count Guillaume de Hauteville, of the Principate

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count Guillaume de Hauteville, of the Principate

Italian: conte Guglielmo d'Altavilla, del Principato, Polish: Wilhelm de Hauteville, of the Principate
Also Known As: "Willermus", "Wilelmus", "Guillaume", "Guglielmo del Principato"
Birthdate: (53)
Birthplace: Normandy, France
Death: circa 1080 (49-57)
Apulia, Italy
Immediate Family:

Son of Tancred Guiscard, seigneur de Hauteville and Fressenda de Hauteville, of Normandy
Husband of Maria de Hauteville
Father of count Roberto d'Altavilla; Richard de Hauteville, conte di Mottola and Tancredi d'Altavilla, conte di Siracusa
Brother of Robert of Hauteville, Guiscard; Humbert de Hauteville, Hubert; Tancred II de Hauteville; Mauger de Hauteville, Count of the Capitanate; Fressenda count of Aversa and prince of Capua and 4 others
Half brother of Drogo of Hauteville; Humphrey of Hauteville; William of Hauteville, Iron-Arm; count Serlo I of Hauteville; Geoffroy of Hauteville, di Capitanata and 1 other

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About count Guillaume de Hauteville, of the Principate


William of the Principate

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William of Hauteville (c. 1027-1080) was one of the younger sons of Tancred of Hauteville by his second wife Fressenda. He is usually called Willermus instead of Wilelmus in Latin annals and so is often called Guillerm instead of Guillaume in French. He left Normandy around 1053 with his elder half-brother Geoffrey and full brother Mauger.

He participated in the Battle of Civitate in the years of his arrival and was received cordially by his half-brother Humphrey, the reigning count of Apulia.

In 1055, he distinguished himself in the taking of the castle of San Nicandro, which formed the nucleus of his county of the Principate, with which he was invested by Humphrey in 1056. In 1058, he married Maria, the daughter of Guy, Duke of Sorrento and brother of Guaimar IV of Salerno. He inherited all Guy's lands in the principality of Salerno and fought with Guaimar's successor, Gisulf II, whose lands he ate away at until little was left but Salerno itself. He also inherited the Capitanate from Mauger, who died between 1054 and 1060. That last possession he gave to Geoffrey, out of fraternal love, Malaterra informs us.

He invited his landless youngest brother Roger to join him, promising him half of all he owned, save his wife and children. He aided Roger against their elder brother Robert Guiscard, who had succeeded Humphrey, and gave him the castle of Scalea, at Catanzaro. He fought against Robert later when Robert came to the aid of Gisulf in order to receive in marriage Gisulf's sister Sichelgaita. In 1067, the Council of Melfi excommunicated him, along with Turgis de Rota and Guimond de Moulins, for stealing property from the church of Alfano I, Archbishop of Salerno. Later that year, he travelled to Salerno to reconcile with Pope Alexander II.

Family grave of the Hauteville, Abbey of the Holy Trinity (SS. Trinità), Venosa.

According to some sources, he died in 1080, though others have him living into the twelfth century (to 1104, 1113, or 1117) and participating in the Guiscard's Byzantine campaigns and being present at the Battle of Durazzo, October 1081. He was buried in the church of the Santissima Trinità in Venosa.

[edit] Sources

   * Goffredo Malaterra. The Deeds of Count Roger of Calabria and Sicily and of Duke Robert Guiscard his brother.
   * Norwich, John Julius. The Normans in the South 1016-1130. Longmans: London, 1967.
   * Ghisalberti, Albert (ed). Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani: II Albicante – Ammannati. Rome, 1960.


William Iron Arm

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William Iron Arm[1] (born before 1010 – died 1046) was a Norman adventurer, founder of the fortunes of the Hauteville family. One of twelve sons of Tancred of Hauteville, he journeyed to the Mezzogiorno with his younger brother Drogo in the first half of the eleventh century (c.1035), in response to requests for help made by fellow Normans under Rainulf Drengot, count of Aversa.

Between 1038 and 1040, he and other Normans fought in Sicily along with the Lombards as mercenaries for the Byzantine Empire against the Saracens. It was there that he won his nickname Iron Arm, by single-handedly killing the emir of Syracuse during a sally at the siege of Syracuse. When the Greek general Giorgio Maniace publicly humiliated the Salernitan leader, Arduin, the Lombards withdrew from the campaign, along with the Normans and the Varangian Guard contingent. After Maniace was recalled to Constantinople, the new catapan of Italy, Michael Doukeianos, appointed Arduin the ruler of Melfi. Melfi, however, soon joined other Apulian Lombards in a revolt against Byzantine rule, in which they were supported by William and the Normans. The Byzantines, however, managed to buy off the nominal leaders of the revolt - first Atenulf, Prince of Benevento, and then Argyrus. In September 1042, the Normans elected their own leader, ignoring Arduin. The revolt, originally Lombard, had become Norman in character and leadership.

William was elected by Normans as their "count" after the defection of Argyrus. He and the other leaders, chief among them Drogo and Peter, petitioned Guaimar IV, Prince of Salerno, for recognition of their conquests. They received the lands around Melfi as a fief and proclaimed Guaimar "Duke of Apulia and Calabria". At Melfi in 1043, Guaimar divided the region (except for Melfi itself) into twelve baronies for the benefit of the Norman leaders: Asclettin received Acerenza, Tristan received Montepeloso, Hugh Tubœuf received Monopoli, Peter received Trani, and Drogo received Venosa. William himself, predominant among the Norman leaders, received the lordship of Ascoli. He was married to Guida, daughter of Guy, duke of Sorrento, and niece of Guaimar.

During his reign, William and Guaimar began the conquest of Calabria in 1044 and built the great castle of Stridula, probably near Squillace. In 1045, he was defeated near Taranto by Argyrus. He died in early 1046 and was succeeded by his brother Drogo.

His titles were never confirmed by the Holy Roman Emperor. Drogo would be legally called "Count of the Normans in all Apulia and Calabria" (Comes Normannorum totius Apuliae e Calabriae), and so William is usually titled likewise.

[edit] References

   * Ghisalberti, Albert (ed). Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani: II Albicante – Ammannati. Rome, 1960.
   * Gwatkin, H.M., Whitney, J.P. (ed) et al. The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III. Cambridge University Press, 1926.
   * Norwich, John Julius. The Normans in the South 1016-1130. Longmans: London, 1967.
   * Chalandon, Ferdinand. Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicilie. Paris, 1907.
   * Gravett, Christopher, and Nicolle, David. The Normans: Warrior Knights and their Castles. Osprey Publishing: Oxford, 2006.
   * Beech, George. A Norman-Italian Adventurer in the East: Richard of Salerno. 1993.

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Guillaume Bras-de-fer in French, Guglielmo Braccio di Ferro in Italian and Gugghiermu Vrazzu di Ferru in Sicilian.

[edit] External links

   * History of the Norman World.
   * Leeds Medieval History Texts in Translation.

Preceded by

none Count of Apulia and Calabria

1042 – 1046 Succeeded by


W drzewie ojcem Ryszarda z Princypatu jest także Drogon de Hauteville, w książce Steven Runciman "Dzieje Wypraw Krzyżowych, tablica 2, ojcem Ryszarda jest Wilhelm z Princypatu senior Salerno.

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