Petar Krešimir IV 'Veliki' Trpimirović, of Croatia

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Petar Krešimir IV 'Veliki' Trpimirović, of Croatia

Birthdate:
Death: Died
Place of Burial: (later destroyed by Osmanic Turks), Split, Općina Split, Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia
Immediate Family:

Son of Stjepan I (Stjepan III Dobroslav) Krešimirović Trpimirović, of Croatia and Joscella (Hicela) Trpimirović, of Croatia
Father of Neda Krešimirova Trpimirović; Patricissa Trpimirović, of Croatia and Neda Trpimirović, of Croatia
Brother of Tišemir Častimir Trpimirović
Half brother of Čika Opatica (The Nun) Medijevac

Occupation: hrvatski kralj 1058. -1074.
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Petar Krešimir IV 'Veliki' Trpimirović, of Croatia

Petar Krešimir IV. (lat. Petrus Cressimerus) je srednjovjeki hrvatski kralj iz vladarske dinastije Trpimirovića, koji je vladao od 1058. do 1074. godine.

Rodjen je kao sin ranijega hrvatskog kralja, Stjepana III. Dobroslava (1035-1050) i mletačke majke-kraljice Hicele Orseolo.

Bio je bez sina-nasljednika i imao je samo kćerku Nedu Krešimirovu, koja se udala za kasnijeg kralja Marijana II. Slavca (1073-1076) kojem je rodila Krešimirova unuka i zadnjega domaćeg bana Petra Slavića (1089-1093).

http://hr.metapedia.org/wiki/Petar_Kre%C5%A1imir_IV.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petar_Kre%C5%A1imir_IV

Peter Krešimir IV, called the Great (Croatian: Petar Krešimir IV Veliki) (died 1075), was a notably energetic King of Croatia from 1059 to his death in 1074/1075[2]. He was the last great ruler of the Krešimirović branch of the House of Trpimirović. Under his rule the Croatian realm reached its peak territorially, earning him the sobriquet "the Great," otherwise unique in Croatian history.[3] He kept his seat at Nin and Biograd na Moru[1], however, the city of Šibenik holds a statue of him and is often called Krešimir's city ("Krešimirov grad", in Croatian) because he is generally credited as the founder.[4][5]

Contents [hide] 1 Reign 1.1 Religious policy 1.2 Territorial policy 1.3 Relations with Byzantium and the Normans 1.4 Death and succession 1.5 Ancestors 2 Legacy 3 Notes 4 See also 5 External links


[edit] Reign[edit] Religious policy Peter Krešimir IV. being recognized as a king by the diocese of Split.Peter Kresimir was born as one of two children to king Stephen I and his wife Joscella (Hicela) Orseolo of Venicei[›][6], the daughter of the Venetian doge Pietro II Orseolo.[7][8] Raised in Venice, Krešimir succeeded his father Stephen I upon his death in 1058 and was crowned the next year. It is not known where his coronation took place, but some historians suggest Biograd as a possibility.[7] From the outset, he continued the policies of his father, but was immediately commanded by Pope Nicholas II first in 1059. and then in 1060 to reform the Croatian church in accordance with the Roman rite. This was especially significant to the papacy in the aftermath of the Great Schism of 1054, when a papal ally in the Balkans was a necessity. Kresimir and the upper nobility lent their support to the pope and the church of Rome.

The lower nobility and the peasantry, however, were far less well-disposed to reforms. The Croatian priesthood was aligned towards Byzantine orientalism, including having long beards and marrying. More so, the ecclesiastical service was likely practiced in the native Slavonic (Glagolitic), whereas the pope demanded practice in Latin. This caused a rebellion of the clergy against celibacy and the Latin liturgy in 1063, but they were proclaimed heretical at a synod of 1064. and excommunicated, a decision which Kresimir supported. He harshly quelled all opposition and sustained a firm alignment towards western Romanism, with the intent of more fully integrating the Dalmatian populace into his realm. In turn, he could then use them to balance the power caused by the growing feudal class. By the end of Krešimir's reign, feudalism had made permanent inroads into Croatian society and Dalmatia had been permanently associated with the Croatian state.[9]

The income from the cities further strengthened Krešimir's power, and he subsequently fostered the development of more cities, such as Biograd, Nin, Šibenik, Karin, and Skradin. He also had several monasteries constructed, like the Benedictine monastery of St. John the Evangelist in Biograd[10], and donated much land to the Church. In 1066, he granted a charter to the new monastery of St.Mary in Zadar, where the founder and first nun was his cousin, the Abbess Čika. This remains the oldest Croatian monument in the city of Zadar, and became a spearhead for the reform movement. Several other Benedictine monasteries were also founded during his reign, including the one in Skradin.

[edit] Territorial policy King's confirmation of donating land parcels to the diocese of Rap.[1]Krešimir greatly expanded Croatia along the Adriatic coastland and in the mainland eastwards.[7] He made the ban of Slavonia, Dmitar Zvonimir, of the related Svetoslavić brand of his house, his principal adviser with the title Duke (or ban) of Croatia. This act brought Slavonia into the Croatian fold definitively.

It is notable that, according to some royal documents, he ruled with three of his bans, each having a jurisdiction over a major part of the kingdom; Zvonimir as a Ban of Slavonia (c.1065–1075), Gojčo (1060–1069), who was a Ban of Littoral Croatia, and a Ban of Bosnia.[10]

In 1069., he gave the island of Maun, near Nin, to the monastery of St. Krševan in Zadar, in thanks for the "expansion of the kingdom on land and on sea, by the grace of the omnipotent God" (quia Deus omnipotenus terra marique nostrum prolungavit regnum). In his surviving document, Krešimir nevertheless did not fail to point out that it was "our own island that lies on our Dalmatian sea" (nostram propriam insulam in nostro Dalmatico mari sitam, que vocatur Mauni).[11]


Croatia in the mid-11th century[edit] Relations with Byzantium and the NormansIn 1069, he had the Byzantine Empire recognize him as supreme ruler of the parts of Dalmatia Byzantium had controlled since the Croatian dynastic struggle of 997.[12] At the time, the empire was at war both with the Seljuk Turks in Asia and the Normans in southern Italy, so Krešimir took the opportunity and, avoiding an imperial nomination as proconsul or eparch, consolidated his holdings as the regnum Dalmatiae et Chroatia. This was not a formal title, but it designated a unified political-administrative territory, which had been the chief desire of the Croatian kings.[11]

During Krešimir's reign, the Normans first became involved in Balkan politics and Krešimir soon came in contact with them. After the 1071 Battle of Manzikert, where the Seljuk Turks routed the Eastern Imperial army, the Serbs instigated a rebellion of Slavic boyars in Macedonia. In 1072, Krešimir lent his aid to the uprising. However, against all odds, the empire relatively quickly retaliated in 1074. In 1075., the Norman Count Amico invaded Croatia from southern Italy, either at the command of Constantinople or on behalf of the Dalmaitan cities (by invitation to protect them from Croatian domination). Amico besieged Rab for almost a month (late April to early May). He failed to take the island, but he allegedly did manage to capture the Croatian king himself at an unidentified location. In return for liberation, he was forced to relinquish many cities, including both his capitals, as well as Zadar, Split, and Trogir. His followers also collected a large ransom. However, he was not liberated. Over the next two years, the Republic of Venice banished the Normans and secured the cities for themselves.[13]

[edit] Death and successionNearing the end of his reign, Krešimir had no sons, but only a daughter by the name of Neda. His brothers were dead, so the end of Krešimir IV meant the end of the usurper Krešimir III of Croatia branch of Trpimirović dynasty. Krešimir designated his cousin and duke of Slavonia, Demetrius Zvonimir, as his heir with which he has restored Svetoslav Suronja branch of dynasty. According to some historians, Zvonimir deposed him and is uncertain whether he died in a Norman prison during the first half of 1075 or not.[10] It is suggested by Johannes Lucius that an usurpator king, called Slavac, succeeded the throne somewhere during 1074 and reigned only for a year before getting taken down and Zvonimir taking over.[12][14]

Krešimir was buried in the church of St. Stephen[15] in Solin, together with the other dukes and kings of Croatia. Unfortunately, several centuries later the Ottoman Turks destroyed the church, banished the monks who had preserved it, and destroyed the graves.[16]


Peter Krešimir IV, called the Great (Croatian: Petar Krešimir IV. Veliki, Latin: Petrus Cresimir ) (died 1075), was King of Croatia and Dalmatia from 1059 to his death in 1074/5.[1] He was the last great ruler of the Krešimirović branch of the House of Trpimirović.

Under his rule the Croatian realm reached its peak territorially, earning him the sobriquet "the Great", otherwise unique in Croatian history.[2] He kept his seat at Nin and Biograd na Moru,[3] however, the city of Šibenik holds a statue of him and is sometimes called Krešimir's city ("Krešimirov grad", in Croatian) because he is generally credited as the founder.[4][5]

Peter Krešimir was born as one of two children to king Stephen I (Stjepan I) and his wife Hicela, daughter of the Venetian Doge Pietro II Orseolo.i[›][6]

Krešimir succeeded his father Stephen I upon his death in 1058 and was crowned the next year. It is not known where his coronation took place, but some historians suggest Biograd as a possibility.[7]

From the outset, he continued the policies of his father, but was immediately requested in letter by Pope Nicholas II first in 1059. and then in 1060 to reform the Croatian church in accordance with the Roman rite. This was especially significant to the papacy in the aftermath of the Great Schism of 1054, when a papal ally in the Balkans was a necessity. This was in accordance with the visit of the papal legate Mainardius in 1060, Kresimir and the upper nobility lent their support to the pope and the church of Rome.

The lower nobility and the peasantry, however, were far less well-disposed to reforms. The Croatian priesthood was aligned towards Byzantine orientalism, including having long beards and marrying. More so, the ecclesiastical service was likely practiced in the native Slavonic (Glagolitic), whereas the pope demanded practice in Latin. This caused a rebellion of the clergy led by a certain priest named Vuk (Ulfus), who was referenced as newcomer to the kingdom in sources. Vuk had presented the demands and gifts of the Croats to to the Pope during his stay in Rome, but was told nothing could be accomplished without the consent of the Split see and the king.[8] They protested against celibacy and the Latin liturgy in 1063, but they were proclaimed heretical at a synod of 1064. and excommunicated, a decision which Krešimir supported. Krešimir harshly quelled all opposition and sustained a firm alignment towards western Romanism, with the intent of more fully integrating the Dalmatian populace into his realm. In turn, he could then use them to balance the power caused by the growing feudal class. By the end of Krešimir's reign, feudalism had made permanent inroads into Croatian society and Dalmatia had been permanently associated with the Croatian state.[9]

The income from the cities further strengthened Krešimir's power, and he subsequently fostered the development of more cities, such as Biograd, Nin, Šibenik, Karin, and Skradin. He also had several monasteries constructed, like the Benedictine monasteries of St. John the Evangelist (1060) and St. Thomas (c. 1066) in Biograd,[10] and donated much land to the Church. In 1066, he granted a charter to the new monastery of St.Mary in Zadar, where the founder and first nun was his cousin, the Abbess Čika. This remains the oldest Croatian monument in the city of Zadar, and became a spearhead for the reform movement. Several other Benedictine monasteries were also founded during his reign, including the one in Skradin. During the same year, he gave his nephew Stephen Trpimirović the office of Duke of Croatia, which designated him as his co-ruler and successor.[11]

In 1067, the northern part of the kingdom was invaded by Ulric I, Margrave of Carniola, who occupied a part of Kvarner and the eastern coast of Istria, the March of Dalmatia. As the king was at that time preoccupied with the liturgical issues and reforms in Dalmatia, these parts were eventually liberated by his ban Demetrius Zvonimir. [12]

Territorial policy

Krešimir greatly expanded Croatia along the Adriatic coastland and in the mainland eastwards.[7] He made the ban of Slavonia, Dmitar Zvonimir, of the related Svetoslavić brand of his house, his principal adviser with the title Duke (or ban) of Croatia. This act brought Slavonia into the Croatian fold definitively.

Around this time, Krešimir was rumored to have murdered his brother Gojslav, who had served as the ban of Croatia until 1070. Eventually, when the rumors reached abroad, Pope Alexander II sent one of his delegates to inquire about the death of Gojslav. Only after the monarch and 12 Croatian župans had taken oath that he did not kill his brother, the Pope symbolically restored the royal power to Krešimir.[13]

It was for the first time that the high ranking office of ban started to branch during his rule, as multiple bans were for the first time mentioned in 1067. It is known that, apart from the ban of Croatia, the banate of Slavonia existed during this period, which was at this time likely held by Krešimir's successor Demetrius Zvonimir.[10][14] The city of Šibenik is for the first time mentioned during his rule in 1066, which was his seat for some time and is for these reasons referred as "Krešimir's city" in modern times.[15]

In 1069, he gave the island of Maun, near Nin, to the monastery of St. Krševan in Zadar, in thanks for the "expansion of the kingdom on land and on sea, by the grace of the omnipotent God" (quia Deus omnipotens terra marique nostrum prolungavit regnum). In his surviving document, Krešimir nevertheless did not fail to point out that it was "our own island that lies on our Dalmatian sea" (nostram propriam insulam in nostro Dalmatico mari sitam, que vocatur Mauni).

Relations with Byzantium and the Normans

In 1069, he had the Byzantine Empire recognize him as supreme ruler of the parts of Dalmatia Byzantium had controlled since the Croatian dynastic struggle of 997.[17] At the time, the empire was at war both with the Seljuk Turks in Asia and the Normans in southern Italy, so Krešimir took the opportunity and, avoiding an imperial nomination as proconsul or eparch, consolidated his holdings as the regnum Dalmatiae et Chroatia. This was not a formal title, but it designated a unified political-administrative territory, which had been the chief desire of the Croatian kings.[16]

During Krešimir's reign, the Normans from southern Italy first became involved in Balkan politics and Krešimir soon came in contact with them. After the 1071 Battle of Manzikert, where the Seljuk Turks routed the Eastern Imperial army, the Diocleans, Serbs and other Slavs instigated a rebellion of boyars in Macedonia and in 1072, Krešimir is alleged to have lent his aid to this uprising. In 1075, the Normans under Peter II of Trani invaded the Dalmatian possessions of Croatia from southern Italy, most likely at the command of the Pope, who had been in a quarrel with the king of Croatia over papal politics towards his kingdom.[18] During the invasion, the Norman count Amico of Giovinazzo besieged the island of Rab for almost a month (14 April to early May). He failed in his siege of Rab, but he managed to take the island of Cres on 9 May. It was during these clashes that the Croatian king himself was captured by Amico at an unidentified location. In return for liberation, he was forced to relinquish many cities, including both his capitals, as well as Zadar, Split, and Trogir. His followers, such as the Bishop of Cres, also collected a large ransom. However, he was not liberated. Over the next two years, the Republic of Venice expelled the Normans and secured the cities for themselves.[19]

Death and succession

Near the end of his reign, Peter Krešimir had no sons, but only a daughter, Neda. His brothers were dead, so his death meant the end of the usurping Krešimir III of Croatia branch of the Trpimirović dynasty. Peter Krešimir designated his cousin Demetrius Zvonimir, duke of Slavonia, as his heir, which restored the Svetoslav Suronja branch of the dynasty. According to some historians, Zvonimir deposed Peter. It is uncertain whether Peter died in a Norman prison during the first half of 1075.[10] According to Johannes Lucius, an usurper, Slavac, succeeded to the throne sometime in 1074 and reigned only for a year before Zvonimir succeeded.[17][20]

Krešimir was buried in the church of St. Stephen[21] in Solin, together with the other dukes and kings of Croatia. Several centuries later the Ottoman Turks destroyed the church, banished the monks who had preserved it, and destroyed the graves.[22]

Legacy

Krešimir is, by some historians, regarded as one of the greatest Croatian rulers. Thomas the Archdeacon named him "the great" in his work Historia Salonitana during the 13th century for his significance in unifing the Dalmatian coastal cities with the Croatian state and accomplishing a peak in Croatia's territorial extent. The RTOP-11 of the Croatian navy was named after Krešimir. The city of Šibenik holds a statue of him and some schools in the vicinity are named after Krešimir.

Über Petar Krešimir IV 'Veliki' Trpimirović, of Croatia (Deutsch)

Petar Krešimir IV. (lateinisch: Petrus Cresimiri, † 1074) aus der kroatischen Dynastie der Trpimirović war von 1058 bis 1074 der König von Kroatien.

Er erhielt den in der kroatischen Geschichte einmaligen Namenszusatz „der Große“, da unter seiner Herrschaft Kroatien im Mittelalter seine größte Ausdehnung erreichte.

Er war der letzte Regent aus der Trpimirović-Dynastie in direkter Linie; ihm folgten noch sein Vetter und sein Neffe. Sein Hofstaat befand sich sowohl in Nin als auch in Biograd na Moru.

Religionspolitik

Krešimir war Nachfolger von Stjepan I., der im Jahr 1058 starb. Er stand unter dem Einfluss vom Papst Nikolaus II. Im Jahr 1059 wurde die Kirche in Kroatien in Anlehnung an den römischen Ritus reformiert. Dies war hinsichtlich des Schismas von 1054 und der Treue zu Rom von Bedeutung.

Krešimir IV. und der Hochadel unterstützten den Papst und die römisch-katholische Kirche.

Der rangmäßig „einfachere“ Adel und der Klerus waren jedoch weniger reformbereit. Die kroatische Priesterschaft war eher dem byzantinischen Orientalismus zugeneigt. Sie trugen lange Bärte und lehnten den Zölibat ab.

Die heiligen Messen wurden in Kirchenslawisch sowie der Glagolitza gehalten, obwohl der Papst die lateinische Schrift und das Latein wünschte. Dies war im Jahr 1063 der Grund für die Rebellion eines Teils des Klerus gegen die Liturgie in lateinischer Sprache. Bei einer Synode wurden die Rebellen jedoch zu Häretikern erklärt und exkommuniziert. Krešimir IV. unterstützte diese Entscheidung des Vatikans.

Unter der Herrschaft von Krešimir entwickelten sich insbesondere Städte wie Biograd na Moru, Nin, Karin, Skradin und Šibenik. Er ließ auch mehrere Klöster erbauen und schenkte der Kirche zahlreiche Ländereien. Im Jahr 1066 ließ er das Kloster der Hl. Maria in Zadar errichten. Gründerin war seine Cousine Čika. Das Kloster ist bis heute das älteste Gebäude der Stadt.

Territoriale Politik

Krešimir IV. erweiterte Kroatien sowohl entlang der adriatischen Küste als auch im Landesinneren.

Er ernannte Dmitar Zvonimir zum Ban von Slawonien. Es gelang ihm, seinen Einfluss auch auf die Gebiete des südlichen Dalmatiens Duklien, Zahumlje und Travunien sowie das östlich gelegene Bosnien auszudehnen.

Das kroatische Königreich erstreckte sich zu jener Zeit zwischen den Flüssen Raša und Drina sowie der Drava und der Neretva.

Im Jahr 1069 schenkte er die nahe Nin gelegene Insel Maun dem Kloster St. Krševan in Zadar aus Dankbarkeit für die „Erweiterung des Königreiches zu Lande und zur See mit der Gnade des allmächtigen Gottes“ (quia Deus omnipotenus terra marique nostrum prolungavit regnum).

In überlieferten Dokumenten pflegte Krešimir IV. auch stets „unsere eigene Insel, die sich in unserer Dalmatinischen See befindet und Maun genannt wird“ (nostram propriam insulam in nostro Dalmatico mari sitam, que vocatur Mauni) zu betonen.

Im Jahr 1072 sandte der König militärische Unterstützung an die Bojaren von Makedonien, die gegen Byzanz an der Seite der Kroaten von Duklien kämpften.

Beziehungen zu Byzanz und den Normannen

Krešimir IV. wurde vom Byzantinischen Reich mit dem Titel Proconsul oder Eparch sowie als der regnum Dalmatiae et Chroatia (König von Dalmatien und Kroatien) anerkannt.

Im November 1075 griffen die Normannen unter der Führung von Amico aus dem heutigen Süditalien an. Amico belagerte Rab, ohne jedoch die Insel einnehmen zu können. Es gelang ihm jedoch, den kroatischen König an einem nicht näher bekannten Ort gefangenzunehmen. Um wieder freigelassen zu werden, musste Krešimir unter anderem die Städte Zadar, Split und Trogir an die Normannen abtreten. Etwa ein Jahr später gelang es der Republik Venedig, die Normannen zu vertreiben und diese Städte ihrem Gebiet einzuverleiben.

Tod des Königs

Gegen Ende seiner Regentschaft hatte Krešimir keine Söhne mehr, nur noch seine Tochter Neda. Seine eigenen Brüder waren ebenfalls verstorben. Sein Ende bedeutete somit faktisch das Ende der Trpimirović-Dynastie, die seit zwei Jahrhunderten die Herrscher Kroatiens stellte. Krešimir designierte Dmitar Zvonimir zu seinem Nachfolger.

Im Jahr 1075 wurde Krešimir in der Kirche des hl. Stephan (Kloster Sveti Stjepan bei Split) bestattet. Hier lagen auch weitere Könige und Fürsten Kroatiens bestattet. Diese Kirche und die Gräber wurden einige Jahrhunderte später von osmanischen Soldaten zerstört und die Mönche, die über die Grabstätten wachten, ermordet, so dass nichts mehr davon übrig blieb.

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