problems that were to ruin his two successors did not come to a head in Buckhurst’s time, and, created Earl of Dorset in 1604, his last years were devoted to this office, to the membership of the commission which finally signed the peace with Spain, and to Knole. He died on 19 Apr. 1608, and was buried at Withyham. The large bequests to his wife were
- a true token and testimony of my unspeakable love, affection, estimation, and reverence, long since fixed and settled in my heart and soul towards her.
- Members of his family were to have the rings he had been given by James I and the King of Spain, and his jewelled portrait of Queen Elizabeth. Provision was made to build a public granary at Lewes, with £2,000 to stock it when grain was scarce.
- As a young man Sackville had some reputation as a poet. He received an honorary MA from Cambridge in 1571 and from Oxford 21 years later, after he had been made chancellor of the university in preference to the Earl of Essex.2
- From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/sackville-thomas-15356-1608
- Sir Thomas Sackville
- Birth: 1536
- Death: Apr. 19, 1608
- Earl of Dorset
- Family links:
- Richard Sackville (1516 - 1566)
- Winifred deBrugge Sackville (1510 - 1586)
- Cicely Baker Sackville (____ - 1615)*
- Robert Sackville (1561 - 1609)*
- Burial: St Michael and All Angels Churchyard, Withyham, Wealden District, East Sussex, England
- Find A Grave Memorial# 147722109
- From: http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=147722109
- SACKVILLE, Richard II (by 1507-66), of Ashburnham and Buckhurst, Suss. and Westenhanger, Kent.
- b. by 1507, 1st s. of John Sackville I by 1st w., and bro. of Christopher and John II. educ. Camb.; I. Temple. m. by 1536, Winifred, da. of (Sir) John Brydges of London, 3s. inc. Thomas 1da. Kntd. by 17 Feb. 1549; suc. fa. 27 Sept. 1557.3
- .... etc.
- From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1509-1558/member/sackville-richard-ii-1507-66
- SACKVILLE, Sir Richard (by 1507-66), of Buckhurst, Suss. and Westenhanger, Kent.
- b. by 1507, 1st s. of John Sackville† of Chiddingly, Suss. by his 1st w. Margaret, da. of Sir William Boleyn of Blickling, Norf. educ. ?Camb.; I. Temple. m. bef. 1536, Winifred, da. of Sir John Brydges† of London, 3s. inc. Thomas 1da. Kntd. 1549; suc. fa. 27 Sept. 1557.2
- .... etc.
- From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/sackville-sir-richard-1507-66
- SACKVILLE, Robert (1561-1609), of Bolbrooke and Buckhurst, Suss. and Knole, Kent.
- b. 1561, 1st s. of Thomas Sackville, 1st Baron of Buckhurst and 1st Earl of Dorset, by Cicely, da. of Sir John Baker†, of Sissinghurst, Kent. educ. prob. Hart Hall, Oxf. 1576, BA and MA 1579; I. Temple 1580. m. (1) Feb. 1580, Lady Margaret Howard (d. 19 Aug. 1591), o. da. of Thomas, 4th Duke of Norfolk, 3s. 3da.; (2) Dec. 1592, Anne, da. of Sir John Spencer†, of Althorp, Northants., wid. of William Stanley, 3rd Lord Monteagle and of Henry Compton I, 1st Lord Compton. Styled Lord Buckhurst 1604-8. suc. fa. as 2nd Earl of Dorset 1608.2
- Offices Held
- J.p. Suss. from c.1591, Kent from c.1592; dep. lt. Suss. 1601, jt. ld. lt. 1608.3
- Sackville’s preliminary education was directed by a tutor chosen by Roger Ascham, whose own son became his fellow-pupil. This arrangement was the result of a suggestion in December 1563 by Sir Richard Sackville, Robert’s grandfather, to the famous pedagogue whose gentleness and learning so impressed him that he offered to bear the entire expense, ‘yea, though they three do cost me a couple of hundred pounds by year’.4
- .... etc.
- From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1558-1603/member/sackville-robert-1561-1609
- SACKVILLE, Robert (c.1561-1609), of Bolebrook, Withyham, Suss. and Dorset House, Fleet Street, London
- b. c.1561,1 1st s. of Thomas Sackville†, 1st earl of Dorset, ld. treas. 1599-1608, and Cecily, da. of Sir John Baker† of Sissinghurst, Kent.2 educ. privately; Hart Hall, Oxf. 1574, aged 15, BA (New Coll.) 1579, MA 1579; I. Temple 1580.3 m. (1) lic. 4 Feb. 1580, Margaret (d. 19 Aug. 1591), da. of Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, 3s. (1 d.v.p.) 4da. (2 d.v.p.); (2) 4 Dec. 1592, Anne (d. 22 Sept. 1618), da. of Sir John Spencer† of Althorp, Northants., wid. of Sir William Stanley†, 3rd Lord Monteagle, and Henry Compton†, 1st Lord Compton, s.p. styled Lord Buckhurst 13 Mar. 1604; suc. fa. as 2nd earl of Dorset 19 Apr. 1608. d. 27 Feb. 1609.4
- Offices Held
- J.p. Suss. 1591-d., Kent 1592-d.;5 commr. grain, Suss. 1595;6 freeman, Southampton, Hants 1596;7 dep. lt. Suss. 1601-8,8 ld. lt. (jt.) 1608-d.;9 commr. sewers, Pevensey rape, Suss. 1602-5, Kent and Suss. 1602-4, Kent 1603, Suss. 1604, Essex 1607, Lea valley, Essex and Mdx. 1607;10 steward, honour of Eagle, Suss. 1608-d.11
- Member, High Commission, Canterbury prov. 1601-at least 1605;12 commr. Union with Scotland 1604.13
- The Sackvilles, originally from Sauqueville in Normandy, acquired Buckhurst in the parish of Withyham in East Sussex in the twelfth century, and first produced a knight of the shire in 1361.14 It was Sackville’s grandfather, Sir Richard†, who brought them to national prominence. A cousin of Anne Boleyn, Sir Richard, as chancellor of the Court of Augmentations, was responsible for administering the former monastic estates, and in the process acquired great wealth and the sobriquet ‘fill-sack’. He was appointed a privy councillor by Elizabeth.15
- Sackville’s father, ennobled in 1567, became lord treasurer in 1599, and was for many years the most powerful magnate in Sussex, although from the turn of the century his principal residence was at Knole in Kent.16 Sackville himself entered Parliament for Sussex in 1584, and was re-elected for the county to every Parliament from 1593 to his death. He held a patent for the export of artillery, which was perhaps unsurprising as he was belonged to a family with strong interests in the Wealden iron industry, and invested in at least one mercantile or privateering venture in the Mediterranean.17 The Kentish antiquarian, Thomas Milles, described him as ‘a gentleman of singular learning in many sciences and languages’.18
- Returned for the fifth time for Sussex in 1604, Sackville was appointed to 22 committees, 16 of them in the first session, but made no recorded speeches. His father was elevated to the earldom of Dorset shortly before the session started, and consequently Sackville was usually referred to in the parliamentary records by the courtesy title, Lord Buckhurst. .... etc.
- From: http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/volume/1604-1629/member/sackville-robert-1561-1609
Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset's Timeline
Buckhurst, Withyam, Sussex, England
Buckhurst, Withyham, Sussex, England
Buckhurst, Withyham, Sussex, England
May 25, 1571
Brockhurst, Sussex, England