Louis de Bourbon, duc de Bourgogne
|Also Known As:||"He is sometimes", "inaccurately", "known as Le Petit Dauphin."|
|Birthplace:||Palace of Versailles, Versailles, Île-de-France, France|
|Death:||Died in Marly-le-Roi, Île-de-France, France|
|Cause of death:||Smallpox (measles).|
|Place of Burial:||Basilique Saint Denis, Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France|
Son of Louis de France, le Grand Dauphin and Maria von Bayern, dauphine de France
|Occupation:||Duke of Burgundy, Dauphin of France, Dauphin de Viennois, Duc de Bourgogne, Duke of Burgundy (Aug. 16, 1682 - Feb. 14, 1711); Dauphin of France (Apr. 14, 1711 - Feb. 18, 1712); AKA "le Petit Dauphin" and "Louis de France"|
|Managed by:||Noah Gregory Tutak|
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About Louis de France, duc de Bourgogne
Louis, Dauphin de Viennois, Duc de Bourgogne, *Versailles 6.8.1682, +Chateau de Marly 18.2.1712, bur St.Denis, Duc de Bourgogne puis Dauphin de France, Duke of Burgundy, Dauphin of France
Fils de Louis de France, le grand dauphin et de Marie-Anne-Christine de Bavière. Ses grands-parents maternels étaient Ferdinand Marie, Électeur de Bavière et de Henriette-Adélaïde de Savoie, fille de Victor-Amédée Ier, le Duc de Savoie.
Né à Versailles, il était l'héritier en seconde ligne de son grand-père paternel Louis XIV ; il succéda à son père comme dauphin après la mort de ce dernier en 1711. Mais lui et sa femme Marie-Adélaïde de Savoie tombèrent malades et moururent à six jours d'intervalle d'une épidémie de rougeole au début de 1712. Leur fils aîné, Louis, duc de Bretagne, succomba à la même maladie. Seul survécut leur plus jeune fils, le duc d'Anjou, alors âgé de deux ans seulement, et qui devint le roi Louis XV en 1715.
Jeune prince violent et arrogant qui ne respectait personne, le duc de Bourgogne devint, grâce aux longs efforts de son tuteur Fénelon (le futur archevêque de Cambrai), un homme d'une grande dévotion. Dès 1702, à l'âge de 20 ans, il fut admis par son grand-père Louis XIV au Conseil d'en haut et initié aux secrets d'État concernant la religion, la diplomatie et la guerre, mais il montra peu d'habileté à la guerre et n'éprouva que des revers dans la campagne de 1708, qu'il fit en Flandre avec l'assistance du duc de Vendôme, et dans laquelle il eut à combattre Eugène de Savoie et le duc de Marlborough (→déroute d'Audenarde).
Sous l'influence du parti dévot, le duc de Bourgogne était entouré d'un cercle de personnes, connu comme la faction de Bourgogne, constitué surtout de son ancien précepteur Fénelon (qui composa pour lui ses Fables et son Télémaque), de son ancien gouverneur, du duc de Beauvillier, du duc de Chevreuse (le gendre de Colbert) et du duc de Saint-Simon (l'auteur de fameux mémoires historiques). Ces aristocrates de rang élevé étaient des réformateurs qui souhaitaient un retour à une monarchie moins absolue où des conseils et des organismes intermédiaires de pouvoirs (entre le roi et le peuple) constitués d'aristocrates (et non plus de bourgeois comme ceux qu'avaient nommés Louis XIV) assisteraient le roi dans l'exercice du pouvoir gouvernemental. Il y avait là cet idéal utopique d'une monarchie contrôlée par l'aristocratie (dans laquelle on voyait la représentante du peuple) et décentralisée (de larges pouvoirs seraient accordés aux provinces). C'est la politique que le duc de Bourgogne aurait probablement appliquée s'il était devenu roi.
La mort prématurée du duc de Bourgogne au château de Marly (on crut à tort qu'il avait été empoisonné) ruina les espoirs de sa faction et d'ailleurs la plupart de ceux qui en faisaient partie moururent bientôt à leur tour de mort naturelle. Pourtant, la Régence, qui commença en 1715, mit en pratique certaines de leurs idées, avec la création de ce qu'on appelait la polysynodie ; mais celle-ci fut abandonnée dès 1718 et on en revint à la monarchie absolue dans le style de Louis XIV.
En 1697, il épouse Marie-Adélaïde de Savoie (1685 † 12 février 1712), fille de Victor-Amédée II, duc de Savoie. Ils eurent trois enfants :
Louis de France (25 juin 1704 † 13 avril 1705), duc de Bretagne,
Louis de France (8 janvier 1707 † 8 mars 1712), duc de Bretagne puis dauphin de France,
Louis de France (15 février 1710 † 10 mai 1774), duc d'Anjou, futur Louis XV.
Louis, Duke of Burgundy (1682–1712)
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For other uses of "Louis, Dauphin", see Louis, Dauphin.
Duke of Burgundy
Dauphin of France
Louis, "duc de Bourgogne"
Spouse Princess Maria Adelaide of Savoy
Louis, Duke of Brittany
Louis XV of France
Louis de France
Royal House of Bourbon
Father Louis, le Grand Dauphin
Mother Duchess Maria Anna of Bavaria
Born 16 August 1682(1682-08-16)
Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France
Died 18 February 1712 (aged 29)
Château de Marly, Marly, France
Burial Basilica of St Denis
Louis de France, Son of France, Duke of Burgundy (duc de Bourgogne), and later Dauphin of France (16 August 1682 – 18 February 1712) was the eldest son of Louis, Dauphin of France, known as le Grand Dauphin. He was himself sometimes known as le Petit Dauphin, having become Dauphin of France upon his father's death in 1711.
* 1 Biography
* 2 Issue
* 3 Ancestry
* 4 Titles, styles, honours and arms
o 4.1 Titles and styles
* 5 Notes
* 6 References
* 7 Titles
Louis de France was born in the Palace of Versailles, the eldest son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin, and his wife Duchess Maria Anna of Bavaria. At birth, he received the title of Duke of Burgundy "duc de Bourgogne". As the son of the Dauphin, he was second in the line of succession to his grandfather, King Louis XIV of France.
He was a Son of France which allowed him the predicates of Royal Highness (rarely used in France at the time except in relations with foreign powers) and of Most High and Powerful Prince (the one more commonly used). This also made him one of the most important men in the kingdom.
Louis grew up with his younger brothers; Philip (1683–1746) known as the Duke of Anjou and later King Philip V of Spain; and the youngest, Charles who was titled the Duke of Berry at birth (1686–1714). When Louis was 8, his mother died. His father, though very popular with the people of France, would never play a major role in politics preferring to live with his mistress at the Château de Meudon.
The Duke of Burgundy was reputed to be a difficult child who respected no one, but under the influence of his tutor François Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai, he grew into a very pious and religious man. Fénelon's thoughts and beliefs would continue to influence the young prince throughout his life.
At the age of 15 he married his second cousin, Princess Maria Adelaide of Savoy. Maria Adelaide was the daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy and Anne Marie d'Orléans. Anne Marie was the daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans and his first wife Princess Henrietta Anne of England.
The marriage of Marie-Adélaïde to the Duke of Burgundy, took place on 7 December 1697 at the Palace of Versailles. The two were in love with one another, a rarity at the court of Versailles.
This match was decided as part of the Treaty of Turin, which ended Franco-Savoyard conflicts during the Nine Years' War. Marie-Adélaïde was sent to Versailles in order to learn her role as the future Dauphine and eventual Queen. Louis XIV declared that she was to be the First Lady of Versailles, and he loved his granddaughter-in-law dearly. In France she was known as Marie-Adélaïde de Savoie.
In 1702, at the age of twenty, the Duke of Burgundy was admitted by Louis XIV to the Conseil d'en haut (High Council), which was in charge of state secrets regarding religion, diplomacy and war. This greatly delighted him because his father had only been admitted to the High Council at the age of thirty.
[show]Family of Louis in 1687
la Famille du Grand Dauphin, or the Family of the Grand Dauphin in 1687; (L-R) Louis, le Grand Dauphin himself; on the floor is Philippe de France, Duke of Anjou and future King of Spain; Maria Anna of Bavaria, la Grande Dauphine with the youngest child, Charles of France, Duke of Berry on her lap; Louis de France, Duke of Burgundy and father of Louis XV plays on the far right with an arrow
In 1708, during the War of the Spanish Succession, he was given command, of the army in Flanders, with the experienced soldier Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme theoretically serving under him. The uncertainty as to which of the two should truly command the army led to delays and the need to refer decisions to Louis XIV. Continued indecision led to French inactivity as messages travelled between the front and Versailles; the Allies were then able to take the initiative. The culmination of this was the Battle of Oudenarde where the Duke of Bourgogne's mistaken choices and reluctance to support Vendôme led to a decisive defeat for the French. In the aftermath of the defeat, his hesitation to relieve the Siege of Lille doomed the city and allowed the Allies to make their first incursions onto French soil.
The Duke of Burgundy was influenced by the dévots and was surrounded by a circle of people known as the Faction de Bourgogne (Burgundy's faction), which was most notably made up of his old tutor Fénelon, his old governor Paul de Beauvilliers, Duke of Saint-Aignan and his brother-in-law Charles Honoré d'Albert, Duke of Chevreuse, as well as the renowned memorialist, Louis de Rouvroy, Duke of Saint-Simon.
These high-ranking aristocrats sought a return to a monarchy less absolute and less centralised, with vast powers granted to the individual provinces. They perceived that government should work through councils and intermediary organs between the king and the people. These intermediary councils were to be made up not by commoners from the bourgeoisie (as the ministers appointed by Louis XIV) but by aristocrats who perceived themselves as the representatives of the people and would assist the king in governance and the exercise of power. Had the Duke of Burgundy succeeded to the throne, he may have applied this concept of monarchy.
After his father's death in 1711, the Duke of Burgundy succeeded him as Dauphin. In February 1712, his wife Marie-Adélaïde contracted measles and died on the 12th of that month.
The Duke of Burgundy, who dearly loved his wife, and who had stayed by her side throughout the fatal illness, contracted the disease. He died six days later, on 18 February. He died at the Château de Marly aged just 29. Both of his children also became infected, and their elder surviving son, Louis, Duke of Brittany, the latest in a series of Dauphins, succumbed to it within the month. However, the younger son, the Duke of Anjou, then only two years of age, survived the disease and would later succeed as Louis XV upon the death of his great-grandfather, Louis XIV, in 1715.
[show]Marriage of Louis on 7 December 1697
Louis himself in the centre wearing black; behind him are his brothers (L-R), the Duke of Anjou and Berry; behind them is Louis XIV; the Louis, le Grand Dauphin stands behind Louis XIV; on the right in red is the Duke of Orléans; behind him is (L-R) his youngest daughter; second wife; daughter in law; and his son the Duke of Chartres; in front of the Duke of Orléans is the bride, Princess Princess Marie Adélaïde wearing her adopted Fleur-de-lis of France
The premature death of the Duke of Burgundy precipitated a possible succession crisis as he left as the heir to his seventy-four-year-old grandfather his frail infant son whose chances of survival were thought minimal. It also ruined the hopes of the Faction de Bourgogne, whose members would soon die of natural deaths.
Nonetheless, some of their ideas were put into practice when, Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent during Louis XV's minority, created a form of government known as polysynody, where each ministry was replaced by a council composed of aristocrats. However, the absenteeism, ineptitude and conflicts of the aristocrats caused this system of governance to fail, and it was soon abandoned in 1718 in favour of a return to the preceding style of rule.
Titles and styles
* 16 August 1682 – 14 April 1711 His Royal Highness the Duke of Burgundy
* 14 April 1711 – 18 February 1712 His Royal Highness the Dauphin of France (Monseigneur le Dauphin)
1. ^ Achaintre, Nicolas Louis, Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de Bourbon, Vol. 2, (Publisher Mansut Fils, 4 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Paris, 1825), 128.
* Achaintre, Nicolas Louis, Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de Bourbon, Vol. 2, Publisher Mansut Fils, 4 Rue de l'École de Médecine, Paris, 1825.
* Antoine, Michel, Louis XV, Fayard, Paris, 1989 (French).
* Dufresne, Claude, les Orléans, CRITERION, Paris, 1991 (French).
* Erlanger, Philippe, Louis XIV, translated from the French by Stephen Cox, Praeger Publisher, New York & Washington, 1970. (First published in French by Fayard in 1965).
This page was last modified on 13 July 2010 at 18:50.
Louis, Dauphin of France (1682-1712)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Louis, Dauphin of France and Duke of Burgundy (August 16, 1682 - February 18, 1712) was the son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin, and Maria Anna of Bavaria. He is sometimes, inaccurately, known as Le Petit Dauphin.
His paternal grandparents were Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain. As the grandson of the king, he was a Petit-Fils de France. His maternal grandparents were Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria and Adelaide Henriette of Savoy, daughter of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy.
Born in Versailles, he was second in the line of succession to the throne of his paternal grandfather, Louis XIV. He was styled as Duke of Burgundy from birth. After his father's death in 1711, Louis succeeded him as heir (Dauphin) to the throne of France. However, both he and his wife Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy contracted an illness and died within six days of one another in early 1712. Their eldest surviving son Louis, Duke of Brittany, succeeded to the title of Dauphin but succumbed to the same illness. Their youngest son, the Duke of Anjou, then only two years old, survived to become King Louis XV of France in 1715.
A wicked and arrogant young prince who respected no one, the Duke of Burgundy was turned after much effort into a very pious and religious man by his tutor Fénelon (the famous archbishop of Cambrai). As early as 1702, the 20-year-old duke of Burgundy was admitted by his grandfather Louis XIV in the High Council (Conseil d'en haut), in charge of secrets of State regarding religion, diplomacy, and war.
The duc de Bourgogne was influenced by the devout party (see dévots), and he was surrounded by a circle of people, known as the faction of Bourgogne, most notably made up of his old tutor Fénélon, his old governor the duc de Beauvilliers, the duc de Chevreuse (son-in-law of Colbert), and the duc de Saint-Simon (author of famous historical memoirs). These high ranking aristocrats were reformists advocating a return to a less absolute monarchy with councils and intermediary organs of powers (between the king and the people) made up of aristocrats (as opposed to commoners from the bourgeoisie who were appointed by Louis XIV) which would assist the king in the exercise of government power. There was the utopian ideal of a monarchy controlled by the aristocracy (seen as the representation of the people) and non-centralized (with vast powers granted to the provinces), which the duke of Burgundy would probably have applied had he become king.
The premature death of the duc de Bourgogne ruined the hopes of his faction, and most of the men surrounding him died soon afterwards of natural death. However, the Regency (Régence) that started in 1715 put into practice some of their ideas, with the creation of the so-called polysynody, which was soon abandoned in 1718 with a return to the Louis XIV style of absolute monarchy.
Marriage and children
On December 7, 1697 he was married to Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy (1685-1712). She was the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia and his first wife Anne Marie of Orléans. Her maternal grandparents were Philippe I, duc d'Orléans and Henrietta Anne Stuart. They had three children:
Louis, Duke of Brittany (1704-1705)
Louis, Dauphin of France (1707-1712)
Louis XV (1710-1774)
Louis, Burgundin herttua (16. elokuuta 1682, Versailles - 18. helmikuuta 1712, Marly) oli Ranskan kruununperillisen Dauphin Louisin ja Baijerin prinsessan Marie-Annen vanhin poika ja Ludvig XIV:n lapsenlapsi. Isänsä kuoleman jälkeen vuonna 1711 hänestä tuli kruununperillinen eli dauphin, mutta hän kuoli ennen isoisäänsä kuningasta. Hän oli naimisissa pikkuserkkunsa Savoijin Marie Adelaiden kanssa.
Jälkeläiset Louis, Bretagnen herttua (25. kesäkuuta 1704 - 13. huhtikuuta 1705) Louis, Ranskan dauphin (8. tammikuuta 1707 - 8. maaliskuuta 1712) Ludvig XV, Ranskan kuningas (15. helmikuuta 1710 - 10. toukokuuta 1774)
Louis de France, duc de Bourgogne's Timeline
August 16, 1682
Versailles, Île-de-France, France
Palace of Versailles, Île-de-France, France
Versailles, Ile-de-France, France
June 25, 1704
Versailles, Ile-de-France, France
January 8, 1707
Versailles, Ile-de-France, France
Versailles, Ile-de-France, France
February 15, 1710
Versailles, Île-de-France, France
February 18, 1712
Marly-le-Roi, Île-de-France, France
February 23, 1712
Basilique Saint Denis, Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France