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About Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester
Also known as Simon de Munford (Monford, Montford, etc.).
from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (23 May 1208? – 4 August 1265), was a French-English nobleman, notable as the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. After the rebellion of 1263 and 1264, de Montfort became de facto ruler of England and called the first directly elected parliament in medieval Europe. For this reason, de Montfort is regarded today as one of the progenitors of modern parliamentary democracy and a great hero.
- 1 Family and early life
- 2 Royal marriage
- 3 Crusade and turning against the king
- 4 War against the king
- 5 Death
- 6 Legacy
- 7 Family
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 References
- 10 External links
- 11 See also
Family and early life
He was the youngest son of Simon de Montfort, a French nobleman and crusader, and Alix de Montmorency. His paternal grandmother was Amicia de Beaumont, the senior co-heiress to the Earldom of Leicester and a large estate owned by her father Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester in England, but King John of England would not allow a French subject to take ownership of such an estate in England.
As a boy, de Montfort accompanied his parents during his father's campaigns against the Cathars. He was with his mother at the siege of Toulouse in 1218, where his father was killed after being struck on the head by a stone pitched by a mangonel. On the death of their father, de Montfort's elder brother Amaury succeeded him. Another brother, Guy, was killed at the siege of Castelnaudary in 1220. As a young man, Montfort probably took part in the Albigensian Crusades of the early 1220s.
In 1229 the two surviving brothers (Amaury and Simon) came to an arrangement whereby Simon gave up his rights in France and Amaury gave up his rights in England. Thus free from any allegiance to the King of France, de Montfort successfully petitioned for the English inheritance, which he received the next year, although he did not take full possession for several years, and was not formally recognised as earl.
Simon was a distant cousin of King Henry III; his ancestor Simon I de Montfort was father of Bertrade de Montfort who herself was a paternal great-grandmother of King Henry II.
In January 1238 de Montfort married Eleanor of England, daughter of King John and Isabella of Angoulême and sister of King Henry III. While this marriage took place with the king's approval, the act itself was performed secretly and without consulting the great barons, as a marriage of such importance warranted. Eleanor had previously been married to William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, and she swore a vow of perpetual chastity upon his death, when she was sixteen, which she broke by marrying de Montfort. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Edmund Rich, condemned the marriage for this reason. The English nobles protested the marriage of the King's sister to a foreigner of modest rank; most notably, Eleanor's brother Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall rose up in revolt when he learned of the marriage. King Henry eventually bought off Richard with 6,000 marks and peace was restored.
Relations between King Henry and de Montfort were cordial at first. Henry lent him his support when de Montfort embarked for Rome in March 1238 to seek papal approval for his marriage. When Simon and Eleanor's first son was born in November 1238 (despite rumours, more than nine months after the wedding), he was baptised Henry in honour of his Royal uncle. In February 1239 de Montfort was finally invested with the Earldom of Leicester. He also acted as the King's counsellor and was one of the nine godfathers of Henry's eldest son, Prince Edward who would inherit the throne and become Edward I ("Longshanks").
Crusade and turning against the king
Shortly after Prince Edward's birth, however, there was a falling out. Simon owed a great sum of money to Thomas II of Savoy, uncle of Queen Eleanor, and named Henry as security for his repayment. King Henry had evidently not been told of this, and when he discovered that Montfort had used his name, he was enraged. On 9 August 1239 Henry confronted Montfort, called him an excommunicant and threatened to imprison him in the Tower of London. "You seduced my sister", King Henry said, "and when I discovered this, I gave her to you, against my will, to avoid scandal." Most historians perceive this to be the outbursts of an angry monarch, rather than fact. Simon and Eleanor fled to France to escape Henry's wrath.
Having announced his intention to go on crusade two years before, Simon raised funds and travelled to the Holy Land, but does not seem to have ever faced combat there.
That autumn, he left Syria and joined King Henry's campaign in Poitou. The campaign was a failure, and an exasperated de Montfort declared that Henry should be locked up like Charles the Simple. Like his father, Simon was a hardened and ruthless soldier, as well as a capable administrator. His dispute with King Henry came about due to the latter's determination to ignore the swelling discontent within the country, caused by a combination of factors, including famine and a sense among the English Barons that King Henry was too quick to dispense favour to his Poitevin relatives and Savoyard in-laws.
In 1248, de Montfort again took the cross, with the idea of following Louis IX of France to Egypt. But, at the repeated requests of King Henry and Council, he gave up this project in order to act as Governor in the unsettled and disaffected Duchy of Gascony. Bitter complaints were excited by the rigour with which de Montfort suppressed the excesses of the Seigneurs and of contending factions in the great communes. Henry yielded to the outcry and instituted a formal inquiry into Simon's administration. Simon was formally acquitted on the charges of oppression, but his accounts were disputed by Henry, and Simon retired in disgust to France in 1252. The nobles of France offered him the Regency of the kingdom, vacated by the death of Queen Blanche of Castile, but he preferred to make his peace with Henry which he did in 1253, in obedience to the exhortations of the dying Grosseteste. He helped King Henry in dealing with the disaffection in Gascony; but their reconciliation was a hollow one, and in the Parliament of 1254, Simon led the opposition in resisting a demand for a subsidy. In 1256–57, when the discontent of all classes was coming to a head, de Montfort nominally adhered to the Royal cause. He undertook, with Peter of Savoy, the Queen's uncle, the difficult task of extricating the King from the pledges which he had given to the Pope with reference to the Crown of Sicily; and Henry's writs of this date mention de Montfort in friendly terms. But at the "Mad Parliament" of Oxford (1258) de Montfort appeared side by side with the Earl of Gloucester at the head of the opposition. It is said that de Montfort was reluctant to approve the oligarchical constitution created by the Provisions of Oxford, but his name appears in the list of the Fifteen who were to constitute the supreme board of control over the administration. There is better ground for believing that he disliked the narrow class-spirit in which the victorious Barons used their victory; and that he would gladly have made a compromise with the moderate Royalists, whose policy was guided by Prince Edward. But the King's success in dividing the Barons and in fostering a reaction, rendered such projects hopeless. In 1261, Henry revoked his assent to the Provisions, and de Montfort, in despair, left the country.
War against the king
Simon de Montfort returned in 1263, at the invitation of the barons, who were now convinced of the king's hostility to all reform; and raised a rebellion with the avowed object of restoring the form of government which the Provisions had ordained. For a few weeks it seemed as though the royalists were at his mercy; but he made the mistake of accepting Henry's offer to abide by the arbitration of Louis IX of France. At Amiens, in January 1264, the French king decided that the Provisions were unlawful and invalid. De Montfort, who had remained in England to prepare for the ruling, at once resumed the war, and thus exposed himself to accusations of perjury, from which he can only be defended on the hypothesis that he had been led to hope for a genuine compromise. Though merely supported by the towns and a few of the younger barons, he triumphed by superior generalship at the Battle of Lewes on 14 May 1264, where the king, Prince Edward, and Richard of Cornwall fell into his hands. De Montfort used his victory to set up the government by which his reputation as a statesman stands or falls. The weak point in his scheme was the establishment of a triumvirate (consisting of himself, the young Earl of Gloucester, and the Bishop of Chichester) in which his colleagues were obviously figureheads. This flaw, however, is mitigated by a scheme which he simultaneously promulgated for establishing a thorough parliamentary control over the executive, not excepting the triumvirs. The Parliament of 1265 (De Montfort's Parliament), which he summoned, was, it is true, a packed assembly; but it can hardly be supposed that the representation which he granted to the towns was intended to be a temporary expedient.
De Montfort sent out representatives to each county and to a select list of boroughs, asking each to send two representatives (this was not the first parliament in England, but what distinguished it was that de Montfort insisted the representatives be elected). It is from him that the modern idea of a democratic representative parliament derives. The list of boroughs which had the right to elect a member grew slowly over the centuries as monarchs gave out more Royal Charters. (The last charter was given to Newark in 1674.)
The right to vote in Parliamentary elections for county constituencies was uniform throughout the country, granting a vote to all those who owned the freehold of land to an annual rent of 40 shillings (‘Forty-shilling Freeholders’). In the Boroughs, the franchise varied and individual boroughs had varying arrangements.
The reaction against his government was baronial rather than popular; and the Welsh Marcher Lords particularly resented Montfort's alliance with Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, Prince of Wales. Little consideration for English interests is shown in the Treaty of Pipton which sealed that alliance on 22 June 1265.
Many other barons who had initially supported him now started to feel that Montfort's reforms were going too far, and his many enemies turned his triumph into disaster. Prince Edward escaped, and Montfort's ally, Thomas de Clare, abandoned him and took with him his garrison. Though boosted by Welsh infantry sent by Montfort's ally Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, Montfort's forces were severely depleted. Prince Edward attacked the Montfort forces at Kenilworth, capturing more of Montfort's allies. Montfort himself had crossed the Severn with his army, intending to rendezvous with his son Simon. When he saw the army awaiting him at Evesham, Montfort initially thought it was led by his son. But the army belonged to Prince Edward, flying the Montfort banners he had captured at Kenilworth, and so leading Simon into a trap.
Simon de Montfort died on 4 August 1265 at the battle of Evesham, and was buried at the nearby Evesham Abbey. De Montfort and his army were awaiting the army led by his second son, Simon. He saw his son's banners flying high and began to hope, with the two armies they had a fighting chance to claim England. However, his son had been ambushed, and Prince Edward, Henry's son, led the army carrying de Montfort's stolen banners. From within the church of Evesham, de Montfort and his army led a final charge to their death. After a charge uphill against superior forces, Simon's army was completely destroyed; the battle was described as the "murder of Evesham, for battle it was none". Simon's body was cut up and different parts sent to the Lords who had accomplished the most. His head was sent to Wigmore Castle by Roger de Mortimer, 1st Baron Wigmore as a gift to his wife, Maud. Such remains as could be found were buried under the altar of Evesham Abbey by some clerks. It was visited as holy ground by many commoners until King Henry caught wind of it. He declared that Simon deserved no spot on holy ground and had his remains reburied under an insignificant tree. The remains of some of his soldiers were found in the nearby village of Cleeve Prior after fleeing from the battle of Evesham. His last words were said to have been "Now it is time to die!"
Matthew Paris reports that the Bishop of Lincoln, Robert Grosseteste, once said to Simon's eldest son Henry: "My beloved child, both you and your father will meet your deaths on one day, and by one kind of death, but it will be in the name of justice and truth."
Evesham Abbey and the site of de Montfort's grave were destroyed with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the sixteenth century. In 1965 a memorial stone was laid on the site of the former altar by Speaker of the House of Commons Sir Harry Hylton-Foster and Archbishop of Canterbury Michael Ramsey. The inscription reads:
Here were buried the remains of
SIMON DE MONTFORT, EARL OF LEICESTER
pioneer of representative government who was
killed in the Battle of Evesham on 4 August 1265.
This stone brought from his birthplace the
Castle of Montfort-l'Amaury in France
was erected to commemorate the seven hundredth
anniversary of his death.
Unveiled by the Speaker of the House of Commons
and dedicated by
His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury
on the 18th day of July 1965.
In the years that followed his death, Simon de Montfort's grave was frequently visited by pilgrims. There was an attempt to canonise him; this was not carried out however, due to opposition by the English monarchy at the time.
Today, de Montfort is mostly remembered for calling the first directly elected parliament and is regarded as one of the fathers of modern democracy. He may have a more romantic legacy; Roger Godberd, one of de Montfort's captains who survived Evesham, fought on until his capture in 1272 as a bandit or rebel in and around the Sherwood Forest area. Godberd is one candidate for being the character around whom the Robin Hood legend is based. Napoleon Bonaparte described Simon de Montfort as "one of the greatest Englishmen".
Various local honors were dedicated to his memory, and he has become eponymous several times over. De Montfort Hall, a concert venue in Leicester, is named after de Montfort, as is the nearby De Montfort University. A statue of de Montfort is one of four to adorn the Clock Tower in Leicester. A relief of de Montfort adorns the wall of the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives. De Montfort's banner described as the 'Arms of Honour of Hinckley', shown in the stained glass image in Chartres Cathedral, is used by the town of Hinckley, part of his Earldom in Leicestershire, in their town coat of arms. It also forms part of the club crest for the town's football team Hinckley United F.C.  A school and a bridge based on the north east stretch of the A46 are named after him in Evesham.
Sharon Penman's novel, Falls the Shadow, is a fictional retelling of de Montfort's life from his arrival in England to his death. The de Montfort story is the focus of the second part of The Brothers of Gwynedd Quartet by Edith Pargeter (who also wrote as Ellis Peters). The four books tell the story of Llewellyn Prince of Wales, who married Simon's daughter Eleanor, and his three brothers.
Simon de Montfort and Eleanor of England had seven children, many of whom were notable in their own right:
- Henry de Montfort (November 1238–1265)
- Simon the Younger de Montfort (April 1240–1271)
- Amaury de Montfort, Canon of York (1242/1243-1300)
- Guy de Montfort, Count of Nola (1244–1288). Elizabeth Woodville, Queen Consort of Edward IV of England, was one of Guy's descendants.
- Joanna de Montfort (born and died in Bordeaux between 1248 and 1251).
- Richard de Montfort (d.1266). Date of death is not certain.
- Eleanor de Montfort (1252–1282). She married Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Prince of Wales, honouring an agreement that had been made between Earl Simon and Llywelyn. Eleanor, Lady of Wales, died on 19 June 1282 at the royal Welsh home Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn, on the north coast of Gwynedd, giving birth to a daughter, Gwenllian of Wales. After Llywelyn's death on 11 December 1282, Gwenllian was captured by King Edward I and spent the rest of her life in a convent.
The last actual member of the family line to bear the name de Montfort was: Marie-Jean-Baptiste-Benoît de Montfort (1784–1839), 2nd Marquis of Chardonnay, Sire de La Marne, de La Malloniere, de Bicherel, who married D. Joana de Lima Barreto Coelho (London, 1814), with succession.
- Labarge, Margaret Wade. Simon de Montfort (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1962)
- Maddicott, J. R. Simon de Montfort, 1996
- 1. Thomas B. Costain, The Magnificent Century, p. 308
- 2. For example see BBC website, accessed 11 May 2008 on the Godberd theory.
- 3. Maurice Hugh Keen The Outlaws of Medieval England, 1987, Routledge
- 4. Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon's Notes on English History made on the Eve of the French Revolution, illustrated from Contemporary Historians and referenced from the findings of Later Research by Henry Foljambe Hall (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1905), 12, 56.
- 5. "Hinckley United Independent Club Crest History". Hinckley United Independent. 2009-02-22. http://www.hinckleyunitedfc.co.uk/club/crest.html. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- 6. "Simon de Montfort Middle School, Evesham". http://www.simondemontfort.worcs.sch.uk/. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Sixth Earl Leicester.
Lord High Steward of England.
De facto King of England.
Founder of Parliament.
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester's Timeline
May 23, 1208
Castle Montfort-l'Amaury, Ile de France, France
November 28, 1238
Kenilworth, Warwickshire, England, United Kingdom
Apúlia, Braga, Portugal
Alcester, Warwickshire, England
Kenilworth, Warwickshire, England
September 29, 1252
Kenilworth Castle, Kenilworth, Warwickshire, England