Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland

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Oliver Cromwell

Also Known As: "Old Ironsides", "Lord Protector"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
Death: Died in London, Middlesex, England
Place of Burial: City of London, Greater London, England, United Kingdom
Immediate Family:

Son of Robert Cromwell of Huntingdon; Robert Cromwell; Elizabeth Cromwell; Elizabeth Cromwell and Elizabeth Cromwell
Husband of Elizabeth Cromwell; Elizabeth Cromwell and Elizabeth Cromwell
Father of Robert Cromwell; Oliver Cromwell, Jr.; Bridget Fleetwood (Cromwell); Richard Cromwell, 2nd Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland; Henry Cromwell, Lord Deputy of Ireland and 7 others
Brother of Anne Sewster; Joan Cromwell; Elizabeth Cromwell; Robina Wilkins; Henry Cromwell and 5 others

Occupation: Lord Protector, Lord Protector of England
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (born April 25, 1599 Old Style, died September 3, 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He was one of the commanders of the New Model Army which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. He was one of the most capable English generals in history. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658. Events that occurred during his reign and his politics are a cause of long lasting animosity between Ireland and the United Kingdom.

Cromwell has been a very controversial figure in the history of the British Isles – a regicidal dictator to some historians (such as David Hume and Christopher Hill) and a hero of liberty to others (such as Thomas Carlyle and Samuel Rawson Gardiner). In Britain he was elected as one of the Top 10 Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll.

His measures against Irish Catholics have been characterized by some historians as genocidal or near-genocidal, and in Ireland he is widely hated. After defeating the Irish Catholics and the Protestant Royalists in battle, Cromwell engineered the greatest man-made population upheavel in the history of Ireland. Catholic landowners were forced to the north-west corner of the island to an area called Connacht. As Cromwell put it "They can go to hell or they can go to Connacht." The land the Catholics vacated was sold to Protestants to repay war debts. Thus, the Cromwellian government rewrote the demographics of Ireland to produce a society notable for its inequality and its instability.

Cromwell was born into the ranks of the middle gentry, and remained relatively obscure for the first 40 years of his life, at times his lifestyle resembling that of a yeoman farmer until his finances were boosted thanks to an inheritance from his uncle. After undergoing a religious conversion during the same decade, he made an Independent style of Puritanism a core tenet of his life. Cromwell was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640-49) Parliaments, and later entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians.

An effective soldier (nicknamed "Old Ironsides") he rose from leading a single cavalry troop to command of the entire army. Cromwell was the third person to sign Charles I's death warrant in 1649 and was an MP in the Rump Parliament (1649-1653), being chosen by the Rump to take command of the English campaign in Ireland during 1649-50. He then led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650-51. On April 20, 1653 he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as the Barebones Parliament before being made Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland on 16 December 1653 until his death. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, but when the Royalists returned to power in 1660, his corpse was dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.


Birth : 1599

Death : 1658

  • Father : CROMWELL Robert ( ? - 1617 )
  • Mother : STEWARD Elizabeth ( ? - 1654 )

Union : BOURCHIER Elizabeth ( 1598 - 1665 )

Marriage : 1620

Children :

  1. CROMWELL Robert ( 1621 - 1639 )
  2. CROMWELL Oliver ( 1623 - 1644 )
  3. CROMWELL Bridget ( 1624 - 1662 )
  4. CROMWELL Richard ( 1626 - 1712 )
  5. CROMWELL Henry ( 1628 - 1674 )
  6. CROMWELL Elizabeth ( 1629 - 1658 )
  7. CROMWELL James ( 1632 - 1632 )
  8. CROMWELL Mary ( 1637 - 1713 )
  9. CROMWELL Frances ( 1638 - 1720 )

Source: http://www.datadirect.org.uk/cromwellcollection/genealogy/fiches/fiche18.htm#f378


Other source: http://www.olivercromwell.org


Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

He was one of the commanders of the New Model Army which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.

Cromwell was born into the ranks of the middle gentry, and remained relatively obscure for the first 40 years of his life. At times his lifestyle resembled that of a yeoman farmer until his finances were boosted thanks to an inheritance from his uncle. After undergoing a religious conversion during the same decade, he made an Independent style of Puritanism a core tenet of his life. Cromwell was elected Member of Parliament for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640-49) Parliaments, and later entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians.

An effective soldier (nicknamed "Old Ironsides"), he rose from leading a single cavalry troop to command of the entire army. Cromwell was one of the signatories of Charles I's death warrant in 1649 and was a member of the Rump Parliament (1649-1653), being chosen by the Rump to take command of the English campaign in Ireland during 1649-50. He then led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650-51. On 20 April 1653 he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as the Barebones Parliament before being made Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland on 16 December 1653. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, but when the Royalists returned to power his corpse was dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.

Cromwell has been a controversial figure in the history of the British Isles – a regicidal dictator to some historians (such as David Hume and Christopher Hill) and a hero of liberty to others (such as Thomas Carlyle and Samuel Rawson Gardiner). In Britain he was elected as one of the Top 10 Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll.[1] His measures against Irish Catholics have been characterized by some historians as genocidal or near-genocidal,[2] and in Ireland itself he is widely hated.[3][4]


English soldier and statesman who led parliamentary forces in the English Civil Wars; he was lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 to 1658 during the republican Commonwealth.


Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He was one of the commanders of the New Model Army which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Cromwell

__________________________

"CROMWELL, OLIVER (1599-1638), lord protector of England, was the 5th and only surviving son of Robert Cromwell of Huntingdon and of Elizabeth. Steward, widow of William Lynn. His paternal grandfather was Sir Henry Cromwell of Hinchinbrook, a leading personage in Huntingdonshire, and grandson of Richard Williams, knighted by Henry VIII., nephew of Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex, Henry VIII's minister, whose name he adopted. His mother was descended from a family named Styward in Norfolk, which was not, however, connected in any way, as has been often asserted, with the royal house of Stuart. Oliver was born on the 25th of April 1599, was educated ander Dr Thomas Beard, a fervent puritan, at the free school at Huntingdon, and on the 23rd of April 1616 matriculated as a fellow-commoner at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, then a hotbed of puritanism, subsequently studying law in London. The royalist anecdotes relating to his youth, including charges of ill-conduct, do not deserve credit, the entries in the register of St Johns, Huntingdon, noting Oliver's submission on two occasions to church censure being forgeries; but it is not improbable that his youth was wild and possibly dissolute. According to Edmund Waller he was very well read in the Greek and Roman story. Burnet declares he had little Latin, but he was able to converse with the Dutch ambassador in that language. According to James Heath in his Flagellum, he was more famous for his exercises in the fields than in. the schools, being one of the chief match-makers and players at football, cudgels, or any other boisterous game or sport. On the 22nd of August 1620 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Bourchier, a city merchant of Tower Hill, and of Felstead in Essex; and his father having died in 1617 he settled at Huntingdon and occupied himself in the management of his small estate. In 1628 he was returned to parliament as member for the borough, and on. the 11th of February 1629 he spoke in. support of puritan doctrine, complaining of the attempt by the king to silence Dr Beard, who had raised his voice against the flat popery inculcated by Dr Alabaster at Pauls Cross. He was also one of the members who refused to adjourn at the kings command till Sir John Eliots resolutions had been passed. [long article] During the period following the dissolution Cromwell's power appeared outwardly at least to be at its height. The revolts of royalists and sectaries against his government had been easily suppressed, and the various attempts to assassinate him, contemptuously referred to by Cromwell as little fiddling things, were anticipated and prevented by an excellent system of police and spies, and by his bodyguard of 160 men. The victory at Dunkirk increased his reputation, while Louis XIV. showed his respect for the ruler of England by the splendid reception given to the Protectors envoy, Lord Fauconberg, and by a complirnentary mission despatched to England.

The great career, the incidents of which we have been following, was now, however, drawing to a close. Cromwell's health had long been impaired by the hardships of campaigning. Now at the age of 58 he was already old, and his firm, strong signature had become feeble and trembling. The responsibilities and anxieties of government unassisted by parliament, and the continued struggle against the force of anarchy, weighed upon him and exhausted his physical powers. It has been hitherto, Cromwell said, a matter of, I think, but philosophical discourse, that a great place, a great authority, is a great burthen. I know it is.[poor OCR translation here] I can say in the presence of God, in comparison of whom we are but like poor creeping ants upon the earth, I would have lived under my woodside to have kept a flock of sheep rather than undertook such a government as this. I doubt not to say, declared his steward Maidston, it drank up his spirits, of which his natural constitution afforded a vast stock, and brought him to his grave.

Domestic bereavements added further causes of grief and of weakened vitality. On the 6th of February 1658 he lost his favorite daughter, Elizabeth Claypole, and he was much cast down by the shock of his bereavement and of her long sufferings. Shortly afterwards he fell ill of an intermittent fever, but seemed to recover. On the 20th of August George Fox met him riding at the head of his guards in the park at Hampton Court, but declared he looked like a dead man. The next day he again fell ill and was removed from Hampton Court to Whitehall, where his condition became worse. The anecdotes believed and circulated by the royalists that Cromwell died in all the agonies of remorse and fear are entirely false. On the 31st of August he seemed to rally, and one who slept in his bedchamber Death and who heard him praying, declared, a public spirit to Gods cause did breathe in him to the very last. During the next few days he grew weaker and resigned himself to death. I would, he said, be willing to be further serviceable to God and his people, but my work is done. For the first time doubts as to his spiritual state seemed to have troubled him. Tell me is it possible to fall from grace? he asked the attendant minister. No, it is not possible, the latter replied. Then, said Cromwell, I am safe, for I know that I was once in grace. He refused medicine to induce sleep, declaring it is not my design to drink or to sleep, but my design is to make what haste I can to be gone. Towards the morning of the 3rd of September he again spoke, using divers holy expressions, implying much inward consolation and peace, together with some exceeding self-debasing words, annihilating and judging himself. He died on the afternoon of the same day, his day of triumph, the anniversary both of Dunbar and of Worcester. His body was privately buried in the chapel of Henry VII. in Westminster Abbey, the public funeral taking place on the 23rd of November, with great ceremony and on the same scale as that of Philip II. of Spain, and costing the enormous sum of 60,000. At the Restoration his body was exhumed, and on the 30th of January 1661, the anniversary of the execution of Charles I., it was drawn on a sledge from Holborn to Tyburn, together with the bodies of Ireton and Bradshaw, accompanied by the universal outcry and curses of the people. There it was hanged on a gallows, and in the evening taken down, when the head was cut off and set up upon Westminster Hall, where it remained till as late as 1684, the trunk being thrown into a pit underneath the gallows. According to various legends Cromwells last burial place is stated to be Westminster Abbey, Naseby Field or Newburgh Abbey; but there appears to be no evidence to support them, or to create any reasonable doubt that the great Protectors dust lies now where it was buried, in the neighborhood of the present Connaught Square. [article continues, on Cromwell's military accomplishments]" - Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911

http://capecodhistory.us/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I7882&tree=Nauset


Rank: Colonel (1643 – bef. 1644); Lieutenant-General of Horse (bef. 1644–45); Lieutenant-General of Cavalry (1645–46)

Battles/Wars: English Civil War: Gainsborough; Marston Moor; Newbury II; Naseby; Langport; Preston; Dunbar; Worcester

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

Cromwell was born into the middle gentry, albeit to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIII's minister Thomas Cromwell. Little is known of the first 40 years of his life as only four of his personal letters survive alongside a summary of a speech he delivered in 1628. He became an Independent Puritan after undergoing a religious conversion in the 1630s, taking a generally tolerant view towards the many Protestant sects of his period. He was an intensely religious man, a self-styled Puritan Moses, and he fervently believed that God was guiding his victories. He was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640–1649) parliaments. He entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians. Nicknamed "Old Ironsides", he demonstrated his ability as a commander and was quickly promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to being one of the principal commanders of the New Model Army, playing an important role in the defeat of the royalist forces.

Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles I's death warrant in 1649, and he dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England as a member of the Rump Parliament (1649–1653). He was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–1650. Cromwell's forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country, bringing to an end the Irish Confederate Wars. During this period, a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics (a significant minority in England and Scotland but the vast majority in Ireland), and a substantial amount of their land was confiscated. Cromwell also led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651.

On 20 April 1653, he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as Barebone's Parliament, before being invited by his fellow leaders to rule as Lord Protector of England (which included Wales at the time), Scotland and Ireland from 16 December 1653. As a ruler, he executed an aggressive and effective foreign policy. He died from natural causes in 1658 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. The Royalists returned to power in 1660, and they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.

Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the British Isles, considered a regicidal dictator by historians such as David Sharp, a military dictator by Winston Churchill, but a hero of liberty by John Milton, Thomas Carlyle, and Samuel Rawson Gardiner, and a class revolutionary by Leon Trotsky. In a 2002 BBC poll in Britain, Cromwell was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time. However, his measures against Catholics in Scotland and Ireland have been characterised as genocidal or near-genocidal, and in Ireland his record is harshly criticisedEarly years[edit] Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599 to Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward. He was descended from Katherine Cromwell (born c. 1482), an elder sister of Tudor statesman Thomas Cromwell (c. 1485 – 1540), a leading minister of Henry VIII, whose family acquired considerable wealth by taking over monastery property during the Reformation. Katherine married Morgan ap William, son of William ap Yevan of Wales. The family line continued through Richard Williams, alias Cromwell, (c. 1500–1544), Henry Williams, alias Cromwell, (c. 1524 – 6 January 1604),[b] Henry VIII strongly suggested that the Welsh start using surnames in the English style rather than taking their fathers' names as Morgan ap William and his male ancestors had done. Henry suggested to Sir Richard Williams, who was the first to use a surname in his family, that he use Cromwell, in honour of his uncle Thomas Cromwell. For several generations, the Williams super-added the surname of Cromwell to their own, styling themselves Williams alias Cromwell in legal documents (Noble 1784, pp. 11–13), then to Oliver's father Robert Cromwell (c. 1560–1617), who married Elizabeth Steward (c. 1564 – 1654), probably in 1591. They had ten children, but Oliver, the fifth child, was the only boy to survive infancy. Cromwell was also a distant relation of the Tudor Royal family and through them the Welsh princely family through his descent from Jasper Tudor through his younger daughter, Joan Tudor, as shown in the Genealogy of the Tudors. Jasper was the uncle of Henry VII and great uncle of Henry VIII.

Cromwell's paternal grandfather Sir Henry Williams was one of the two wealthiest landowners in Huntingdonshire. Cromwell's father Robert was of modest means but still a part of the gentry class. As a younger son with many siblings, Robert inherited only a house at Huntingdon and a small amount of land. This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes. Cromwell himself in 1654 said, "I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity".

He was baptised on 29 April 1599 at St John's Church, and attended Huntingdon Grammar School. He went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, then a recently founded college with a strong Puritan ethos. He left in June 1617 without taking a degree, immediately after the death of his father. Early biographers claim that he then attended Lincoln's Inn, but the Inn's archives retain no record of him. Fraser (1973) concludes that it was likely that he did train at one of the London Inns of Court during this time. His grandfather, his father, and two of his uncles had attended Lincoln's Inn, and Cromwell sent his son Richard there in 1647.

Cromwell probably returned home to Huntingdon after his father's death. As his mother was widowed, and his seven sisters unmarried, he would have been needed at home to help his family.

Marriage and family

Portrait of Cromwell's wife Elizabeth Bourchier, painted by Robert Walker On 22 August 1620 at St Giles-without-Cripplegate, Fore Street, London,[14] Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier (1598–1665). Elizabeth's father, Sir James Bourchier, was a London leather merchant who owned extensive lands in Essex and had strong connections with Puritan gentry families there. The marriage brought Cromwell into contact with Oliver St John and with leading members of the London merchant community, and behind them the influence of the Earls of Warwick and Holland. A place in this influential network would prove crucial to Cromwell’s military and political career.

The couple had nine children:

Robert (1621–1639), died while away at school. Oliver (1622–1644), died of typhoid fever while serving as a Parliamentarian officer. Bridget (1624–1662), married (1) Henry Ireton, (2) Charles Fleetwood. Richard (1626–1712), his father's successor as Lord Protector Henry (1628–1674), later Lord Deputy of Ireland Elizabeth (1629–1658), married John Claypole. James (b. & d. 1632), died in infancy. Mary (1637–1713), married Thomas Belasyse, 1st Earl Fauconberg Frances (1638–1720), married (1) Robert Rich (1634–1658), son of Robert Rich, 3rd Earl of Warwick, (2) Sir John Russell, 3rd Baronet

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Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland's Timeline

1599
April 25, 1599
Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
April 29, 1599
St. Johns Church, Huntingdon, England
April 29, 1599
St. Johns Church, Huntingdon, England
1621
1621
Age 21
1623
1623
Age 23
1624
August 1, 1624
Age 25
Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire (Present Cambridgeshire), England, (Present UK)
1626
October 4, 1626
Age 27
October 4, 1626
Age 27
Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England, United Kingdom