Franz II, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches

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Franz II Joseph Karl von Habsburg Lothringen, Erzherzog zu Österreich, Kaiser des HRR Deutscher Nation

Birthplace: Firenze, Toscana
Death: Died in Wien, Österreich
Place of Burial: Wien, Österreich
Immediate Family:

Son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and Infanta Maria Luísa of Spain, Holy Roman Empress
Husband of Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria; Maria Theresia von Neapel-Sizilien, Kaiserin von Österreich; Maria Ludovika Beatrix d'Asburgo-Este, Kaiserin von Österreich and Karoline Charlotte Auguste Wittelsbach, von Bayern
Father of Archduchess Ludovika Elisabeth of Austria; Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria; Ferdinand I, Kaiser von Österreich (Emperor of Austria); Erzherzogin Marie Karoline von Österreich; Caroline Ludovika Leopoldine von Habsburg-Lorraine, Erzherzogin and 9 others
Brother of Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria (1767–1827), Queen consort of Saxony; Ferdinand III, granduca di Toscana; Archduchess Marie Anna of Austria; Carl von Österreich-Teschen, Herzog von Teschen; Alexander Leopold, Erzherzog von Österreich and 10 others

Occupation: Holy Roman Emperor, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, Kaiser von Österreich, König von Böhmen, Kroatien und Ungarn, duc de Brabant
Managed by: Günther Kipp
Last Updated:

About Franz II, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches

  • Archduke of Austria 1768 - 1792
  • Holy Roman Emperor 1792 - 1806
  • Emperor of Austria 1792 - 1835
  • Was the last Holy Roman Emperor

Golden Fleece - Knights: Austrian Branch


  • The Peerage
  • Geneall
  • Wikipedia
  • King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia: Reign 1 March 1792 – 2 March 1835 Coronation 6 June 1792, Buda / 9 August 1792, Prague

Predecessor: Leopold II Successor: Ferdinand I

  • Holy Roman Emperor, King in Germany: Reign 5 July 1792 – 6 August 1806 Coronation 14 July 1792, Frankfurt

Predecessor: Leopold II Successor: Office abolished

  • Emperor of Austria: Reign 11 August 1804 – 2 March 1835

Predecessor New creation Successor Ferdinand I

Francis II (German: Franz II, Erwählter Römischer Kaiser) (12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I (Franz I.), the first Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich), ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser (double emperor) in history. [1] For the two years between 1804 and 1806, Francis used the title and style by the grace of God elected Roman Emperor, always August, hereditary Emperor of Austria and he was called the Emperor of both Germany and Austria. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary and Bohemia as Francis I. He also served as the first president of the German Confederation following its establishment in 1815.

Francis I continued his leading role as an opponent of Napoleonic France in the Napoleonic Wars, and suffered several more defeats after Austerlitz. The proxy marriage of state of his daughter Marie Louise of Austria to Napoleon on 10 March 1810 was assuredly his most severe defeat. After the abdication of Napoleon following the War of the Sixth Coalition, Austria participated as a leading member of the Holy Alliance at the Congress of Vienna, which was largely dominated by Francis's chancellor Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich culminating in a new European map and the restoration of Francis' ancient dominions (except the Holy Roman Empire which was dissolved). Due to the establishment of the Concert of Europe, which largely resisted popular nationalist and liberal tendencies, Francis became viewed as a reactionary later in his reign.

Francis was a son of Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792), daughter of Charles III of Spain. Francis was born in Florence, the capital of Tuscany, where his father reigned as Grand Duke from 1765–90. Though he had a happy childhood surrounded by his many siblings,[2] his family knew Francis was likely to be a future Emperor (his uncle Joseph had no surviving issue from either of his two marriages), and so in 1784 the young Archduke was sent to the Imperial Court in Vienna to educate and prepare him for his future role.[3]

Emperor Joseph II himself took charge of Francis's development. His disciplinarian regime was a stark contrast to the indulgent Florentine Court of Leopold. The Emperor wrote that Francis was "stunted in growth", "backward in bodily dexterity and deportment", and "neither more nor less than a spoiled mother's child". Joseph concluded that "…the manner in which he was treated for upwards of sixteen years could not but have confirmed him in the delusion that the preservation of his own person was the only thing of importance."[3]

Joseph's martinet method of improving the young Francis were "fear and unpleasantness".[4] The young Archduke was isolated, the reasoning being that this would make him more self-sufficient as it was felt by Joseph that Francis "fail[ed] to lead himself, to do his own thinking". Nonetheless, Francis greatly admired his uncle, if rather feared him. To complete his training, Francis was sent to join an army regiment in Hungary and he settled easily into the routine of military life.[5]

After the death of Joseph II in 1790, Francis's father became Emperor. He had an early taste of power while acting as Leopold's deputy in Vienna while the incoming Emperor traversed the Empire attempting to win back those alienated by his brother's policies.[6] The strain told on Leopold and by the winter of 1791, he became ill. He gradually worsened throughout early 1792; on the afternoon of 1 March Leopold died, at the relatively young age of 44. Francis, just past his 24th birthday, was now Emperor, much sooner than he had expected.

Über Franz II, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches (Deutsch)

Franz ll. von Österreich-Ungarn 1792-1806 und Franz l. des Heilligen Römischen Reiches Deutscher Nation 1804-1835.

  • Bis zu seinem Tode 1835 blieb Franz außerdem König von Böhmen, Kroatien und Ungarn.
  • Seine Hausmacht in dem Haus Habsburg-Lothingen blieben nach wie vor in die haburgischen Erblande.
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Franz II, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches's Timeline

February 12, 1768
Firenze, Toscana
February 18, 1790
Age 22
Wien, Österreich, Deutschland(HRR)
December 7, 1791
Age 23
Vienna, Vienna, Austria
December 12, 1791
Age 23
Vienna, Austria
March 1, 1792
- March 2, 1835
Age 24
March 5, 1792
- March 2, 1835
Age 24
July 1792
- August 6, 1806
Age 24
April 19, 1793
Age 25
Praha, St. Vitus Cathedral,Praha,Praha,Czechoslovakia, Böhmen