Xie Lingyun 謝靈運

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【(陳郡陽夏)】謝靈運

Chinese: 康樂縣侯【(陳郡陽夏)】謝靈運
Birthdate:
Death: 433 (47-48)
Immediate Family:

Son of 謝瑍 and 劉氏
Father of 謝鳳

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About Xie Lingyun 謝靈運

Xie Lingyun 謝靈運 (385–433). Eastern Jin and Liu-Song period writer.

Xie Lingyun belonged to the distinguished Xie family that originally came from north China. Their ancestral home was in Yangjia 陽夏 county (modern Taikang 太康, Henan).

After the north fell to non-Han Chinese invaders in 317, the family fled south. The branch of the Xie family to which Xie Lingyun belonged established a large estate in Shi'ning 始寧 county in Guiji 會稽 commandery (the modern Shaoxing area of Zhejiang). Xie Lingyun is the grandson of Xie Xuan 謝玄 (343–388), who was a nephew of Xie An 謝安 (320–385). Xie Xuan is famous for leading the Eastern Jin army that defeated the troops of Fu Jian 苻堅 (338–385) at the Fei River 淝水 in 383. Xie Lingyun's father Xie Huan 謝瑍 reputedly was not very intelligent. Little is known about him.

For the first fifteen years of his life, Xie Lingyun lived in Qiantang 錢塘 (modern Hangzhou) with the family of a Taoist master named Du Mingshi 杜明師 (Enlightened Master Du).2 The Du family belonged to the Heavenly Master sect and was known for its expertise in calligraphy. Xie was placed with the Du family for several reasons. First, he was entrusted to this Taoist retreat for his education, which undoubtedly included extensive instruction in the Ruist classics. Second, he was sent here for his health, for Xie was quite sickly as a youth, and the Taoist diet and exercise regimen were thought to be beneficial for the boy's health. Because he was a visitor in the Du family Xie's boyhood name was Ke'er 客兒 (Guest lad). Later, he was called Xie ke 謝客 (Guest Xie).

In 399, Xie Lingyun returned to the family estate in Shi'ning. In the same year a Taoist master named Sun En 孫恩 (d. 402), leading an army of peasants, revolted in the southeastern coast area. When the rebels entered Guiji, the Xie family fled for safety to the capital, located to the north in Jiankang 建康 (modern Nanjing). In Jiankang the family had a large mansion in the fashionable Wuyi xiang 烏衣巷 (Dark robe lane). Xie Lingyun was a member of a Xie family literary group that included Xie Zhan 謝瞻 (ca. 383–421), Xie Hongwei 謝弘微 (392–433), Xie Zhan's younger brother Xie Hui 謝晦 (390–426), and Xie Yao 謝曜 (d. 427), Xie Hongwei's older brother. This group was called the “Wuyi associates” 烏衣之遊. The leader of the group was Xie Hun 謝混 (381?–412).

In 402, Xie Lingyun inherited his grandfather's title of Duke of Kangle 康樂, which gave him considerable prestige as well as the income from 3,000 households. Xie Lingyun is often referred to as Xie Kangle.

In 404, various regional commanders began to contend for supremacy. In March of 404, Liu Yu 劉裕 (363–422) defeated Huan Xuan 桓玄 (369–404), who had overthrown the Jin emperor and established his own dynasty. In 405, Xie Lingyun began his official career as an aide to the Prince of Langye, Sima Dewen 司馬德文 (385–421), the future Emperor Gong (r. 419–420). Another powerful military man who helped defeat Huan Xuan was Liu Yi 劉毅 (d. 412). Soon Liu Yu and Liu Yi became rivals. The Xie clan allied with Liu Yi, and Xie Lingyun served as an aide to Liu Yi from 405 to 412. During 411 and 412, Xie was stationed in Xunyang 尋陽 (near modern Jiujiang, Jiangxi), which was the home area of Tao Yuanming 陶淵明 (365–427). However, there is no record that the two great poets ever met, and in fact it is unlikely that they did so. While in the Mount Lu area, Xie Lingyun visited the Eastern Grove Monastery of Huiyuan 慧遠 (334–416), where he was accepted as a member of the Mount Lu Buddhist community.

By autumn 412, Liu Yi began to make preparations to make a full assault on Liu Yu. From his base in Jiangling 江陵 (modern Hubei), Liu Yi dismissed all of the local magistrates and replaced them with his own men. At this point, however, Liu Yi fell ill, and Liu Yu took the opportunity to wipe out Liu Yi's supporters, including Xie Hun. Finally, in December 412, one of Liu Yu's generals defeated Liu Yi's army at Jiangling. Xie Lingyun was captured, and Liu Yi, who managed to escape, later hanged himself after being refused refuge in a Buddhist monastery. Although Xie could have been executed for his support of Liu Yi, Liu Yu appointed him to his staff, and except for a brief period in 415, when he was dismissed for a minor offense, Xie continued to serve Liu Yu in a series of high positions.

In September 416, Liu Yu led a large army north against the Later Qin ruler Yao Hong 姚泓 (388–417). Xie Lingyun was assigned as adviser to Liu Yu's younger brother Liu Daolian 劉道憐 (d. 422), who was left behind to guard the capital. In the ninth lunar month of 416, Liu Yu's army reached Pengcheng 彭城 (modern Xuzhou). In December of this year Xie Lingyun was sent to Pengcheng to reward and entertain the troops. He returned to the capital in March 217. About this time Xie composed “Zhuan zheng fu” 撰征賦 (Fu recounting a journey), which is detailed poetic travelogue of his journey to Pengcheng.

On 10 August 418, Liu Yu was named Duke of Song and counselor-in-chief. He appointed Xie Lingyun gentleman attendant at the palace gate. Xie Lingyun again was sent to Pengcheng. On the ninth day of the ninth lunar month of 418, Liu Yu hosted a banquet at the Xima Terrace 戲馬臺 in honor of Kong Jigong 孔季恭 (347–422), who was returning home after leaving office. Liu Yu commanded his courtiers to compose poems for the occasion. Both Xie Lingyun and Xie Zhan's poems are extant. Shortly thereafter, Xie Lingyun learned that one of his retainers, Gui Xing 桂興, had seduced his favorite concubine. Xie killed Gui Xing and threw his corpse into the Yangzi River. The vice director of the Department of State Affairs Wang Hong 王弘 (370–432) presented to the court a petition impeaching Xie for this offense. Xie was dismissed from office.

On 28 January 419, Liu Yu had the Jin emperor strangled and replaced by Sima Dewen. In the spring of the following year (420), Liu Yu deposed Sima Dewen and set himself up as emperor of a new dynasty. Liu Yu assumed the imperial throne as the first emperor of the Song dynasty on 10 July 420. One of his first acts was to reduce the ranks of all nobles, and Xie Lingyun was demoted from duke to marquis. His income was reduced accordingly from 3,000 to 500 households. Xie was named cavalier attendant-in-ordinary and left commandant for the heir designate Liu Yifu 劉義符 (406–424), the future Emperor Shao (422–424).

Xie Lingyun was displeased at not being given an opportunity to participate in major decisions of the court. Xie and some of his friends allied with Liu Yizhen 劉義真 (407–424), Prince of Luling 廬陵, Liu Yu's second son. Liu Yizhen and his elder brother, Liu Yifu 劉義符 (406–424) were rival candidates to succeed their father to the throne. Some members of the court supported Liu Yizhen, while others supported Liu Yifu. Liu Yu died on 26 June 422. The factions supporting the two contenders immediately began to maneuver to eliminate opposition. Xie Lingyun's faction, which included the literatus Yan Yanzhi 顏延之 (384–456)) and the Buddhist monk Huilin 慧琳 (n.d.), was the weaker of the two, and Liu Yifu's supporters led by Xu Xianzhi 徐羨之 (364–426), Xie Hui, and Fu Liang 傅亮 (374–426) had Liu Yifu installed as emperor on 26 June 422. One of the new emperor's first acts was to expel all of the members of Liu Yizhen's faction from the capital. Xie Lingyun was given an appointment in the remote seacoast commandery of Yongjia 永嘉 (modern Wenzhou, Zhejiang).

Xie Lingyun left for Yongjia in the seventh month of 422. After stopping briefly at his family estate in Shi'ning, he took a leisurely excursion through the southeastern mountains and rivers. Xie spent about a year in Yongjia. Since his duties were not particularly burdensome, he had the leisure to write poetry, and it is during this time that Xie began to write landscape verse.

In autumn of 423, Xie Lingyun resigned his position on grounds of illness, and he returned to Shi'ning. At Shi'ning he devoted himself to improving the estate, writing poetry, and studying Buddhism. This was a highly productive period for his poetry, and his verses became well known in the capital. Xie describes his life at Shi'ning in a long fu titled “Shan ju fu” 山居賦 (Fu on dwelling in the mountains).

In August 424, Liu Yizhen was murdered at the age of eighteen. Xie Lingyun wrote several poems lamenting the death of the young prince. At the same time Fu Liang, Xu Xianzhi, and Xie Hui deposed and murdered Liu Yifu. They installed on the throne Liu Yu's third son Liu Yilong 劉義隆 (407–453), who is known by his posthumous title Emperor Wen (r. 424–453). Although Emperor Wen was expected to do the bidding of court officers, by February 426 he began to assert his own authority. He executed Fu Liang, Xu Xianzhi, and Xie Hui. As a result of this purge, in 427 Xie Lingyun was invited back to court, where he was appointed director of the palace library in which capacity he participated in number of scholarly projects, including a history of the Jin dynasty and the composition of catalogue of the imperial collection and various anthologies. After two years in the capital, Xie became disgruntled with his lack of participation in policy decisions, and in April 428 he returned to Shining where he enjoyed a life of leisure and continued to write poetry. He also enjoyed the companionship of his younger cousin Xie Huilian 謝惠連 (397–433), He Zhangyu 何長瑜 (d. 444), Xun Yong 荀雍, and Yang Xuanzhi 羊璿之 (d. 459). They were known as the “Four Companions of Xie Lingyun.”

In 430, the magistrate of Guiji, Meng Yi 孟顗 (n.d.), who was an old enemy of Xie's, accused him of planning an insurrection. Xie rushed to the capital to protest his innocence. Emperor Wen did not punish Xie, but kept him in the capital where Xie was given the task of polishing up a translation of the Mahāparinirvāṇa sūtra (Discourse on the final nirvana) that had been done in the Later Liang by Dharmaks ̣ ema 曇無讖 (385–433).

In 431 Emperor Wen assigned Xie Lingyun as governor of Linchuan 臨川 (west of modern Fuzhou 撫州, Jiangxi). This was tantamount to an exile. On his way to his post, he visited Poyang Lake and Mount Lu. The following year Xie was impeached for neglect of duty. When the official came to put Xie under arrest, instead of submitting, he held the official captive. He fled the city, but was soon captured. In 433, as punishment, he was sentenced to banishment to Nanhai 南海, which is modern Guangzhou. A few months after arriving in Nanhai, Xie Lingyun's enemies accused him of arranging a plot to rebel and having himself rescued from exile. Xie was sentenced to death and publicly executed in the marketplace of Nanhai. On his way to execution, Xie reputedly cut off his splendid beard and presented it to a monastery to serve as a beard for an image of Vimalakirti.

Xie Lingyun's son Xie Feng 謝鳳 died in Nanhai. Feng's son Xie Chaozong 謝超宗 (d. 483) remained there until the end of the Yuanjia period (424–454). He became a famous literatus during the late Song and early Southern Qi periods.

Xie Lingyun has some ninety shi extant as well as a substantial prose collection. In addition to being a skilled poet, he was a painter and calligrapher. He also wrote one of the earliest known youji 遊記 (travel notes), the You mingshan zhi 遊名山志 (Journal on roaming famous mountains), which is only partially extant.

Xie Lingyun spent much of his leisure time in the mountains of Zhejiang and Jiangxi. He loved making long treks into the wilds. He reputedly was a skilled mountain climber and is credited with inventing a type of climbing boots that had removable studs. Xie found poetic and philosophical inspiration in the mountains. His long fu, “Shan ju fu,” to which he also wrote a commentary, is the most extensive mountain poem in Chinese literature.

In spite of Xie Lingyun's great love for nature, especially wild nature, he occasionally views the wilds, especially the mountains, as forbidding and terrifying. Never does Xie describe nature for its own sake, and he often presents the landscape as a barrier that he is unable to penetrate. In many of his poems, especially his early pieces written just after his dismissal from the capital, Xie appears almost overawed by the landscape, so much so that he cannot achieve any harmony with it, and he finds it difficult to escape completely from his worldly attachments, namely his desire to be of service to the state and continue associating with his good friends. Xie uses several key terms that are important to understanding his poetry. The first is shang 賞, which means “to appreciate.” As Xie Lingyun uses this term, shang refers to the appreciation of natural scenery that he so much admired. Linked with shang is li 理, which is variously translated as reason, innate principle of things, or the natural order. In Xie Lingyun, li has a transcendental sense, and he stresses that a mystical appreciation of landscape is the prerequisite for understanding li. Opposed to li in Xie Lingyun are shi 事, worldly, mundane affairs, and qing 情, worldly passions, attachment to shi. Shi and qing are barriers that prevent him from fully appreciating (shang) a natural scene. Xie finds it extremely difficult completely to remove himself from the world, and thus his confrontation with nature often is sorrowful.

The “Monograph on Bibliography” of the Sui shu (35.1072) lists a collection by Xie Lingyun in nineteen juan. A Liang catalogue listed a version in twenty juan plus a table of contents in one juan. This must have been lost already by Tang times. The two Tang histories record a collection of fifteen juan. This was lost in the Song. The extant collections are all late reconstructions. The earliest extant anthology of Xie Lingyun's poetry is contained in the San Xie shi 三謝詩 edited by Tang Geng 唐庚 (1071–1121) and printed in 1204. This contains forty poems by Xie Lingyun, five poems by Xie Huilian, and twenty-one poems by Xie Tiao. The earliest extant (but not complete) collection of Xie's works is the Xie Kangle ji 謝康樂集 edited by Shen Qiyuan 沈啟原 (Ming) and printed by Jiao Hong 焦竑 (1541–1620) in 1583.

Xie Lingyun compiled a large number of anthologies: Fu ji 賦集 (Collection of fu) in 92 juan, Shi ji 詩集 (Collection of poetry) in 50 juan, Shi ji chao 詩集鈔 (Extracts from the Shi ji) in 10 juan, Shi ying 詩英 (Blossoms of verse) in ten juan, Qi ji 七集 (Collection of sevens) in 10 juan, and Lianzhu ji 連珠集 (Collection of ‘strung pearls”) in 10 juan. These were all lost by the Song.

Xie Lingyun had a strong interest in Buddhism. In 412, he visited the Buddhist center at Mount Lu headed by Huiyuan. Xie Lingyun wrote a dirge upon Huiyuan's death. He mentions that he had admired Huiyuan from the early age of fifteen. However, Xie probably did not meet Huiyuan until some ten years later when Xie was serving as an aide to Liu Yu. We do not know how long Xie Lingyun stayed on Mount Lu, but we know that he was involved in an important event that occurred on Mount Lu in the spring of 412. Huiyuan had become interested in the story of Buddha's shadow, which was reported throughout Buddhist circles in China by the monk Faxian 法顯 (d. 421) who had seen it in the year 399 in a cave of Nagarahāra (modern Jelālābād, Afghanistan). This shadow reputedly had been left there by Buddha after his death. After hearing the account given by Faxian, Huiyuan decided to have a copy of the Buddha shadow painted on silk and put in a shrine that backed to a mountain and overlooked a river. This image was hung in the shrine on 27 May 412. Xie Lingyun was commissioned to write an inscription on it.

Xie Lingyun also was one of the first Chinese laymen to learn Sanskrit. He was also the first Chinese to write an account of the Kharos ̣t ̣i script. Xie Lingyun was also an expert in the Buddalogical realm. Xie together with two Buddhist monks polished up a Chinese translation of the Mahāparinirvāṇa sūtra. He also wrote a commentary to the Diamond Sutra and composed a set of eight encomia for analogies that the Vimalakirti sūtra uses to illustrate the impermanence of the human body (bubble, foam, flame, plantain, phantom, etc.). Perhaps Xie Lingyun's most famous Buddhist work is the “Bian zong lun” 辨宗論 (Disquisition on distinguishing the essentials) in which Xie argues that enlightenment can be attained “instantaneously.”

About 康樂縣侯 謝靈運 (中文)

《宋書 卷67》

謝靈運,陳郡陽夏人也。祖玄,晉車騎將軍。父瑍,生而不慧,為秘書郎,蚤亡。靈運幼便穎悟,玄甚異之,謂親知曰:「我乃生瑍,瑍那得生靈運!」

靈運少好學,博覽群書,文章之美,江左莫逮。從叔混特知愛之,襲封康樂公,食邑三千戶。以國公例,除員外散騎侍郎,不就。為琅邪王大司馬行參軍。性奢豪,車服鮮麗,衣裳器物,多改舊制,世共宗之,咸稱謝康樂也。撫軍將軍劉毅鎮姑孰,以為記室參軍。毅鎮江陵,又以為衛軍從事中郎。毅伏誅,高祖版為太尉參軍,入為秘書丞,坐事免。

高祖伐長安,驃騎將軍道憐居守,版為諮議參軍,轉中書侍郎,又為世子中軍諮議,黃門侍郎。奉使慰勞高祖於彭城,作《撰征賦》。其序曰:

蓋聞昏明殊位,貞晦異道,雖景度回革,亂多治寡,是故升平難於恆運,剝喪易以橫流。皇晉□□河汾,來遷吳楚,數歷九世,年逾十紀,西秦無一援之望,東周有三辱之憤,可謂積禍纏釁,固以久矣。況乃陵塋幽翳,情敬莫遂,日月推薄,帝心彌遠。慶靈將升,時來不爽,相國宋公,得一居貞,回乾運軸,內匡寰表,外清遐陬。每以區宇未統,側席盈慮。值天祚攸興,昧弱授機,龜筮元謀,符瑞景徵。於是仰祗俯協,順天從兆,興止戈之師,躬暫勞之討。以義熙十有二年五月丁酉,敬戒九伐,申命六軍,治兵于京畿,次師于汳上。靈檣千艘,靁輜萬乘,羽騎盈途,飛旍蔽日。別命群帥,誨謨惠策,法奇於《三略》,義秘於《六韜》。所以鉤棘未曜,殞前禽於金墉,威弧始彀,走鈒隼於滑臺。曾不踰月,二方獻捷。宏功懋德,獨絕古今。天子感《東山》之劬勞,慶格天之光大,明發興於鑒寐,使臣遵于原隰。余攝官承乏,謬充殊役,《皇華》愧於先《雅》,靡盬顇於征人。以仲冬就行,分春反命。塗經九守,路踰千里。沿江亂淮,溯薄泗、汳,詳觀城邑,周覽丘墳,眷言古跡,其懷已多。昔皇祖作藩,受命淮、徐,道固苞桑,勳由仁積。年月多歷,市朝已改,永為洪業,纏懷清曆。於是釆訪故老,尋履往跡,而遠感深慨,痛心殞涕。遂寫集聞見,作賦《撰征》,俾事運遷謝,託此不朽。其詞曰:

系烈山之洪緒,承火正之明光。立熙載於唐后,申譖事於周王。疇庸命而順位,錫寶珪以徹疆。歷尚代而平顯,降中葉以繁昌。業服道而德徽,風行世而化揚。投前蹤以永冀,省輶質以遠傷。睽謀始於蓍蔡,違用舍於行藏。

庇常善之罔棄,憑曲成之不遺。昭在幽而偕煦,賞彌久而愈私。顧晚草之薄弱,仰青春之葳蕤。引蔓穎於松上,擢纖枝於蘭逵。施隆貸而有渥,報涓塵而無期。歡太階之休明,穆皇道之緝熙。

惟王建國,辨方定隅,內外既正,華夷有殊。惟昔《小雅》,逮于班書,戎蠻孔熾,是殛是誅。所以宣王用棘於獫狁,高帝方事於匈奴。然侵鎬至涇,自塞及平。闚郊伺鄙,□□□□。慕攜王之矯處,階喪亂之未寧。竊彊秦之三輔,陷隆周之兩京。雄崤、澠以制險,據繞霤而作扃。家永懷於故壤,國願言於先塋。俟太平之曠期,屬應運之聖明。坤寄通於四瀆,乾假照於三辰。水潤土以顯比,火炎天而同人。惟上相之叡哲,當草昧而經綸。總九流以貞觀,協五才而平分。時來之機,悟先於介石,納隍之誡,一援於生民。龜筮允臧,人鬼同情。順天行誅,司典詳刑。樹牙選徒,秉鉞抗旍。弧矢罄楚孝之心智,戈棘單吳子之精靈。

迅三翼以魚麗,襄兩服以雁逝。陣未列於都甸,威已振於秦、薊。灑嚴霜於渭城,被和風於洛汭。就終古以比猷,考墳冊而莫契。昔西怨於東徂,今北伐而南悲。豈朝野之恆情,動萬乘之幽思。歌零雨於《豳風》,興《采薇》於周詩。慶金墉之凱定,眷戎車之遷時。佇千里而感遠,涉弦望而懷期。詔微臣以勞問,奉王命於河湄。夕飲餞以俶裝,旦出宿而言辭。歲既晏而繁慮,日將邁而戀乖。闕敬恭於桑梓,謝履長於庭階。冒沈雲之晻藹,迎素雪之紛霏。淩結湍而凝清,風矜籟以揚哀。情在本而易阜,物雖末而難懷。眷余勤以就路,苦憂來其城頹。

爾乃經雉門,啟浮梁,眺鍾巖,越查塘。覽永嘉之紊維,尋建武之緝綱。于時內慢神器,外侮戎狄。君子橫流,庶萌分析。主晉有祀,福祿來格。明兩降覽,三七辭厄。元誕德以膺緯,肇回光於陽宅。明思服於下武,興繼代以消逆。簡文因心以秉道,故沖用而刑廢。孝武捨己以杖賢,亦寧外而治內。觀日化而就損,庶雍熙之可對。閔隆安之致寇,傷龜玉之毀碎。漏妖凶於滄洲,纏釁難而盈紀。時焉依於晉、鄭,國有蹙於百里。賴英謨之經營,弘兼濟以忘己。主寰內而緩虞,澄海外以漬滓。至如昏祲蔽景,鼎祚傾基。《黍離》有歎,《鴻雁》無期。瞻天命之貞符,秉順動而履機。率駿民之思效,普邦國而同歸。蕩積霾之穢氛,啟披陰之光暉。反平陵之杳藹,復七廟之依俙。務役簡而農勸,每勞賞而忠甄。燮時雍於祖宗,□□□□□□。掃逋醜於漢渚,滌僭逆於岷山。羈巢處於西木,引鼻飲於源淵。惠要襋而思韙,援冠弁而來處。

視冶城而北屬,懷文獻之收揚。匪元首之康哉,孰股肱之惟良。譬觀曲而識節,似綴組以成章。業彌纏而彌微,事愈有而莫傷。次石頭之雙岸,究孫氏之初基。幸漢庶之漏網,憑江介以抗維。初鵲起於富春,果鯨躍於川湄。匝三世而國盛,歷五偽而宗夷。察成敗之相仍,猶脣亡而齒寒。載十二而謂紀,豈蜀滅而吳安。眾咸昧於謀兆,羊獨悟於理端。請廣武以誨情,樹襄陽以作藩。拾建業其如遺,沿萬里而誰難。疾魯荒之詖辭,惡京陵之譖言。責當朝之憚貶,對曩籍而興歎。

敦怙寵而判違,敵既勍而國圮。彼問鼎而何階,必先賊於君子。原性分之異託,雖殊塗而歸美。或卷舒以愚智,或治亂其如矢。謝昧跡而託規,卒安身以全里。周顯節而犯逆,抱正情而喪己。

薄四望而尤眄,歎王路之中鯁。蠢干越之妖燼,敢淩蹈於五嶺。崩雙嶽於中流,擬凶威於荊郢。隱雷霆於帝坐,飛芒鏃於宮省。于時朝有遷都之議,人無守死之志。師旅痛於久勤,城墉闕於素備。安危勢在不侔,眾寡形於見事。於赫淵謀,研其神策。緩轡待機,追奔躡跡。遇雷池而振曜,次彭蠡而殲滌。穆京甸以清晏,撤多壘而寧役。

造白石之祠壇,懟二豎之無君。踐掖庭以幽辱,凌祧社而火焚。愍文康之罪己,嘉忠武之立勳。道有屈於災蝕,功無謝於如仁。訊落星之饗旅,索舊棲於吳餘。跡階戺而不見,橫榛卉以荒除。彼生成之樂辰,亦猶今之在余。慨齊吟於爽鳩,悲唐歌於《山樞》。

弔偽孫於徐首,率君臣以奉疆。時運師以伐罪,偏投書於武王。迄西北之落紐,乏東南以振綱。誠鉅平之先覺,實中興之後祥。據左史之攸徵,胡影跡之可量。過江乘而責始,知遇雄之無謀。厭紫微之宏凱,甘陵波而遠遊。越雲夢而南泝,臨浙河而東浮。彀連弩於川上,候蛟龍於中流。

爰薄方與,迺屆歐陽。入夫江都之域,次乎廣陵之鄉。易千里之曼曼,泝江流之湯湯。洊赤圻以經復,越二門而起漲。眷北路以興思,看東山而怡目。林叢薄,路逶迤,石參差,山盤曲。水激瀨而駿奔,日映石而知旭。審兼照之無偏,怨歸流之難濯。羨輕魵之涵泳,觀翔鷗之落啄。在飛沈其順從,顧微躬而緬邈。

於是抑懷蕩慮,揚搉易難。利涉以吉,天險以艱。于敵伊阻,在國斯便。勾踐行霸於琅邪,夫差爭長於黃川。葛相發歎而思正,曹后愧心於千魂。登高堞以詳覽,知吳濞之衰盛。戒東南之逆氣,成劉后之駴聖。藉鹽鐵之殷阜,臨淮楚之剽輕。盛几杖而弭心,怒抵局而遂爭。忿爰盎之扶禍,惜徒傷於家令。匪條侯之忠毅,將七國之陵正。褒漢藩之治民,竝訪賢以招明。侯文辨其誰在,曰鄒陽與枚生。據忠辭於吳朝,執義說於梁庭。敷高才於兔園,雖正言而免刑。闕里既已千載,深儒流於末學。欽仲舒之睟容,遵縫掖於前躅。對園囿而不闚,下帷幕而論屬。相端、非之兩驕,遭弘、偃之雙慝。恨有道之無時,步險塗以側足。

聞宣武之大閱,反師旅於此廛。自皇運之都東,始昌業以濟難。抗素旄於秦嶺,揚朱旗於巴川。懼帝系之墜緒,故黜昏而崇賢。嘉收功以垂世,嗟在嗣而覆旃。德非陟而繼宰,釁踰禹其必顛。

造步丘而長想,欽太傅之遺武。思嘉遁之餘風,紹素履之落緒。民志應而願稅,國屯難而思撫。譬乘舟之待楫,象提釣之假縷。揔出入於和就,兼仁用於默語。弘九流以拮四維,復先陵而清舊宇。卻西州之成功,指東山之歸予。惜圖南之啟運,恨鵬翼之未舉。

發津潭而迥邁,逗白馬以憩舲。貫射陽而望邗溝,濟通淮而薄甬城。城坡陁兮淮驚波,平原遠兮路交過。面艽野兮悲橋梓,遡急流兮苦磧沙。夐千里而無山,緬百谷而有居。被宿莽以迷徑,睹生煙而知墟。□□□□□□,謂信美其可娛。身少長於樂土,實長歎於荒餘。□□□□具瘁,值歲寒之窮節。視層雲之崔巍,聆悲飆之掩屑。彌晝夜以滯淫,怨凝陰之方結。望新晴於落日,起明光於躋月。眷轉蓬之辭根,悼朔雁之赴越。披微物而疚情,此思心其可說。問傜役其幾時,駭閱景於興沒。感曰歸於《采薇》,子來思於雨雪。豈初征之懼對,冀鸛鳴之在垤。

□□□□踰宿,騖吾楫於邳鄉。奚車正以事夏,虺左相以輔湯。綿三代而享邑,廁踐土之一匡。嗟仲幾之寵侮,遂捨存以徵亡。喜薛宰之善對,美士彌之能綱。升曲垣之逶迤,訪淮陰之所都。原入跨之達恥,俟遭時以遠圖。捨西楚以擇木,迨南漢以定謨。亂孟津而魏滅,攀井陘而趙徂。播靈威於齊橫,振餘猛於龍且。觀讓通而告豨,曷始智而終愚。

迄沂上而停枻,登高圯而不進。石幽期而知賢,張揣景而示信。本文成之素心,要王子於雲仞。豈無累於清霄,直有槩於貞吝。始熙績於武關,卒敷功於皇胤。處夷險以解挫,弘憂虞以時順。矜、華之翳晷,哀飛驂之落駿。傷粒食而興念,眷逸翮而思振。

戾臣山而東顧,美相公之前代。嗟殘虜之將糜,熾餘猋於海濟。驅鮐稚於淮曲,暴鰥孤於泗澨。託未命□□雲,冀靈武之北閱。惟授首之在晨,當盛暑而選徒。肅嚴威以振響,漸溫澤而沾腴。既雲撤於朐城,遂席捲於齊都。曩四關其奚阻,道一變而是孚。

傷炎季之崩弛,長逆布以滔天。假父子以詐愛,借兄弟以偽恩。相魏武以譎狂,宄謨奮於東藩。桴未譟於東郭,身已馘於樓門。審貢牧於前說,證所作於舊徐。聆泗川之浮磬,翫夷水之蠙珠。草漸苞於熾壤,桐孤幹於嶧隅。慨禹跡於尚世,惠遺文於《夏書》。

紛征邁之淹留,彌懷古於舊章。商伯文於故服,咸徵名於彭、殤。眺靈壁之曾峰,投呂縣之迅梁。想蹈水之行歌,雖齊汩其何傷。啟仲尼之嘉問,告性命以依方。豈苟然於迂論,聆寓言於達莊。

於是濫石橋,登戲臺。策馬釣渚,息轡城隅。永感四山,零淚雙渠。怨物華之推驛,慨舟壑之遞遷。謂徂歲之悠闊,結幽思之方根。感皇祖之徽德,爰識沖而量淵。降俊明以鏡鑒,回風猷以昭宣。道既底於國難,惠有覃於黎元。士頌歌於政教,民謠詠於渥恩。兼《采芑》之致美,協《漢廣》之發言。彊虎氐之搏翼,灟雲網於所禁。驅黔萌以蘊崇,取園陵而湮沈。錫殘落於河西,序淪胥於漢陰。攻方城而折扃,擾譙潁其誰任。世闕才而貽亂,時得賢而興治。救祖考之邦壤,在幽人而枉志。體飛書之遠情,悟犒師之通識。迨明達之高覽,契古今而同事。拔淵謨於潛機,騁神鋒於雲斾。驅斥澤而風靡,蹙坑谷而鳥竄。中華免夫左衽,江表此焉緩帶。既克黜於肥六,又作鎮於彭沛。晏皇塗於國內,震天威於河外。掃東齊而已寧,指西崤而將泰。值秉均而代謝,實大業之興廢。心無忝於樂生,事有像於燕惠。抱明哲之不伐,奉宏勳而是稅。捐七州以爰來,歸五湖以投袂。屈盛績於平生,申遠期於暮歲。

訪曩載於宋鄙,採《陽秋》於魯經。晉申好於東吳,鄭憑威於南荊。故反師於曹門,將以塞於夷庚。納五叛以長寇,伐三邑以侵彭。美西鋤之忠辭,快韓厥之奇兵。追項王之故臺,跡霸楚之遺端。挺宏志於總角,奮英勢於弱冠。氣蓋天而倒日,力拔山而傾湍。始飆起於勾越,中電激於衡關。興偏慮於攸吝,忘即易於所難。忌陳錦而莫照,思反鄉而有歎。且夫殺義害嬰,而⟟豐疑,緤賢不策,失位誰持。迨理屈而愈閉,方怨天而懷悲。對駿騅以發憤,傷虞姝於末詞。陟亞父之故營,諒謀始之非託。遭衰嬴之崩綱,值威炎之結絡。迄皓首於阜陵,猶謬覺於然諾。視一人於三傑,豈在己之庸弱。置豐沛而不舉,故自同於俎鑊。

發卞口而遊歷,迄西山而弭轡。觀終古之幽憤,懷元王之沖粹。丁戰國之權爭,方恬心於道肆。學浮丘以就德,友三儒以成類。潔流始於初源,累仁基於前美。撥楚族之休烈,傳芳素於來祀。彊見譽於清虛,德致稱於千里。或避寵以辭姻,或遺榮而不仕。政直言以安身,駿絕才以喪己。驅通道之成終,表昧世之虧始。悟介焉之已差,則不俟於終日。既防萌於未著,雖念德其何益。

爾乃孟陬發節,雷隱蟄驚。散葉荑柯,芳蘤飾萌。麥萋萋於旄丘,柳依依於高城。相雎鳩之集河,觀鳴鹿之食苹。沂泗遠兮清川急,秋冬近兮緒風襲。風流蕙兮水增瀾,訴愁衿兮鑒戚顏。愁盈根而蕰際,戚發條而成端。嗟我行之彌日,待征邁而言旋。荷慶雲之優渥,周雙七於此年。陶逸豫於京甸,違險難於行川。轉歸弦而眷戀,望脩檣而流漣。願關鄴之遄清,遲華鑾之凱旋。穆淳風於六合,溥洪澤於八埏。頒賢愚於大小,順規矩於方圓。固四民之獲所,宜稅稷於萊田。苦邯鄲之難步,庶行迷之易痊。長守樸以終稔,亦拙者之政焉。

仍除宋國黃門侍郎,遷相國從事中郎,世子左衛率。坐輒殺門生,免官。高祖受命,降公爵為侯,食邑五百戶。起為散騎常侍,轉太子左衛率。靈運為性褊激,多愆禮度,朝廷唯以文義處之,不以應實相許。自謂才能宜參權要,既不見知,常懷憤憤。廬陵王義真少好文籍,與靈運情款異常。少帝即位,權在大臣,靈運構扇異同,非毀執政,司徒徐羨之等患之,出為永嘉太守。郡有名山水,靈運素所愛好,出守既不得志,遂肆意遊遨,遍歷諸縣,動踰旬朔,民間聽訟,不復關懷。所至輒為詩詠,以致其意焉。在郡一周,稱疾去職,從弟晦、燿、弘微等竝與書止之,不從。

靈運父祖竝葬始寧縣,并有故宅及墅,遂移籍會稽,脩營別業,傍山帶江,盡幽居之美。與隱士王弘之、孔淳之等縱放為娛,有終焉之志。每有一詩至都邑,貴賤莫不競寫,宿昔之間,士庶皆徧,遠近欽慕,名動京師。作《山居賦》并自注,以言其事。曰:

古巢居穴處曰岩棲,棟宇居山曰山居,在林野曰丘園,在郊郭曰城傍,四者不同,可以理推。言心也,黃屋實不殊於汾陽;即事也,山居良有異乎市廛。抱疾就閑,順從性情,敢率所樂,而以作賦。揚子雲云:「詩人之賦麗以則。」文體宜兼,以成其美。今所賦既非京都宮觀、遊獵聲色之盛,而敘山野草木、水石穀稼之事,才乏昔人,心放俗外,詠於文則可勉而就之,求麗邈以遠矣。覽者廢張、左之豔辭,尋臺、皓之深意,去飾取素,儻值其心耳。意實言表,而書不盡,遺跡索意,託之有賞。其辭曰:

謝子臥疾山頂,覽古人遺書,與其意合,悠然而笑曰:夫道可重,故物為輕;理宜存,故事斯忘。古今不能革,質文咸其常。合宮非縉雲之館,衢室豈放勳之堂。邁深心於鼎湖,送高情於汾陽。嗟文成之卻粒,願追松以遠遊。嘉陶朱之鼓棹,乃語種以免憂。判身名之有辨,權榮素其無留。孰如牽犬之路既寡,聽鶴之途何由哉!

若夫巢穴以風露貽患,則《大壯》以棟宇袪弊;宮室以瑤琁致美,則白賁以丘園殊世。惟上□於岩壑,幸兼善而罔滯。雖非市朝而寒暑均和,雖是築構而餝朴兩逝。

昔仲長願言,流水高山;應璩作書,邙阜洛川。勢有偏側,地闕周員。銅陵之奧,卓氏充釽摫之端;金谷之麗,石子致音徽之觀。徒形域之薈蔚,惜事異於棲盤。至若鳳、叢二臺,雲夢、青丘,漳渠、淇園,橘林、長洲,雖千乘之珍苑,孰嘉遁之所遊。且山川之未備,亦何議於兼求。

覽明達之撫運,乘機緘而理默。指歲暮而歸休,詠宏徽於刊勒。狹三閭之喪江,矜望諸之去國。選自然之神麗,盡高棲之意得。

仰前哲之遺訓,俯性情之所便。奉微軀以宴息,保自事以乘閑。愧班生之夙悟,慚尚子之晚研。年與疾而偕來,志乘拙而俱旋。謝平生於知遊,棲清曠於山川。

其居也,左湖右江,往渚還汀。面山背阜,東阻西傾。抱含吸吐,款跨紆縈。綿聯邪亙,側直齊平。

近東則上田、下湖,西豁、南谷,石堟、石滂,閔硎、黃竹。決飛泉於百仞,森高薄於千麓。寫長源於遠江,泒深毖於近瀆。

近南則會以雙流,縈以三洲。表裏回游,離合山川。崿崩飛於東峭,槃傍薄於西阡。拂青林而激波,揮白沙而生漣。

近西則楊、賓接峰,唐皇連縱。室、壁帶谿,曾、孤臨江。竹緣浦以被綠,石照澗而映紅。月隱山而成陰,木鳴柯以起風。

近北則二巫結湖,兩軿通沼。橫、石判盡,休、周分表。引脩堤之逶迤,吐泉流之浩溔。山磯下而回澤,瀨石上而開道。

遠東則天台、桐柏,方石、太平,二韭、四明,五奧、三菁。表神異於緯牒,驗感應于於靈。淩石橋之莓苔,越楢谿之紆縈。

遠南則松箴、棲雞,唐嵫、漫石。崪、嵊對嶺,釐、孟分隔。入極浦而邅回,迷不知其所適。上嶔崎而蒙籠,下深沉而澆激。

遠西則。

遠北則長江永歸,巨海延納。崐漲緬曠,島嶼綢沓。山縱橫以布護,水回沉而縈浥。信荒極之綿眇,究風波之睽合。

徒觀其南術之□,□□生磯,□□成衍。□岸測深,相渚知淺。洪濤滿則曾石沒,清瀾減則沉沙顯。及風興濤作,水勢奔壯。于歲春秋,在月朔望。湯湯驚波,滔滔駭浪。電激雷崩,飛流灑漾。淩絕壁而起岑,橫中流而連薄。始迅轉而騰天,終倒底而見壑。此楚貳心醉於吳客,河靈懷慚於海若。

爾其舊居,曩宅今園,枌□□槿尚援,基井具存。曲術周乎前後,直陌矗其東西。豈伊臨谿而傍沼,迺抱阜而帶山。考封域之靈異,實茲境之最然。葺駢梁於巖麓,棲孤棟於江源。敞南戶以對遠嶺,闢東窗以矚近田。田連岡而盈疇,嶺枕水而通阡。

阡陌縱橫,塍埒交經。導渠引流,脈散溝并。蔚蔚豐秫,苾苾香秔。送夏蚤秀,迎秋晚成。兼有陵陸,麻麥粟菽。候時覘節,遞藝遞孰。供粒食與漿飲,謝工商與衡牧。生何待於多資,理取足於滿腹。

自園之田,自田之湖。氾濫川上,緬邈水區。濬潭澗而窈窕,除菰洲之紆餘。毖溫泉於春流,馳寒波而秋徂。風生浪於蘭渚,日倒景於椒塗。飛漸榭於中沚,取水月之歡娛。旦延陰而物清,夕棲芬而氣敷。顧情交之永絕,覬雲客之暫如。

水草則萍藻蕰菼,雚蒲芹蓀,蒹菰蘋蘩,蕝荇菱蓮。雖備物之偕美,獨扶渠之華鮮。播綠葉之鬱茂,含紅敷之繽翻。怨清香之難留,矜盛容之易闌。必充給而後搴,豈蕙草之空殘。卷《敂弦》之逸曲,感《江南》之哀歎。秦箏倡而溯游往,《唐上》奏而舊愛還。

《本草》所載,山澤不一。靁、桐是別,和、緩是悉。參核六根,五華九實。二冬竝稱而殊性,三建異形而同出。水香送秋而擢蒨,林蘭近雪而揚猗。卷柏萬代而不殞,伏苓千歲而方知。映紅葩於綠蔕,茂素蕤於紫枝。既住年而增靈,亦驅妖而斥疵。

其竹則二箭殊葉,四苦齊味。水石別谷,巨細各匯。既脩竦而便娟,亦蕭森而蓊蔚。露夕沾而悽陰,風朝振而清氣。捎玄雲以拂杪,臨碧潭而挺翠。蔑上林與淇澳,驗東南之所遺。企山陽之游踐,遲鸞鷖之棲託。憶昆園之悲調,慨伶倫之哀籥。衛女行而思歸詠,楚客放而防露作。

其木則松柏檀櫟,□□桐榆。檿柘穀棟,楸梓檉樗。剛柔性異,貞脆質殊。卑高沃塉,各隨所如。幹合抱以隱岑,杪千仞而排虛。夌岡上而喬竦,蔭澗下而扶疏。沿長谷以傾柯,攢積石以插衢。華映水而增光,氣結風而回敷。當嚴勁而蔥倩,承和煦而芬腴。送墜葉於秋晏,遲含萼於春初。

植物既載,動類亦繁。飛泳騁透,胡可根源。觀皃相音,備列山川。寒燠順節,隨宜匪敦。

魚則齇鱧鮒鱮,鱒鯇鰱鯿,魴鮪魦鱖,鱨鯉鯔鱣。輯采雜色,錦爛雲鮮。唼藻戲浪,汎苻流淵。或皷鰓而湍躍,或掉尾而波旋。鱸鮆乘時以入浦,鱤鷰沿瀨以出泉。

鳥則鵾鴻鶂鵠,鶖鷺鴇ꂼ。雞鵲繡質,鶷鸐綬章。晨鳧朝集,時鷮山梁。海鳥違風,朔禽避涼。荑生歸北,霜降客南。接響雲漢,侶宿江潭。聆清哇以下聽,載王子而上參。薄回涉以弁翰,映明壑而自耽。

山上則猨䟤貍貛,犴獌猰䟣。山下則熊羆豺虎,羱鹿麕麖。擲飛枝於窮崖,踔空絕於深硎。蹲谷底而長嘯,攀木杪而哀鳴。

緡綸不投,置羅不披。磻弋靡用,蹄筌誰施。鑒虎狼之有仁,傷遂欲之無崖。顧弱齡而涉道,悟好生之咸宜。率所由以及物,諒不遠之在斯。撫鷗䱔而悅豫,杜機心於林池。

敬承聖誥,恭窺前經。山野昭曠,聚落羶腥。故大慈之弘誓,拯群物之淪傾。豈寓地而空言,必有貸以善成。欽鹿野之華苑,羨靈鷲之名山。企堅固之貞林,希菴羅之芳園。雖綷容之緬邈,謂哀音之恆存。建招提於幽峰,冀振錫之息肩。庶鐙王之贈席,想香積之惠餐。事在微而思通,理匪絕而可溫。

爰初經略,杖策孤征。入澗水涉,登嶺山行。陵頂不息,窮泉不停。櫛風沐雨,犯露乘星。研其淺思,罄其短規。非龜非筮,擇良選奇。翦榛開徑,尋石覓崖。四山周回,雙流逶迤。面南嶺,建經臺;倚北阜,築講堂。傍危峰,立禪室;臨浚流,列僧房。對百年之高木,納萬代之芬芳。抱終古之泉源,美膏液之清長。謝麗塔於郊郭,殊世間於城傍。欣見素以抱樸,果甘露於道場。

苦節之僧,明發懷抱。事紹人徒,心通世表。是遊是憩,倚石構草。寒暑有移,至業莫矯。觀三世以其夢,撫六度以取道。乘恬知以寂泊,含和理之窈窕。指東山以冥期,實西方之潛兆。雖一日以千載,猶恨相遇之不早。

賤物重己,棄世希靈。駭彼促年,愛是長生。冀浮丘之誘接,望安期之招迎。甘松桂之苦味,夷皮褐以頹形。羨蟬蛻之匪日,撫雲蜺其若驚。陵名山而屢憩,過巖室而披情。雖未階於至道,且緬絕於世纓。指松菌而興言,良未齊於殤彭。

山作水役,不以一牧。資待各徒,隨節競逐。陟嶺刊木,除榛伐竹。抽筍自篁,擿篛于谷。揚勝所拮,秋冬潌獲。野有蔓草,獵涉蘡薁。亦醖山清,介爾景福。苦以朮成,甘以⸙熟。慕椹高林,剝芨巖椒。掘蒨陽崖,擿⹛陰摽。晝見搴茅,宵見索綯。芟菰翦蒲,以薦以茭。既坭既埏,品收不一。其灰其炭,咸各有律。六月采蜜,八月樸栗。備物為繁,略載靡悉。

若乃南北兩居,水通陸阻。觀風瞻雲,方知厥所。南山則夾渠二田,周嶺三苑。九泉別澗,五谷異巘。群峰參差出其間,連岫椱陸成其阪。眾流溉灌以環近,諸堤擁抑以接遠。遠堤兼陌,近流開湍。淩阜泛波,水往步還。還回往匝,枉渚員巒。呈美表趣,胡可勝單。杭北頂以葺館,殷南峰以啟軒。羅曾崖於戶裏,列鏡瀾於窗前。因丹霞以赬楣,附碧雲以翠椽。視奔星之俯馳,顧□□之未牽。鵾鴻翻翥而莫及,何但燕雀之翩翾。氿泉傍出,潺湲於東簷;桀壁對歭,硿礲於西霤。脩竹葳蕤以翳薈,灌木森沉以蒙茂。蘿曼延以攀援,花芬薰而媚秀。日月投光於柯間,風露披清於隈岫。夏涼寒燠,隨時取適。階基回互,橑櫺乘隔。此焉卜寢,翫水弄石。邇即回眺,終歲罔斁。傷美物之遂化,怨浮齡之如借。眇遯逸於人群,長寄心於雲霓。

因以小湖,鄰於其隈。眾流所湊,萬泉所回。氿濫異形,首毖終肥。別有山水,路邈緬歸。

求歸其路,迺界北山。棧道傾虧,蹬閣連卷。復有水逕,繚繞回圓。瀰瀰平湖,泓泓澄淵。孤岸竦秀,長洲芊綿。既瞻既眺,曠矣悠然。及其二川合流,異源同口。赴隘入險,俱會山首。瀨排沙以積丘,峰倚渚以起阜。石傾瀾而梢巖,木映波而結藪。逕南漘以橫前,轉北崖而掩後。隱叢灌故悉晨暮,託星宿以知左右。往反經過,

山川澗石,州岸草木。既摽異於前章,亦列同於後牘。山匪砠而是岵,川有清而無濁。石傍林而插巖,泉協澗而下谷。淵轉渚而散芳,岸靡沙而映竹。草迎冬而結葩,樹凌霜而振綠。向陽則在寒而納煦,面陰則當暑而含雪。連岡則積嶺以隱嶙,舉峰則群竦以άᾲ。浮泉飛流以寫空,沈波潛溢於洞穴。凡此皆異所而咸善,殊節而俱悅。

春秋有待,朝夕須資。既耕以飯,亦桑貿衣。藝菜當肴,採藥救頹。自外何事,順性靡違。法音晨聽,放生夕歸。研書賞理,敷文奏懷。凡厥意謂,揚較以揮。且列于言,誡特此推。

北山二園,南山三苑。百果備列,乍近乍遠。羅行布株,迎早候晚。猗蔚溪澗,森疏崖巘。杏壇㮈園,橘林、栗圃。桃李多品,梨棗殊所。枇杷林檎,帶谷映渚。椹梅流芬於回巒,椑柿被實於長浦。

畦町所藝,含蕊藉芳,蓼蕺葼薺,葑菲蘇薑。綠葵眷節以懷露,白薤感時而負霜。寒蔥摽倩以陵陰,春藿吐苕以近陽。

弱質難恆,頹齡易喪。撫鬢生悲,視顏自傷。承清府之有術,冀在衰之可壯。尋名山之奇藥,越靈波而憩轅。採石上之地黃,摘竹下之天門。摭曾嶺之細辛,拔幽澗之溪蓀。訪鐘乳於洞穴,訊丹陽於紅泉。

安居二時,冬夏三月。遠僧有來,近眾無闕。法鼓朗響,頌偈清發。散華霏蕤,流香飛越。析曠劫之微言,說像法之遺旨。乘此心之一豪,濟彼生之萬理。啟善趣於南倡,歸清暢於北機。非獨愜於予情,諒僉感於君子。山中兮清寂,群紛兮自絕。周聽兮匪多,得理兮俱悅。寒風兮搔屑,面陽兮常熱。炎光兮隆熾,對陰兮霜雪。愒曾臺兮陟雲根,坐澗下兮越風穴。在茲城而諧賞,傳古今之不滅。

好生之篤,以我而觀。懼命之盡,吝景之歡。分一往之仁心,拔萬族之險難。招驚魂於殆化,收危形於將闌。漾水性於江流,吸雲物於天端。睹騰翰之頏頡,視皷鰓之往還。馳騁者儻能狂愈,猜害者或可理攀。

哲人不存,懷抱誰質。糟粕猶在,啟縢剖帙。見柱下之經二,睹濠上之篇七。承未散之全樸,救已頹於道術。嗟夫!六藝以宣聖教,九流以判賢徒。國史以載前紀,家傳以申世模。篇章以陳美刺,論難以覈有無。兵技醫日,龜莢筮夢之法,風角冢宅,筭數律曆之書。或平生之所流覽,竝於今而棄諸。驗前識之喪道,抱一德而不渝。

伊昔齠齔,實愛斯文。援紙握管,會性通神。詩以言志,賦以敷陳。箴銘誄頌,咸各有倫。爰暨山棲,彌歷年紀。幸多暇日,自求諸己。研精靜慮,貞觀厥美。懷秋成章,含笑奏理。

若乃乘攝持之告,評養達之篇。畏絕跡之不遠,懼行地之多艱。均上皇之自昔,忌下衰之在旃。投吾心於高人,落賓名於聖賢。廣滅景於崆峒,許遁音於箕山。愚假駒以表谷,涓隱巖以搴芳。□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□□萊庇蒙以織畚。皓棲商而頤志,卿寢茂而敷詞。□□□□□□,鄭別谷而永逝。梁去霸而之會,□□□□□□。高居唐而胥宇,臺依崖而穴墀。咸自得以窮年,眇貞思於所遺。

暨其窈窕幽深,寂漠虛遠。事與情乖,理與形反。既耳目之靡端,豈足跡之所踐。蘊終古於三季,俟通明於五眼。權近慮以停筆,抑淺知而絕簡。

太祖登祚,誅徐羨之等,徵為秘書監,再召不起,上使光祿大夫范泰與靈運書敦獎之,乃出就職。使整理秘閣書,補足闕文。以晉氏一代,自始至終,竟無一家之史,令靈運撰《晉書》,粗立條流;書竟不就。尋遷侍中,日夕引見,賞遇甚厚。靈運詩書皆兼獨絕,每文竟,手自寫之,文帝稱為二寶。既自以名輩,才能應參時政,初被召,便以此自許;既至,文帝唯以文義見接,每侍上宴,談賞而已。王曇首、王華、殷景仁等,名位素不踰之,並見任遇,靈運意不平,多稱疾不朝直。穿池植援,種竹樹堇,驅課公役,無復期度。出郭游行或一日百六七十里,經旬不歸,既無表聞,又不請急。上不欲傷大臣,諷旨令自解。靈運乃上表陳疾,上賜假東歸。將行,上書勸伐河北,曰:

自中原喪亂,百有餘年,流離寇戎,湮沒殊類。先帝聰明神武,哀濟群生,將欲蕩定趙魏,大同文軌,使久凋反於正化,偏俗歸於華風。運謝事乖,理違願絕,仰德抱悲,恨存生盡。況陵塋未幾,凶虜伺隙,預在有識,誰不憤歎。而景平執事,並非其才,且遘紛京師,豈慮託付。遂使孤城窮陷,莫肯極。忠烈囚朔漠,綿河三千,翻為寇有。晚遣鎮戍,皆先朝之所開拓,一旦淪亡,此國恥宜雪,被於近事者也。又北境自染逆虜,窮苦備罹,徵調賦斂,靡有止已,所求不獲,輒致誅殞,身禍家破,闔門比屋,此亦仁者所為傷心者也。

咸云西虜舍末,遠師隴外,東虜乘虛,呼可掩襲。西軍既反,得據關中,長圍咸陽,還路已絕,雖遣救援,停住河東,遂乃遠討大城,欲為首尾。而西寇深山重阻,根本自固,徒棄巢窟,未足相拯。師老於外,國虛永內,時來之會,莫復過此。觀兵耀威,實在茲日。若相持未已,或生事變,忽值新起之眾,則異於今,苟乖其時,難為經略,雖兵食倍多,則萬全無必矣。又歷觀前代,類以兼弱為本,古今聖德,未之或殊。豈不以天時人事,理數相得,興亡之度,定期居然。故古人云:「既見天殃,又見人災,乃可以謀。」昔魏氏之強,平定荊、冀,乃乘袁、劉之弱;晉世之盛,拓開吳、蜀,亦因葛、陸之衰。此皆前世成事,著於史策者也。自羌平之後,天下亦謂虜當俱滅,長驅滑臺,席捲下城,奪氣喪魄,指日就盡。

但長安違律,潼關失守,用緩天誅,假延歲月,日來至今,十有二載,是謂一紀,曩有前言。況五胡代數齊世,虜期餘命,盡於來年。自相攻伐,兩取其困,卞莊之形,驗之今役。仰望聖澤,有若渴饑,注心南雲,為日已久。來蘇之冀,實歸聖明,此而弗乘,後則未兆。即日府藏,誠無兼儲,然凡造大事,待國富兵強,不必乘會,於我為易,貴在得時。器械既充,眾力粗足,方於前後,乃當有優。常議損益,久證冀州口數,百萬有餘,田賦之沃,著自《貢》典,先才經創,基趾猶存,澄流引源,桑麻蔽野,強富之實,昭然可知。為國長久之計,孰若一往之費邪!

或懲關西之敗,而謂河北難守。二境形勢,表裏不同,關西雜居,種類不一,昔在前漢,屯軍霸上,通火甘泉。況乃遠戍之軍,值新故交代之際者乎!河北悉是舊戶,差無雜人,連嶺判阻,三關作隘。若遊騎長驅,則沙漠風靡;若嚴兵守塞,則冀方山固。昔隴西傷破,鼂錯興言;匈奴慢侮,賈誼憤歎。方於今日,皆為賒矣。

晉武中主耳,值孫晧虐亂,天祚其德,亦由鉅平奉策,荀、賈折謀,故能業崇當年,區宇一統。況今陛下聰明聖哲,天下歸仁,文德與武功竝震,霜威共素風俱舉,協以宰輔賢明,諸王美令,岳牧宣烈,虎臣盈朝,而天或遠命,亦何敵不滅,矧伊頑虜,假日而已哉!伏惟深機志務,久定神謨。臣卑賤側陋,竄景巖穴,實仰希太平之道,傾睹岱宗之封,雖乏相如之筆,庶免史談之憤,以此謝病京師,萬無恨矣。久欲上陳,懼在觸置,蒙賜恩假,暫違禁省,消渴十年,常慮朝露,抱此愚志,昧死以聞。

靈運以疾東歸,而遊娛宴集,以夜續晝,復為御史中丞傅隆所奏,坐以免官。是歲,元嘉五年。靈運既東還,與族弟惠連、東海何長瑜、潁川荀雍、泰山羊璿之,以文章賞會,共為山澤之游,時人謂之四友。惠連幼有才悟,而輕薄不為父方明所知。靈運去永嘉還始寧,時方明為會稽郡。靈運嘗自始寧至會稽造方明,過視惠連,大相知賞。時長瑜教惠連讀書,亦在郡內,靈運又以為絕倫,謂方明曰:「阿連才悟如此,而尊作常兒遇之。何長瑜當今仲宣,而飴以下客之食。尊既不能禮賢,宜以長瑜還靈運。」靈運載之而去。

荀雍,字道雍,官至員外散騎郎。璿之,字曜璠,臨川內史,為司空竟陵王誕所遇,誕敗坐誅。長瑜文才之美,亞於惠連,雍、璿之不及也。臨川王義慶招集文士,長瑜自國侍郎至平西記室參軍。嘗於江陵寄書與宗人何勗,以韻語序義慶州府僚佐云:「陸展染鬢髮,欲以媚側室。青青不解久,星星行復出。」如此者五六句,而輕薄少年遂演而廣之,凡厥人士,竝為題目,皆加劇言苦句,其文流行。義慶大怒,白太祖除為廣州所統曾城令。及義慶薨,朝士詣第敘哀,何勗謂袁淑曰:「長瑜便可還也。」淑曰:「國新喪宗英,未宜便以流人為念。」廬陵王紹鎮尋陽,以長瑜為南中郎行參軍,掌書記之任。行至板橋,遇暴風溺死。

靈運因父祖之資,生業甚厚。奴僮既眾,義故門生數百,鑿山浚湖,功役無已。尋山陟嶺,必造幽峻,巖嶂千重,莫不備盡。登躡常著木履,上山則去前齒,下山去其後齒。嘗自始寧南山伐木開逕,直至臨海,從者數百人。臨海太守王琇驚駭,謂為山賊,徐知是靈運乃安。又要琇更進,琇不肯,靈運贈琇詩曰:「邦君難地險,旅客易山行。」在會稽亦多徒眾,驚動縣邑。太守孟顗事佛精懇,而為靈運所輕,嘗謂顗曰:「得道應須慧業,丈人生天當在靈運前,成佛必在靈運後。」顗深恨此言。

會稽東郭有回踵湖,靈運求決以為田,太祖令州郡履行。此湖去郭近,水物所出,百姓惜之,顗堅執不與。靈運既不得回踵,又求始寧岯崲湖為田,顗又固執。靈運謂顗非存利民,正慮決湖多害生命,言論毀傷之,與顗遂構仇隙。因靈運橫恣,百姓驚擾,乃表其異志,發兵自防,露板上言。靈運馳出京都,詣闕上表曰:「臣自抱疾歸山,於今三載,居非郊郭,事乖人間,幽棲窮巖,外緣兩絕,守分養命,庶畢餘年。忽以去月二十八日得會稽太守臣顗二十七日疏云:『比日異論噂嚃,此雖相了,百姓不許寂默,今微為其防。』披疏駭惋,不解所由,便星言奔馳,歸骨陛下。及經山陰,防衛彰赫,彭排馬槍,斷截衢巷,偵邏縱橫,戈甲竟道。不知微臣罪為何事。及見顗,雖曰見亮,而裝防如此,唯有罔懼。臣昔忝近侍,豫蒙天恩,若其罪跡炳明,文字有證,非但顯戮司敗,以正國典,普天之下,自無容身之地。今虛聲為罪,何酷如之。夫自古讒謗,聖賢不免,然致謗之來,要有由趣。或輕死重氣,結黨聚群,或勇冠鄉邦,劍客馳逐。未聞俎豆之學,欲為逆節之罪;山棲之士,而構陵上之釁。今影跡無端,假謗空設,終古之酷,未之或有。匪吝其生,實悲其痛。誠復內省不疚,而抱理莫申。是以牽曳疾病,束骸歸款。仰憑陛下天鑒曲臨,則死之日,猶生之年也。臣憂怖彌日,羸疾發動,尸存恍惚,不知所陳。」

太祖知其見誣,不罪也。不欲使東歸,以為臨川內史,賜秩中二千石。在郡遊放,不異永嘉,為有司所糾。司徒遣使隨州從事鄭望生收靈運,靈運執錄望生,興兵叛逸,遂有逆志。為詩曰:「韓亡子房奮,秦帝魯連恥。本自江海人,忠義感君子。」追討禽之,送廷尉治罪。廷尉奏靈運率部眾反叛,論正斬刑。上愛其才,欲免官而已。彭城王義康堅執謂不宜恕,乃詔曰:「靈運罪釁累仍,誠合盡法。但謝玄勳參微管,宜宥及後嗣,可降死一等,徙付廣州。」

其後,秦郡府將宗齊受至塗口,行達桃墟村,見有七人下路亂語,疑非常人,還告郡縣,遣兵隨齊受掩討,遂共格戰,悉禽付獄。其一人姓趙名欽,山陽縣人,云:「同村薛道雙先與謝康樂共事,以去九月初,道雙因同村成國報欽云:『先作臨川郡、犯事徙送廣州謝,給錢令買弓箭刀楯等物,使道雙要合鄉里健兒,於三江口篡取謝。若得志,如意之後,功勞是同。』遂合部黨要謝,不及。既還饑饉,緣路為劫盜。」有司又奏依法收治,太祖詔於廣州行棄市刑。臨死作詩曰:「龔勝無餘生,李業有終盡。嵇公理既迫,霍生命亦殞。淒淒凌霜葉,網網沖風菌。邂逅竟幾何,脩短非所愍。送心自覺前,斯痛久已忍。恨我君子志,不獲巖上泯。」詩所稱龔勝、李業,猶前詩子房、魯連之意也。時元嘉十年,年四十九。所著文章傳於世。子鳳,蚤卒。

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