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rotating_world.gifAbout the Armenis name

Origin of the name

The surname Armenis has its origin in the ancient Greek patronym attested to by the last male heir apparent to the independent kingdom of ancient Sparta, Armenis son of the Lacedæmonian king Nabis (Grk. Αρμένη). King Nabis [Reign: 207 BC – 192 BC] was the last ruler under whom the Spartans had been a major power in ancient Greece.

Gennaro Grande's the Origin of noble surnames in the Kingdom of Naples states that Armenis was a noble Latin surname in the Kingdom of Naples. The name developed into two Latin forms in the Kingdom of Naples: de Armeniis and Arminio. Many Latin noble surnames were first used in antiquity as personal names, later becoming family names, taken from the name of a paternal ancestor. This name, as is the case with many others from antiquity, which as noble names have been discovered on ancient monuments and papyri, were originally used, although partly corrupted with slight alterations, as first names during the pre-Christian era, remaining as surnames up to and until the present day.

ARMENES, Armenis, et Armenas, æ, m. Nomen virile Graecum.

Etymology & Meaning of the name

The etymology of the name Armenis is derived from the ancient Greek (epic Doric) verb armenon (Grk. άρμενον), meaning to arm or prepare for war.

Noun => το άρμενον: ιστία (sails), εξοπλισμός (armament), όπλα (weapons), οπλισμός (arms).

The ancient Greek (epic Doric) adjective and passive past participle άρμενος (armenos) means suitable (Latin: adaptatus, habilis) or fitted, the contracted form of the term αρόμενος (aromenos).

Adjective / Passive Past Participle => άρμενος, -η, -ον, (Sync, for αρόμενος, par. pres. pass. of άρω to fit) αdopted, fit, proper, convenient.

  • άρμενος (masc.)
  • αρμένη (fem.)
  • άρμενον (neut.)

The feminine form of άρμενος is αρμένη. The last syllable here is the long vowel η and the intonation is therefore placed on the second syllable (αρμένη).

Action => d’armer (English: to arm; Greek: οπλίζω)

The French verb d'armer and the ancient Greek noun το άρμενον (to armenon) share the root άρω, meaning to join or to fit. Within the context of naval technology both terms refer to the armament and rigging of a sailing vessel. Specifically, the preparations made for sailing and fitting a warship for battle. Therefore, the ancient Greek terms άρμενον and τα άρμενα refer to the armament of a ship (Fr. objects d'armement). Similarly, the Latin noun armarium refers to arms and the enclosure used for keeping arms. The English verb armer means to take up arms or to prepare for battle. In addition, the French armer un vaisseau means to fit or to arm out a ship for battle; whereas the Latin verb armare and Spanish term armar mean to arm, to fit out a ship or to assemble.

Adamantios Koraïs (1748-1833) was credited with laying the foundations of Modern Greek literature and his activities paved the way for the emergence of a purified form of the Greek language known as Katharevousa. He said the following: "Εις τους Λατίνους εσήμαινεν ό,τι εχρησίμευεν εις φύλαξιν εργαλείων, σκευών και όπλων διαφόρων, άπό τού Arma (Όπλα). Ότι δέ έλαβαν καί τούτο άπό τούς Έλληνας, φαίνεται από τον Όμηρον, όστις μεταχειρίζεται και το Όπλα και το Άρμενα, σχεδόν ως συνώνυμα, ... Δεν είναι λοιπόν παράδοξον, εάν οι Λατίνοι ωνόμασαν Αρμάριον την θήκην των Αρμένων, ήγουν των σκευών."

Variations of the name include the following:

  • Armenis (Grk.); Armeniis (Adriatic); Armenise (Barese)
  • Ermeniis (Genoese; Ligurian); Hermeniis (Narbonne)
  • Erminii (Genoese; Ligurian); Arminii (Neapolitan)
  • Armeni / Armini (Provençal); Aimini (Avignon); Aymini (Tarascon)
  • Arminerii / Armenerii (Burgundian); Ermenerii (Genoese, Ligurian)
  • Armer (Fr.); Armar (Sp.); Armare (Lat.)
  • Armeri (Ven.) / Arneri (Korčulanski) / Arnerić (Croatian)
  • Armuri (Cretan) / Armuni (Istrian) / Armani (Dalmatian)
  • Armarium (Lat.) / Armario (Ital.) / Armadio (Ital.)
  • Darmarius (Lat.) / Darmario (Ital.) / Darmer (Fr.) / d'Armer

Greek slang

Armeni [Grk. αρμένι] is the Greek slang term for αρμενιστής (English: mariner, sailor). This colloquial term has traditionally been used in the war navy to describe a boatswain, the senior crewman of the deck. He is responsible for the ship's hull and all its components, including its rigging, anchors, cables, sails, deck maintenance and small boat operations. The boatswain is designated the warrant officer in the Navy.

Arvanitika (τα Αρβανίτικα)

The Arvanitic term άρμενίς (armenis) is used to refer to a sailing ship and the medieval Greek phrase φάνηκαν τριάντα άρμενα refers to the appearance of thirty sails (synonym: ships).

Toponyms derived from the name Armenis on Corfu

  • Armenádes [Grk. Αρμενάδες], a village in the north of the island. Established by Vito Darmer c.1407
  • Armenátika [Grk. τα Αρμενάτικα] located in the village Giannades
  • Ármeno [Grk. το Άρμενο] located in the village Giannades
  • Armeni [Grk. Αρμένη] road located in the old town of Corfu.

Απομακρυνόμενοι από την λειτουργική ποιότητα των κεντρικών αρτηριών πού συγκεντρώνουν την καταναλωτική ζωή της πόλης (Κέρκυρα) και οργανώνουν τις εσωτερικές επικοινωνίες της, διαπιστώνουμε ότι η οδωνυμία τους αποκαλύπτει μια άλλη ποιότητα κοινωνική. Οι δρόμοι δέν χαρακτηρίζονται άλλο από τη χρήση τους, αλλά από την οικογένεια που ήταν εγκαταστημένη σ' αυτούς (ή πού της ανήκαν οικόπεδα, «σπιτότοποι») και πού τούς δίνει και το όνομά τους, καμιά φορά συναγωνιζόμενη ακόμα και την παρουσία μιας εκκλησίας ή της συναγωγής. Έτσι έχουμε το καντούνι του Petretin (έχει διατηρήσει το όνομά του σε Πετρέτου), Avierino (οδός Η. Μηνιάτη), Agorasto (οδός Δημοδόκου), Quartano (οδός Σερεμέτη), Racapidi (Αριστοτέλους), Lascari (οδός Γεννατά), Cefalà, Tosi, Conti, Bondioli, Cassimati, Trivoli, Teson e Quartano, Racapidi e Polidoro, Chiessari, Calichiopoulo e Marieti, Capello, Comioti, Trimeri e Varucca, Bisi, Mastraca, Bassan, Armeni, Vianello, Xinda, Scordilli, Carazzia, Mazzoleni, Cocchini, Barbati, Capodistria, Gonemi, Musarol, Pofandi. (Ta Historika, Issue 32, Ekdot. Oikos Melissa, 2000)

Toponym derived from the name Armenis on Crete

  • Armeni [Grk. Αρμένη; previously Armenus; στούς Αρμένους], a village in the Apokorona highlands of Western Crete.

The caretaker government of the island of Crete: From 11 - 21 May 1822 a General Assembly of the Cretans was summoned at Armeni near Apokoronas with the purpose of voting a caretaker form of government for the island and of appointing the chief leaders of the freedom struggle.

Ο αρχαιότερος ονομαστικός κατάλογος τών οικισμών τής επαρχίας Αποκορώνου είναι τού 1577 τού Fr. Barozzi τού κώδικα 384, τής σειράς Fonds Italien, fo 27r - 27v, τών χειρογράφων τής εθνικής βιβλιοθήκης τού Παρισιού. Το 1577 αναφέρεται στην επαρχία Αποκορώνου απó τo Fr. Barozzi, (fo 30r) Armenus, απó τov Kαστροφύλακα (Κ237) Armenus το 1583, από το Βασιλικάτα (Μνημεία Κρητ. Ιστ. V, σ. 134) Armenus το 1630. Στην αιγυπτιακή απογραφή του 1834 αναφέρεται Arméni (Pashley, Travels in Crete, 11 3DSTM 15 may be used to ΙΙ, 312). Το 1881 είναι έδρα ομώνυμου δήμου...

Sea Ports / Harbours

The old harbour of Santorini in the Cyclades was named Αρμένη after the masts and sails (Greek: τα άρμενα) of the many ships that were anchored there.

In the Anabasis (c. 370 BC) by Xenophon of Athens (c.431 BC – 354 BC), he provides a description of the Greek seaport named Armene (Grk. Αρμένη) located on the Black Sea coast of Paphlagonia.

Scylax of Caryanda was a Greek explorer and writer of the late 6th and early 5th centuries BCE. His own writings are lost, though occasionally cited or quoted by later Greek and Roman authors. Scylax of Caryanda is quoted by Hecataeus of Miletus (550BC - 476BC), the early Greek historian and geographer, as having stated, Αρμένη πόλις Ελληνίς και λιμήν. This quote was translated into Latin by the German classical scholar Christoph Cellarius (1638 - 1707) as, Armene oppidum Graecum et portus.

Constantinople -> Crete (Armeni alias Armer)

The Venetian author Andrea Cornaro (b.1547 - d. ca.1616) from Crete wrote the following:

The island of Crete was taken by Nikephoros Phokas after 142 years of occupation by the Barbarians. The Empire colonized the island with noble families from the Senatorial Order of Constantinople, namely the Armeni, the Caleteri, the Anatolici, Curgiacii, the Saturnini known as Cortaci, the Vespasiani known as Melissini, the Ligni known as Suttili, the Paniniani known as Vlasti, the Romuli known as Claudii, the Aliati known as Scordili, the Coloriesi known as Coleini, the Orsini known as Arcoledi, and the Foca from the same bloodline as Nikephoros Phokas, and so it is that from these Foca, the Calergi house originated.

These virtuous people (The Sfakiotai) inhabited the mountains of Chania towards the south-east, and boasted that they were the descendants of the most illustrious families of the Romans, who moved to Constantinople and settled in Candia.

In the 15th century the Florentine, Cristoforo Buondelmonti, travelled to the Greek islands. He speaks of twelve Roman families that propagated the flag and culture of the Eastern Roman Empire, adherents of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Among them were the Cortati (Saturi in Latin, 500 in number), Mellisini (Vespasiani, 300), Ligni (Scutiles, 1600), Vlasti (Papiniani, 200), Cladi (Ramuli, 180), Scordili (Aglati, 800), Colonni (Colonenses, 30) and Arculeades (Ursini, 100), while the other four families were not named. Later, the writer Boschini, repeated this statement with little deviation. Also in the special description of Crete by the same Buondelmonti was mentioned the Roman families who had moved to Crete from Constantinople, stating that the Cortati were rightly called Cortazi, and that the Archuleades or Colonni had migrated at a later date, and, as they had been intolerant of the other families, they went into self-exile in Sitia.

Andrea Cornaro in his history of the island confirmed this colonization in the time of the re-conquest by Nikephoros Phokas and identified with the exception of those mentioned by Buondelmonti another four families, the Armeni, Caleteri, Anatolici and Foca, of which the latter was famous, gutted after a long struggle among the Venetian patricians, from this house the Calergi family has its origins. These later additions by Andrea Cornaro, himself a Cretan from the Venetian colony, were published (b.1547 - d. ca.1616) – with the original source manuscript he cited is dated October 1183AD.

Source: Creta sacra; sive, De episcopis utriusque ritus, Græci et Latini, in insula Cretae. Accedit series præsidum Venetorum inlustrata - by Flaminio Cornaro, 1755. Original from Oxford University

According to Andrea Cornaro (b.1547 - d. ca.1616), Emperor Alexios II Komnenos sent twelve noble Byzantine families to Crete, in order to strengthen ties between the island and Constantinople. The families that were awarded land and administrative privileges included:

1.) Armeni

2.) Caleteri

3.) Anatolici [Kalotheto]

4.) Curgiaki [Curgiacii/Kyriaki]

5.) Saturnini [Cortaci/Cortazzi]

6.) Vespasiani [Melissino]

7.) Ligni [Suttili]

8.) Paniniani [Vlasto]

9.) Romuli [Claudii]

10.) Aliati [Scordili]

11.) Coloriesi [Coleini/Colonna]

12.) Orsini [Arcoledi/Arkoleo]

The family of Nikephoros Phokas, the general who had defeated the Arabs and liberated Crete, later became known as Calergi during the period of Venetian rule.

The first re-settlement of Crete began immediately after the Arabs were defeated by general Nikephoros Phokas in 961AD. The general had faithfully served the Eastern Roman Emperor, Romanus II Armenius, son of Constantinus VII Armenius [also known as Porphyrogennito]. Romanus II ruled from 948 to 963, after which Nikephoros Phokas married his widow and was himself proclaimed emperor of Constantinople.

The family from Heraklion (Grk. Χάνδακας / Ηράκλειο; Lat. Candia) established itself on the island of Corfu whereas the family from Chania (Grk. Χανιά; Lat. Canea) moved to the island of Corfu and Venice.

The Fall of Constantinople (1453)

From the correspondence of Francisco Philelfus (Franciscus Philelphus) we know the names of Greek nobles who escaped the Ottoman destruction of Constantinople, such as: Michail Dromahatis Chrysoloras, Demetrios and Michail Asanis, Demetrios Palaiologos, Andronikos Trichas Spandounis and Georgios Ducas Armenis.

Georgios Ducas Armenis escaped to France in 1455 under the auspices of King Charles VII [Reign: 1422 - 1461]. The French King accepted him as a humanitarian exile and paid for his living expenses.

The Cittadini of Venetian Crete

"Για τις αποδείξεις αστικής «ιδιότητας» στην Κρήτη, κάτι που ισοδυναμούσε περίπου με την ευγένεια στην Κέρκυρα, της οποίας ωστόσο η ευγένεια παρουσιάζει χαρακτηριστικά αντίστοιχα με εκείνα των Κρητοευγενών, βλ. Ασπασία Παπαδάκη, Αποδείξεις αστικής ιδιότητας στην Κρήτη το 17ο αιώνα (Ρrove di Cittadinanza), Πεπραγμένα του Ζ' Διεθνούς Κρητολογικού Συνεδρίου, τ. 2/2, 619-634."

Venice initially planned to exclude the Greek Cretan aristocracy completely from the sociopolitical system of the island, but a number of these noble families led revolts against Venetian rule in the thirteenth century, compelling Venice to recognize their lands and privileges. This recognition was granted only to the families that had rebelled, not to the entire Greek Cretan nobility, a situation that contrasts with Venice's later practice in other places of granting rights and privileges to communities or nobilities as a whole.

The nature of the cittadini (citizens), the middle stratum of Cretan society, originated mainly from the indigenous people, and were more numerous than the nobles. This intermediate social category, like the corresponding group in the city of Venice during the fourteenth century, began to take shape after the full determination of the ruling class (1463) and the exclusion of the non-nobles from the communal bodies and from higher local offices. The status of cittadino was not defined on the basis of some potent legal attribute akin to the titles held by the ruling class. On the contrary, their presence in the social fabric became increasingly distinct owing to features of a socio-economic nature, such as the prosperity derived from the exploitation of real estate, trade, or special literary or technical knowledge. Their education, especially from the late fifteenth century on, was able to facilitate their access to salaried positions in the mid-level public bureaucracy. A good many of the island's citizens, who, apart from Greek, spoke and wrote Italian, the official language, were employed as accountants and lawyers in the treasury offices (camere fiscali) and as secretaries in the various administrative, judicial and police services. The most important of these positions were those of the notarial staff in the ducal chancellery, which, like its Venetian counterpart, played a crucial role in governance. Through these occupations, citizens continuously acquired social standing and were differentiated from the lower social strata, that is, the manual labourers of town (popolani) and country (contadini). Thus the intermediate group gradually acquired a feature that had very significant social value in the Venetian system: the exercise of a respectable profession, an element that became increasingly influential in shaping formal and informal socio-economic hierarchies.

Given their exclusion from the communal councils, Cretan citizens strove to consolidate their position in the social hierarchy in other ways. To this end, they sought to secure exclusive access to the mid-level public service. In the late fifteenth century (1499), an extremely important government decision favoured their expectations, and was destined to set its seal on the evolution of this social group, giving it official attributes. As provided for by similar regulations for the cittadini of Venice, this law ordained that Cretan cittadini had to be long-term residents of the town, which in their case meant for a period of at least five years, and also that they could be elected to a four-year term in secretariat positions. In the decades to come, this social corpus made increasing efforts to safeguard its privileges, which were frequently circumvented: in 1528, the citizens submitted a request that persons of other social categories should not be appointed as secretaries. Also, in order to ensure that local residence should be as their primary defining characteristic, they tried to prevent secretariat offices from being assigned to non-Cretans, such as the former residents of the Venetian towns of Nafplio and Monemvasia, who had moved to Crete after their homelands were occupied by the Ottomans (1540).

In 1613, when significant regulations were passed to codify the cittadinanza, that is, the status of citizen, while at the same time associating it more with the administrative machinery. From then on, and in reflection of the social realities in the mother city, citizens who were to be candidates for public mid-level positions had to meet certain fundamental criteria that were also applied to both their father and grandfather: birth from a legal marriage; practice of a respectable, non-manual profession; scope of financial activities, education, and a growing association with the administrative apparatus.

As from 1616, citizenship was required on Crete for employment in public office, and candidates had to be in possession of a prova di cittadinanza that could be acquired only under certain conditions: being at least 25 years of age; being of legitimate birth and a descendant of respectable parents who had not been engaged in mechanical arts for three generations; residence in town; and a good social reputation. This looks like a belated imitation of the Venetian cittadini originarii about a century earlier.

The cittadini originarii were Venice's upper middle class. The men belonging to this class worked as merchants, bankers, doctors, pharmacists, lawyers, notaries, landlords, and businessmen. The cittadini also manned the Venetian civil service. They were secretaries to the Great Council, the Senate, the Council of Ten, and to the empire's naval commanders, ambassadors and governors.

Political and social power on all the islands, except for Crete, was held by the upper-class cittadini (who were members of the various Councils) over the middle-class popolari, and the lower-class villani and contadini. Slot (1982) states that on the Cycladic islands the cittadini "blended with the feudatories in the same dominating class". On the Ionian islands, feudal status was not a prerequisite for participation in local councils, which were open to a portion of the urban inhabitants, the "citizens" or cittadini, who also qualified as the local aristocracy. Dursteler (2013) mentions that on the island of Kythira the cittadini constituted the leading group among the local inhabitants. On Kythira the local council, decreed in 1572 according to a decision by Daniel Venier, General Proveditor of Crete, was composed entirely of cittadini and not of nobles (A.E. Laiu 1980).

On Corfu all members of the civic communal council were cittadini. The "civic" nobility of Corfu, which was never formally recognised by Venice, differed from the statutory, feudal nobility of the island (Αναστασία Παπαδία-Λάλα, 2004). Nonetheless, in the 18th century the term "nobleman" was firmly established and essentially indistinguishable from the Corfiot "cittadino", that is, from the members of the communal council of Corfu (Tsougarakis & Lock, 2014).

(Delēvorrias, Georgoula, Arvanitakēs & Ballian 2005)

The emergence of Cretan cittadini as a respectable group within Cretan urban society appears to have been a successful way of assuring the fidelity of new or not-so-new elites that existed in early modern Cretan towns, especially members of the Greek-speaking town dwellers. A census carried out on Crete in 1644 and published by ducal notary Antonio Trivan reflects this reality: in Heraklion (Candia) there were 14,451 inhabitants, among them 118 noblemen and 164 cittadini; in Chania (Canea) there were 10,400 inhabitants, 97 of whom were noblemen and 153 cittadini.

Heraklion - Crete

According to Trivan (1644) the following lineages were known as cittadini, and included the local Cretan nobility descended from those twelve Senatorial Houses of Constantinople better known as the Archondopouli; and those noble Venetians who had lapsed from the Venetian nobility, citizens of Crete, most of which were from the original inhabitants of the Metropolitan city of Heraklion (Candace), that is: Ambelicopulo, Armeni, Achieli, Abetto, Armani, Arcadio, Amoreo, Apladha, Argostoli, Abelachiano, Bugla, Bosichi, Barozzi, Belegno, Barbarigo, Benti, Benedeti, Comino, Caffati, Corogona, Cassimati, Callona, Callamatiano, Cartofilaca, Clado, Drasino, Kavallaro, Pascuzzi, Cigala, Dal Suol, Cantacuzino, Panigira, Cochili, Dulufi, Ghleba, Pantogalo, Callamara, Darmano, Littino, Parathioti, Capella, Davigla, Lorando, Plattara, Callofrona, Daloca, Lodovicio, Pistola, Calogera, Dagladi, Libithi, Piga, Christoforo, Daravena, Luccari, Paghi, Clada, Drasaleviti, Mussuro, Pantaleo, Canachi, Doria, Mandricari, Pessembra, Canalomiti, De Candia, Melissino, Pattero, Cazzara, Fliscuni, Mara, Piperi, Curtesan, Frielo, Moresin, Psisisti, Capa Santa, Fontana, Maurica, Rizzo, Chioni, Foscomilo, Manganari, Raguseo, Coreo, Farmachi, Musalo, Ralli, Camanoti, Fagliero/Falier, Mavriano, Rocco, Cochianiti, Ghrognano, Manerba, Zograffi, Calichiopulo, Ghrusogulato, Marangon, Seminelo, Cochini, Gierazuni, Maravegia, Sirigo, Cimischi, Gerosolimiti, Nottara, Sidero, Dagrado, Gausili, Ostriano, Siguro, Dipoli, Gerachi, Polina, Spanopulo, Dafnomichi, Ghamarto, Papadopulo, Sogia, Dafferera, Gharoniti, Procaciante, Sforza, Damian, Gonemi, Pamfilo, Scarlato, De Molin, Grioni, Prichi, Sagredo, Diminiti, Ghoniati, Pulopodi, Stavrachi, Da Cipri, Ghavssogiani, Polemarchi, Sallamon, Drimo, Ghardesan, Pedioti, Stanila, Sachellari, Theristi, Varda, Zangaropulo, Teochari, Vlasto, Valeriano, De Zorzi, Thergiano, Vlacho, Venezzan, Di Cipri, Thesso, Vaptisma, Xsanto, Di Franceschi, Trivisan, Vizzamano, Zago, Di Negri. In total 164 families.

Chania - Crete (Armeni alias Armer or Armuri)

The Armeni family that had established itself in Chania on Crete was documented as Armer (also Armuri). The French word for arms [Greek: οπλισμός] is armure. Trivan (1644) stated that the following lineages constituted the cittadini of Chania (Canea): Armeni, Bambacopulo, Cottachi, Cerigo, Asprea, Brinci, Capsali, Culota, Acchineo, Barbarigo, Cartofilaca, Copeo, Andronicopulo, Claduri, Cunetti, Calichiopulo, Acladuris, Condoleo, Clado, Cellaiti, Avigoni, Cavallari, Capsodhassi, Chissamo, Contarini, Gharchi, Plaiti, Delussa, Chidoni, Ananea, Petropulo, Cassimati, Calbo, Picicopulo, Capello, Daffessari, Caravella, Callamuti, Cattani, Dibianchi, Curino, Cariofilo, Damigo, Dellaporta, Cristofforo, Damian, Deftereo, Grippari, Drossa, Damoron, Galleoti, Dicatteruci, Drima, Fassula, Griceo, Gorgorafti, Fassidhoni, Dellatoro, Gradenigo, Rauro, Grigliano, Giattei, Lorando, Mangussa, Gerachi, Richinio, Mittilineo, Moroni, Laftachi, Madero, Milonopulo, Manolafti, Lascari, Moscheto, Manganari, Pullachi, Mothoneo, Madaraca, Porfiro, Politi, Mariscarpa, Portari, Pazzola, Piscopopulo, Nicoleto, Peccatore, Psara, Papadopulo, Puzzidi, Perdicari, Paleocapa, Rusteu, Pachin, Pramatefti, Russea, Scuvi, Piperis, Rosso, Sitta, Segnano, Ralli, Zervo, Sirgiano, Venier, Raguseo, Stavriano, Soffiano, Vellaiti, Soffoleo, Scuttarioti, Tagliapiera, Varunga, Stanila, Thallassino, Vizzamano, Zunzura, Thergiano, Vitto, Zangarol, Gavvano, Valente, Vasmulo, Rubette, Argiro, Vureto, Gavrili, Catteruzzi, Rauseo, Zangaropulo, Picridi, Ruscio, Macherioti, Siropulo, Price, Vlassi, Trivisan. In total 153 families.

Example: On the 5th of January 1555, Pavlos Armenis from Chania authorizes the merchant Zuane Sgouromalli from Heraklion, to charter a ship to transport wine from Chania to Venice with a fare that would be agreed between them.

Σε συμβόλαια τού Michele Mara έμποροι και καραβοκύρηδες που δραστηριοποιούνται σε όλο τον ελλαδικό χώρο φορτώνουν από λιμάνια της Κρήτης εμπορεύματα, τα οποία μεταφέρουν σε άλλα λιμάνια της Μεσογείου. Ενδεικτικά ο Παύλος Αρμένης από τα Χανιά εξουσιοδοτεί τον έμπορο Τζουάνε Σγουρομάλλη από το Ηράκλειο, να ναυλώσει πλοίο για να μεταφέρει κρασί από τα Χανιά στη Βενετία με ναύλο που θα συμφωνούσαν μεταξύ τους (A.S.V.-N.C.,b. 153, φ.6v/πρ. αριθμ. 2: 1555, Ιανουαρίου 5).

Crete -> Venetian Republic

List of noble families of Crete that are emblazoned on the walls of the University of Padua (Sturdza, 1983): Achieli, Arkoleos, Argyropoulo, Armeni, Balsamo/Valsamos, Barozzi, Benguardo, Bon, Bonasseri, Bozza, Carcavela, Cagnoli, Calafatti, Calichiopulo, Capece/Capisca, Cassimati, Cataneo, Chaireti, Cladio, Clodio, Condorato, Coressi, Corner, Cortazzi, Dandolo, Dracontopulo, Erizzo, Evdemogianni, Filimo/Philemonos, Franco, Ftamino, Gadanoleos/Kantanoleos, Gavalla, Grippari, Gignazzi, Gritti, Lesegnani, Lima, Lithino/Littino, Lombardo, Madero, Maffei, Mamona, Manganario, Maurizio, Messeri, Missina, Molviz, Mormori, Moschetti, Musallo, Mussuro, Paleocapa, Pandimo, Papadopulo, Patellaro, Picro, Quartano, Roditti, Rossi, Salomon, Sanguinazzo, Schiavo, Sciropulo, Scordili, Sidero, Sifi, Silvano, Sopholeo, Spiera, Stai, Thalassino, Torcello, Troilo, Varuca/Varouchas, Vlasto

Example: Michiel Armeni from Crete, son of Giorgio Armeni, was registered as a Venetian merchant during the period 1635 - 1643.

The Latin Church of Crete (Roman Catholic Church)

After the occupation by the Franks, there was on Crete a Latin See known as Agiensis, which was the same as that of Cydonia, or Canea (Chania). Lequien (III, 923-928) knows of sixteen Latin bishops, from 1310 to 1645. The Venetians rebuilt and fortified Chania in 1252, until it was finally taken by the Ottoman Turks in 1645. The Greeks called it Chania and the Western peoples Canea.

In 1642, Georgium D. Armenium alias Giorgio Darminio (also Giorgio Darmiro), was canon and plenipotentiary to the secretary of the Roman Catholic Church of Crete. An ex-resident of Cydonia and canon of the church of Agiensis (Chania), he became the Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Caprulenses (Caorle - Metropolitan City of Venice) from 1649 to 1655 and the Bishop of Aemoniensis (today Ljubljana, capital of Slovenia) from 1655 to 1670.

Crete -> Milos (Armenis alias Armer -> Darmer)

The Armeni family on the island of Milos in the Cyclades originally arrived from Crete together with the Kotakis family (Cottachi). Members of this family served the Venetian Republic and were involved in the Venetian administration of the Cyclades.

This family was also known as d'Armer and served the Venetian Republic and France as consuls. In the year 1589 Ioannis Armenis (also Jean Darmer) was nominated consul and representative of the merchants from Marseille that traded with the Cyclades. Nicolas Lesdos, chaplain of Francois de Gontaut Biron, baron de Salignac and French Ambassador to Sultan Ahmed, entrusted all the Roman Catholic church’s possessions to the French consul of Milos, Ioannis Armenis.

Dès 1589, la ville de Marseille, agissant à la requête de quelques marchands intéressés dans le commerce des Cyclades, désigna Ioannis Armenis, membre d' une importante famille indigène, comme consul de France à Milos.

In 1628 Rugieros Armenis (Grk. Ρουγγιερος Άρμένης), whose ancestors were from the island of Milos, was a nobleman on the Ionian island of Zante (also Zakynthos).

In 1632 the Archbishop of Milos and Kimolos was Meletios Armenis from Milos. In 1633 he recommended Nicolo Rota to the Greek College in Rome. He was strongly opposed to the Patriarche of Constantinople, Cyril Lucaris, who had invited Calvinist lecturers to teach theology to Orthodox seminarians. Lucaris accused Archbishop Meletios Armenis of planning to assasinate him with diamond dust. The Synod of Constantinople in 1672 anathemitised all the followers of Lucaris and condemned his Calvinist teachings.

The six islands of the Cyclades that formed the Duchy of Naxos were administratively linked two by two: Naxos-Paros, Andros-Syros and Milos-Santorini. In 1655 the principal lord of Milos and Kimolos was Iacomaki Armeni. He was held in very high regard by the Greeks of the Archipelago and was a relative of Archbishop Meletios Armenis. His eldest son, Manolaki Armeni, married Fioreta the daughter of Giacomo Anaplioti, the governor of the island of Santorini, and Gianna Dargenta from Venice.

In January 1647 Captain Nikolaos Armenis from Milos was injured during the naval battle of the Cretan War as the commander of the Madonna della Salute. It was during the same confrontation with the Ottoman galleys that Thomas Morosini was killed. In 1652 the Venetian Provedditore d’Armata, Badoer Barbaro, appointed Nikolaos Armenis to the position of Ammiraglio del Capitano del Navi or fleet commander. Two decades later in 1667, Nikolaos Armenis was given command of the Giove Fulminante, one of the largest warships in the Venetian fleet. On the 15th of March 1675 the Venetian adventurer Ambrosio Bembo arrived at the island of Kimolos (also Argentiera) onboard the Giove Fulminante captained by Nikolaos Armenis.

On Corfu, the 18th of February 1683, Gianis Armenis, the son of the late Mikelis Armenis from Milos, requested from the Greek bishop of Corfu, a license to marry Stamatela Latzi, daughter of Capo Stathi Latzi from Corfu. At the time Gianis had been married to Nikoleta Grimani, daughter of Gianni Grimani. Genealogy: γιάννη ἀρμένη ὑιοῦ τοῦ πτ. μικέλ τοῦ μαρκουλή τοῦ μπαλή ἀπό τήν μίλο

Family from the island Crete

The earliest notable families of the isle of Milos, other than the Armeni, are the Kotaki, the Tataraki and the Modino. All, at a given time, represented the central government as tax collectors and were elected members of the island community, while some were elected archbishop of the Orthodox Church or represented Venice and France as consuls.

Original text p.573: Κατοικίας, συνωκίσθησαν είς τήν Ζεφειρίαν. Κατ’ έποχήν δ’ ώσαύτως άγνωστον άλλά μεταγενεστέραν ήλθεν έκ Κρήτης καί έτερός τις άρχων Ταταράκης το όνομα, μέ τινας Κρήτας, ώς τούτο καί παρά τενων γερόντων τήν σήμερον έτι άναφέρεται. Άναφέρεται δέ καί τις (έγχώριος ώς φαίνεται) άρχων, όστις Αρμένης καλείται, οίον έν τώ έξής διστίχω.
Καί πρώτος ήτον πάντοτε Άρμένης καί Κοτάκης, Καί μετά ταύτα, φάνηκεν ό άξιος Ταταράκης. Καί ΄τι μέν ή Ζεφειρία άπό τά τρία ταύτα γένη συνωκίσθη, καί ή έτι μεταξύ τών κατοίκων σωζομένη διαίρεσις τό μαρτυρεί, διότι έν αύτή εύρίσκονται χωρικοί ών ή καταγωγή είναι κρητική, καί έτεροι θεωρούντες έαυτούς ώς ίθαγενείς.

English translation: Residents of Zefyria. In an unknown period they [Cottachi] arrived from Crete, and after arrived the archons named Tatarakis. Also mentioned are the (seemingly indigenous) archons named Armenis, first among them all. First of all were always the Armenis and Kotakis, And after appeared the worthy Tatarakis. And what is known is the fact that Zefyria was the residence of these three families, and that among them there is testimony that they were natives of Crete, and others believed themselves to be indigenous (to Milos).

... οικογενειών Αρμένη, Καλλέργη και Βασιλάκη και στην αμέσως επóμενη περίοδο διαμένουν μóνιμα σε αυτó οι Ταταράκηδες (16ος) και η οικογένεια Αλισάφη. Και στα δύο νησιά παρατηρήθηκε πληθυσμιακή κίνηση απó το Μυλοπóταμο (C. Babounis, 2010).

Translation: ... the Armeni, Kallergi and Vassilaki families and in the immediately following period the Tatarakides (16th century) and the Alisafis family lived there permanently. Population movement from Mylopótamos (Crete) was observed on both islands.

Family from Anatolia -> Milos -> Sardinia (Armenian origin)

A second family with the lastname Armeni exists on the Cycladic island of Milos. This family has a different origin to the established family on Milos that originated from the island of Crete. Dr. Petros Armenis, custodian of the history of the island and founder of the nautical museum on Milos, states that there were two unrelated families with the surname Armeni on the island, the oldest family arrived from Venetian Crete and the other arrived much later from Anatolia. He reports that his family have Anatolian origins and have no relation to the Roman Catholic family who have no relatives left on the island. DNA test results performed on Dr. Petros Armenis confirm his theory as he belongs to an Armenian haplotype of the R1b haplogroup. DNA matching shows Armenian matches with paternal origins from Anatolia in Turkey.

DNA tests performed on male relatives from Sardinia have been successful, matching the haplotype belonging to Dr. Petros Armenis. In 1748, a merchant named Emmanuel Armeni relocated to Carloforte on the island of San Pietro. Towards the middle of the 19th century a descendant of his left Carloforte to settle at Calasetta on the island of San Antioco, giving rise to the spread of the surname there.

Venice -> Istria (Armeni alias Armini -> Armadi)

A branch of the Armeni family settled in Ossero and Capodistria on the Istrian peninsula. This family went by the name Armadi. The Venetian chronicler Andrea Dandolo introduces us to a long list of names of the noble families of Eraclea that established themselves on other islands. From this list we read that the Armadi family originated from the Armeni.

Armoriale (Armeni family Crest) (Aquileia, Ossero, Venezia): De azur à la jeune grue (avec sa vigilance d'argent) avec de gueules soutenue d'une couronne d'or posée sur un tertre.

Corfu -> Korčula (Armenis alias Armeri -> Arneri -> Arnerić)

The Armeni family is a noble family on the Dalmatian island of Korčula. A branch of the family on Corfu established itself on Korčula during Venetian rule. This family was ennobled by the Venetian Republic for fighting against the Ottoman fleet off the coast of Crete. The name Armeni was Latinized to Armeri, changing to Arneri under the influence of the local Korčulanski dialect. The name was later Slavicized as Arnerić.

Noble families on the island of Korčula:

1. Armeni (Arneri)

2. Bosanei (Rosanei)

3. Gabrieli (Gabrielli)

4. Ismaeli

5. Niconiti (Niconitius)

6. Zilij (Zilio)

7. Simenoti (Simonetti)

8. Canavelli (Karavelli)

9. Vidisij (Vidossi)

10. Urbani

11. Padrei (Petrei)

12. Sunij (Giunij, Junii)

13. Segnich (Spagnich, Spagniol)

14. Ostoi

15. Stella

16. Parpaci (Barbaci, Barbati)

17. Michioli (Michieli)

18. Budui (Budni)

19. Vidali (Vitali)

20. Baranovi (Baranove)

21. Obrudi (Obradi)

Korčula -> Dubrovnik

Blasio Georgii Armeni married Anna Lupina (Anna di ser Jacopo de Lupis) and had two sons, Giorgio (*8.9.1668) and Giacomo (*24.9.1670). Blasio died in 1670. The upbringing of both sons was entrusted to the Jesuit Order. Both boys graduated from the Jesuit High School in Dubrovnik.

Anno Domini 1668. die 16. 7-bris. Ego Nicolaus Melei curatus Metropolitanae Ecclesiae Ragusinae baptizavi infantem natum die 8. 7-bris. quae fuit dies Sabbathi. hora 12, e Blasio Georgii Armeni et Anna filia qn. Jacobi Antonii, coniugibus..

Giorgii Armeni was born in Dubrovnik and died on June the 15th 1707. He was confirmed into the Roman Catholic church in Dubrovnik on May the 7th 1682 as a 14-year-old by Bishop Petar Torez of Dubrovnik. The boys were adopted by Dr. Pietro Angelo Baglivi and his brother from Lecce.
Giorgio Armeni (better known as Dr. Giorgio Baglivi)

Giorgio made important contributions to the study of human anatomy and medical science, based on his own medical practice. He studied medicine at the University of Padova in Venice and was appointed Professor of Medicine & Anatomy in Rome. He was a member of the Academy of the Arcadians with the pastoral name Epidauro Pirgense. The academy was an Italian literary organization founded in Rome in 1690. Its official name was the Pontificia Accademia degli Arcadi.

Heraklion -> Venice

In 1394, Marcus Iallina son of the late Antonio asked the Venetian authorities permission for Ioannis Armenis son of Georgius, resident in the village of Archanes near Heraklion (sic. Candia), to be ordained an Orthodox priest.

In 1422 Stamati Armeni son of Manoli Armeni was a crewman aboard a Venetian war galley from Crete. Stamati Armeni was described as a middle-aged man with large eyes.

In 1428 Monoli Armeni fought against the Ottoman Empire. He was a Venetian balistier (crossbow-man) from Heraklion, Crete.

In 1502 Constantino Armeni son of ser Theodorino Armeni from Pentamodi in Heraklion was mentioned in a notarial Act by Francesco Bruno canonicus cretensis of the church of Sancti Titi on Crete.

Marco Armeni is listed in the register of notaries from Crete (Regno di Candia) kept on the premises of the Basilica of Saint Mark in Venice. He was registered from 1525 to 1543. On the 16th of October 1549, Markos Armenis son of the late miser Tzortzi resident at the gate of Herakleion leased land located in the village Dafni in the region of Lithines to Ioannis Armenis son of the late Konstanti.

Στις 16 Οκτωβρίου 1549, ο Μάρκος Αρμένης του ποτέ μισερ Ντζόρτζη κάτοικος στο Εξώπορτο του Χάνδακα νοίκιασε στον Ιωάννη Αρμένη του ποτέ Κωνσταντή το μετόχι που βρίσκεται στο χωριό Δαφναίς εις ταις Λιθίναις, αμπέλια, περβόλια, με τα χωράφια και με τα νερά τους και με όλα τους τα δικαιώματα, όξω από την αργοφυταία την μεγάλη και από το μήλο (Μαρμαρέλη Τόνια, Μανόλης Γ. Δρακάκης (επίμ.), Μιχαήλ Μαράς Νοτάριος Χάνδακα Κατάστιχο 149 (1 Οκτωβρίου-31 Δεκεμβρίου 1549), Τόμος Δ΄ , Ηράκλειο 2009, σελ.95-96, αρ.95.)

In Heraklion on the 1st of July 1547 ser Piero Armeni injured ser Liadari Zorzi di Candia during a dueling contest.

The iconographer maestro Stefanos Armenis (Grk. μαΐστρος) from Heraklion is mentioned in numerous notarial Acts from 1549 to 1568.

Frangia Armenis son of the late Manoli received a concession of vineyard according to the genic (comiano) contract, from Nikolo Mudazzo son of the late Andrea, inclusive of hereditary rights to his descendants in perpetuity (7.9.1598 Χάνδακας). The land was located at Hersonissos, the See of the Latin Church situated in the north of Crete, bordering the Mediterranean / Aegean Sea. Today the town is about 25 kilometers east of Heraklion.

The public treasury of Crete was headed by the grand chancellor (cancelliere grande), the principal treasurer (guadernier principal), an accountant (ragionato fiscal) and two inspectors (scontri).

Signor Marian di Franceschi da Venetia handed the office of guadernier principal to signor Nicolo Armeni (c.1613 - 1615 Heraklion).

Following the death of ser Constantin Abelicopulo, the office of principal deputato alle arme went to ser Nicolo Armeni (c.1613 - 1615 Heraklion).

In 1636, Papa Ioannis Armenis was the Greek Orthodox priest at the church of Christ the Saviour of Skouloudi in Heraklion, Crete.

Nikolakis Armenis is listed as a refugee from Crete who escaped the Ottoman invasion (1645 - 1669) to settle on the Ionian island of Zakynthos.

On the 29th of August 1669 a monk from Heraklion, Fr. Antonios Armenis, transferred the relics of St. Joseph the Blessed from Crete, to the Ionian island of Zante (also Zakynthos).

St. Joseph was born in the village of Keramon, Siteia, Crete. He became a monk in Heraklion, the capital of Crete. He eventually became Abbot at St. John the Theologian’s Monastery, Heraklion. He died on the 22nd of January 1511 and was buried in his monastery. However, due to the Ottoman invasion of Crete (1669), Fr. Antonios Armenis transferred the relics to Zante. After being placed at the Monastery of St. John Mantineiou, the relics were finally transferred in 1915 permanently to their current resting place, at the Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord, Gaitani, Zante.

Heraklion -> Wallachian Principality <-> Hungary / Poland

In 1601 Petrus Armenus from Heraklion was ennobled by the Holy Roman Emperor from the House of Habsburg. Petrus was a Wallachian boyar who served the Wallachian ruler Michael the Brave as negotiator with the Polish king. He served as ambassador for the Habsburg Empire at Constantinople and was an acclaimed financier who assisted the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II. An accomplished artist / painter, he was the son of Gregorius Armenus.

Armoriale (de Candia): De gueules à la grue avec sa vigilance d'argent soutenue d'une couronne d'or posée sur un tertre de sinople le champ chapé-ployé d'azur à deux griffons affrontés d'or supportant ensemble une croix de Lorraine du même Casque couronné Cimier un vol à l'antique de gueules ch d'une grue avec sa vigilance d'argent Lambrequin à dextre d'or et d'azur à senestre d'argent et de gueules.

Coat of Arms (Armeni from Heraklion): Gules, to the crane in her vigilance Argent, supported of a coronet Or, set on a hillock Vert, the field chape-embowed Azure, 2 affrontee griffins Or, supporting a Lorraine cross together of the same. Crowned Helmet. Crest: a vol of 2 wings endorsed Gules, charged of a crane in her vigilance Argent. Lambrequins: in dexter Or and Azure, in sinister Argent, and Gules.

Chania -> Corfu (Armeni alias Armer)

The family established itself on the island of Crete in the city / burgo of Chania and was also known as Armer ('d) or as Armuri. Ennobled by the Doge of Venice various members of this branch held positions of primary significance throughout the Venetian Republic.

On the island Corfu in 1406 the Baronia del Conte de Martina was leased to Fioravante de San Ippolito and Vito Darmer. The luogotenente generale or primary tennant was Vito Darmer (Grk: Νικά). The barony included land in the following settlements:

1. Kavvadades
2. Armenades 3. Termenades (Stermenades) 4. Dafni (Perlepsimades / Provlepsimades) 5. Magoulades 6. Rachtades 7. Mesaria 8. Velonades 9. Karousades 10. Valanio 11. Falkou (next to Ag. Martinos) 12. Gouveia 13. Kyra Chrysikou 14. Afra 15. Potamos 16. Pelekas (incl. Ag. Georgios Ipsilon) 17. Sinarades 18. Mesongi

The barony was later subdivided into the following primary locations:

1. Karousades

2. Velonades

3. Rachtades

4. The Jewish quarter of Corfu Town (στην Οβριακή)

5. Corfu Town (Sinagoga Vechia del Ebrei Corfiotti)

6. Potamos

7. Spilia in Corfu Town (Μονή Θεοτόκου Σπηλιώτισσας)

  • Ένα μεγάλο μέρος της περιοχής της Σπηλιάς ανήκε στό φέουδο Δαρμέρ: π.χ. ΓΑΚ - ANK, Νοτάριος Πέτρος Βραγιανίτης, φ. 82'

8. New Fortress in Corfu Town (Church of the blessed Virgin of Carmel)

  • Έκταση που περιλαμβάνει το κτίριο του κήπου και την αυλή της εκκλησίας περίπου μέχρι τα τείχη του Ν. φρουρίου και του προμαχόνα Σαραντάρη που οριοθετούν το Φέουδο Δαρμέρ.

9. Corfu Town (Μονή Παναγίας των Αγγέλων)

10. Klimatia (Μονή Αγίας Τριάδος)

11. Corfu Town (La Chiesa della B. V. Vlacherna)

12. Corfu Town (La Chiesa della B. V. del Rosario)

13. Corfu Town (La Chiesa di S. Salvatore)

14. Garitsa (Ιερός Ναός Αγίων Αποστόλων Ιάσονος και Σωσιπάτρου)

Corfu Town

Esistenti delle fondi in questa Citta nella Sistiere dette dell Ebraica, e Spilia Contra della Chiesa S.a Soffia, la chiesa della B. V. Odojitria, B. V. Teotoco, B. V. Vlacherena e della chiesa di S. B.V. degl’ Angioli di ragione del Feudo Darmer.

In 1499 the admiral of the Venetian fleet, Alberto Armeno also known as Albano Armeno, Albano Armenio and Alban Darmer, died bravely during the naval battle of Zochio against the Ottomans. He was a native of Corfu and named his warship Santa Barbara. The church in the village of Rachtades is named Santa Barbara after the patron saint of artillery. The naval battle of Zochio is noted as the first naval battle in history where gunpowder was used.

His brother, Aloysius Armenius also known as Alvise Armeno, Aloysius Armenus, Luigi Armeno and Alvise Darmer, was the Venetian Governor of Corfu and represented the Venetian Republic's war navy in negotiations with European powers.

The family coat of arms were built into the cuppola of the 11th century Byzantine church of Saints Jason and Sosipater in Garitsa on Corfu. This is the oldest functioning church on the island.

Following his brother's death in 1499, Alvise was awarded the saltworks near the suburb of Potamo where the family continue to reside to this day.


Σπυρίδωνος Χρ. Καρύδη

Στις 10 Μαΐου 1565 αναφέρεται ώς κτητόρισσα, τού Αγίου Δονάτου διακήμενο εις την περιοχήν χωριον τον Κρητικών, ή Έλενα Δαρμέρα σύζυγος τού εκλιπόντος Δανιήλ, γιου τού 'Αρσενίου (ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Π.40, φ. 480r). Βλ. επίσης τον κατά­λογο τού έτους 1752 (ΑΝΚ. Μ.Π.40, φ. 216ν) και τήν πρωτοπαπαδική επίσκεψη τοϋ 1753 όπου δηλώνεται ώς «γιους της έμπαρουνίας Δαρμέρ» (Καπάδοχου, Ναοί, ο. 125). Οι Δαρμέρ, έκτος άπό τον ναό αυτό είχαν στην κατοχή τους κατά τον 16ο αι. επίσης δικαιώμα­τα καί σέ άλλους ναούς. Σημειώνουμε: τον ναό τού Αγίου 'Ανδρέα στον Μύρτο τοϋ χωριοΰ Μελίκια (ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Γ.54, φ. 454ν τοϋ 1546), της Αγίας Βαρβάρας στο Νεοχώρι (ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Β.94, κατάστιχο 2, φ. 64r της 25 Αυγούστου 1560), της Ύ. Θ. Κοκκινάδας στους Αγίους Θεοδώρους (ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Π.40, φ. 337v­338r της 26 Φεβρουαρίου 1563), τον Άγιο Δημήτριο στον Άπακρο στον Κάβο (ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Π.40, φ. 384ν της 27 Νοεμβρίου 1563). 'Ακόμη στα προάστια αναφέρονται οι ναοί τοϋ 'Αγίου Δημητρίου στις 'Αλυκές (ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Θ.10, φ. 265Γ της 13 'Οκτωβρίου 1578), των 'Αγίων Ίάσωνος καί Σωσιπάτρου (ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Θ.10, φ. 27r της 7 Αυγούστου 1576), της 'Αγίας Νίκης (ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Ρ.26, φ. 439rv της 2 'Ιανουαρίου 1578), της Ύ. Θ. Γουργής στο Κανάλι (ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Π.40, φ. 291Γ της 23 Αυγούστου 1562), τοϋ 'Αγίου Νικολάου στο Κανάλι (ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Π.40, φ. 602Γ της 13 'Ιουλίου 1568), τοϋ 'Αγίου Νικολάου Ριγανίτη στον Ποταμό (ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Γ.54, φ. 578ν της 6 Μαρτίου 1547) της Ύ. Θ. Φανερωμένης στο Τρίκλινο (ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Β.178, φ. 261rv της 18 Νοεμβρίου 1566. ΑΝΚ, Συμβ. Π.40, φ. 673ν της 19 Νοεμβρίου 1568).

Ναός Αγίου Δονάτου Κέρκυρα: Το ξωκλήσι αυτό κρύβεται σ' ένα τοπίο με έντονη βλάστηση, μεταξύ Κρητικών και Βιταλάδων. Έχει ανακαινιστεί στο πρόσφατο παρελθόν και δεν επιδεικνύει ιδιαίτερα χαρακτηριστικά, αν και το ιερό προδίδει πιθανόν παλιά φάση. Η παλαιότερη ως τώρα αναφορά περί αυτού έρχεται από το 1494 και τον τοποθετεί «...εις το χορήον τον Λακηάδον....», γεγονός που μας επιτρέπει να εντοπίσουμε χωρικά αυτόν τον αφανισμένο οικισμό. Στους επόμενους αιώνες καταγράφεται ως ανήκων στην βαρονία Δαρμέρ. Αξιομνημόνευτο είναι το γεγονός ότι σ' αυτόν τον ναό οι Λευκιμμιώτες έκρυψαν, για να μην πέσουν στα χέρια των Ναζί, δέκα Αμερικανούς αεροπόρους το 1943, μέλη πληρώματος βομβαρδιστικού Β-17 που έπεσε στην περιοχή των αλυκών Λευκίμμης. Το 1753 το χωριό απαντάται ως τμήμα της Βαρονίας Δαρμέρ. Σώζεται το παλαιό έθιμο του ιερού γάμου, την Κυριακή της Τυροφάγου, λεγόμενο και καρναβαλίτικος γάμος.

           Byzantine church of Saints Jason and Sosipater on Corfu

Η Εκκλησία Αγίων Ιάσωνος και Σωσιπάτρου χρονολογείται τον 11ο αιώνα και είναι το σημαντικότερο Βυζαντινό Μνημείο της Κέρκυρας. Ο ναός είναι ένας από τους σημαντικότερους ναούς της βυζαντινής περιόδου, ανήκει στον εκκλησιαστικό αρχιτεκτονικό τύπο του δικίονου (δίστυλου) σταυροειδούς εγγεγραμμένου με τρούλο, καθώς ο τρούλος στηρίζεται σε τοίχους και δυτικά σε δύο κίονες. Αποτελεί ένα από τα πιο καλοδιατηρημένα και αρχαιότερα δείγματα αυτού του τύπου. Το οικόσημο της οικογένειας Δαρμέρ αφαιρέθηκε από το τρούλο της εκκλησίας και μεταφέρθηκε στην Ιταλική Αρχαιολογική Εταιρεία στην Αθήνα.

Η Υπεραγία Θεοτόκος η Καστανέα θα πρέπει να ταυτιστεί με το ναό της Αγίας Γουργής (Γοργοεπίκοος) στην περιοχή της Καστανιάς, τοπωνύμιο που σώζεται και σήμερα, περί τα 5 χιλιομ. ΝΔ της πόλης της Κέρκυρας. Σύμφωνα με αρχαιολογικές εκτιμήσεις, τα ερείπια που βρίσκονται στο γύρω χώρο, άλλα είναι λείψανα αρχαίου οικισμού και άλλα παρέχουν ενδείξεις προϋπάρχουσας μονής.

Αγίου Νικολάου Ριγανίτη στον Ποταμό: Στην περιοχή του Τρίκλινου σώζονται σε ικανοποιητικό βαθμό τα χαλάσματα του Άγιου Νικολάου του Ριγανίτη. Οι πηγές ξεκινούν να μιλούν περί αυτού από τα μέσα του 16ου αιώνα χωρίς να αποκλείεται να είναι αρχαιότερος ενώ και το χτίσμα δείχνει αρκετά παλιό.

Ύ. Θ. Φανερωμένης στο Τρίκλινο: Ολοκληρωτικά πνιγμένη στους κισσούς, εντελώς ξεχασμένη και με έντονα σημάδια φθοράς η Υ.Θ. Φανερωμένη κρύβεται σε μια γειτονιά του Τρίκλινου. Έχει έντονο ιστορικό ενδιαφέρον και κατά τον 16ο αιώνα ανήκε στην αρχοντική οικογένεια Δαρμέρ και τον 18ο αποτελούσε μετόχι των Αγίων Ιάσωνα και Σωσίπατρου. Αν και οι πηγές ξεκινούν να μιλούν γι' αυτήν στις αρχές του 16ου αιώνα, κατά πάσα πιθανότητα ο ναός (ή μέρος του) είναι αρκετά παλαιότερος. Αυτό διότι η τοιχοποιία του ιερού φέρει ένα πλίνθινο διάκοσμο που σχηματίζει τεθλασμένη γραμμή, χαρακτηριστικό που συνήθως εμφανίζεται σε βυζαντινούς ναούς. Ωστόσο απαιτείται εξέταση από ειδικούς για την επιβεβαίωση ή όχι του ισχυρισμού.

Arma (di Venezia): D'oro alla fascia di azzurro accompagnata da tre gigli dello stesso ordinati in capii.

Crete -> Kythira (Armer -> Armaro -> Darmaro)

The Darmaro family moved to the Ionian island of Kythira from Crete. A prominent family belonging to the feudatory class of nobles, numerous clergymen emanated from this branch. The surname is mentioned in many forms: Armer, D'Armer, D'Armaro, Darmaro and Darmaros. The family are mentioned in refererence to Monemvasia, from where they dispersed to Mystras, Mani, Venice and Spain.

Nikolaos Darmaros, often referred to as a mediator in cases of mediation for resolving personal disputes, was mentioned in a report by the Venetian envoy Barbo on monitoring the movements of the Turks in the Peloponnese and in 1586 made a request for the Capitaneria of Mylopotamos on Kythira by the Venetian government, in return for his service to Venice.

In 1580 Ioannis Darmaros from Cerigo (Kythira) is mentioned by the registrar in Venice, whereas in 1643, a priest named Parthenios Darmaros from Kythira was documented in Venice at the cathedral of San Giorgio of the Greeks.

The Cathedral of the Crucifixion (Μητροπολιτικού ναού του Εσταυρωμένου στη Χώρα) was built c.1660 by the Metropolitan Bishop of Kythira, Philotheos Darmaros (†1697). He also built the church of Our Lady of Myrtidiotissi in Monemvasia and renamed it "Our Lady of the Cretans" (το ναό της Παναγίας Μυρτιδιωτίσσης στη Μονεμβασία, όπου ονομάστηκε Παναγία των Κρητικών). Inside the church, as well as in the courtyard, are the graves of the Darmaro family who had land rights (jus patronato), as well as other parishioners, including many refugees from Crete and the Peloponnese.

Darmaro family coat of arms



Συνταχθεις τη βάσει των εις αυτούς τούτους αναφερθέντων πιστοποιητικών και άλλων εγγράφων, υπό του Στρατάρχου Σχούλεμβουργ και των κατά την πολιορκία Αρχηγών και άλλων αξιωματικών του Ενετικού στρατού και στόλου.

Φραγκίσκος Άρμένης π. Στάμου προνομιούχος Ποταμού, διεκρίθει πολέμων νυχθημερόν εν τω Ν. Φρουρίω (Πιστοποίηση Δα Ρίβα 29 Αυγούστου 1716).

Ιερώνυμος Άρμένης προεστός Ποταμού, προσέδραμε με ακολουθία εξ αρκετών ανδρών εκ Ποταμού και των πλησίον χωρίων, εις διάφορα μέρη και διεκρίθει επί του προμαχώνα και τοΰ μεσότοιχου (Cortina) της Πύλης Ραϊμόνδου γενναίως πολέ­μων. (Πιστοπ. Λορεδάνου 6 Όκτωβ. 1716) (Ίδέ Μουρμουράκην).

Ιάκωβος Αρμένης εκ Ποταμού, επί κεφαλής άλλων αν­δρών, ήτο διοικητής θέσεως επί των εσωτερικών τειχών του Ν. Φρουρίου και των τειχών της πόλεως «Μουράγια». (Ίδέ Καρτάνον Νικόλαον).

Η συλλογή αυτή του Λαυρ.Βροκίνη δημοσιεύτηκε στα Κερκυραϊκά Χρονικά Τόμος 17ος 1973 σελ.338. Αποτελεί ένα μοναδικό ντοκουμέντο καθότι, ο βαθύς αυτός ερευνητής, συνέλεξε τα στοιχεία που παραθέτει μέσα από πιστοποιήσεις των αξιωματούχων της εποχής, που δεν μπορούν να αμφισβητηθούν. Ακάματος ο Βροκίνης δεν στάθηκε μόνο στην έρευνα του Ιστορικού Αρχείου αλλά βρήκε τους απογόνους και συγκέντρωσε τον μεγαλύτερο αριθμό, για την εποχή του, πιστοποιήσεων που έλαβαν οι ντόπιοι για τη συμμετοχή τους στην Πολιορκία του 1716.

Countess Elena Armeni-Mocenigo (*1780 Corfu) (+1840 Padova, Veneto) daughter of Dr. Ioannis Armenis from Corfu and Regina Falier (Valier) from Venice. She was married to Count Giorgio Mocenigo, the Commissioner of Internal Affairs for the Empress of Russia at the Grand Dutchy of Tuscany and the Commissioner of the Septinsular Republic and Russia's Imperial Representative to the Ionian Islands.

Countess Elena established a fund for the maintenance and care of orphaned children of Greek descent in Italy. The countess donated 10,000 Italian pounds in favour of the Flangini Greek School in Venice. She donated 30,000 Italian pounds to the Greek Cathedral of St. George in Venice. She also donated 1,000,000 Austrian pounds to her hometown of Corfu for Swiss scholarships for needy young people and provided the funds needed to care for brides from Corfu who could not afford dowries.
Countess Elena Armeni-Mocenigo

Molto Reverendo Dottore Giovanni Armeni (*1731 Corfu) (†13.12.1796 Corfu) son of Nicoletto Armeni and Francesca Gatto da Piacenza.

  • Roman Catholic Priest and Rector of St. James, the Roman Catholic Cathedral in Corfu Town.

Dr. Ioannis Armenis (*1753 Potamos, Corfu) (†3.8.1837 Potamos, Corfu) son of Dr. Demetrios Armenis and Marinetta Quartano.

  • Doctor of Law
  • Senator
  • Secretary of the Senate
  • Member of Onoranda Deputazione (11.11.1801)
  • Chairman of Committee on Establishment of the Public Library
  • Representative for Ionian Senate in negotiations with Ali Pasha concerning the clarification of borders

1 Julio 1804: Misión de Ioannis Armenis con vistas a la definición de las esferas de infüencia Ruso-Turca en las provincias de Paramithiá-Délvino.

Sir Antonio Armeni (*1756 Potamos, Corfu) (†2.10.1824 Venice) son of Captain Leonardo Armeni and Maria-Magdalini Tarakouli. He commanded the Venetian fleet and later the Imperial Austrian Navy in the Levant.

  • Knight of the Order of St. Anne 2nd Class
  • Knight of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
  • Knight of the Austrian Order of Emperor Leopold 1st Class

Dr. Karolo Armeni (*1772 Corfu) (†4.11.1847 Corfu) son of Dr. Pietro Antonio Armeni and Massimiliani Tefa.

  • Medical Doctor - Surgeon
  • Founding Member - Medical Association of Greece
  • Candidate elect for the Legislative Assembly, Ionian Senate
  • Publication: Ricerche Statistiche intorno alla citta e territorio di Prevesa
  • Family Physician to Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, 1st Governor of Independent Greece
  • He acquired great wealth and land in central and southern Corfu from the administration of the Tron Barony

Bishop of Koroni, Joachim Armenis (born Ioannis Armenis).

  • Greek Orthodox Priest
  • Served various churches on Corfu (1716 - 1743)
  • Bishop of Koroni in the Peloponnese (Venetian Administration)

Andreas Armenis, chief of customs for the Venetian authorities at Patras in the Peloponnese circa 1701. His official stamp depicted a double-headed eagle with a Christian cross. His documents were verified with the signature of the Venetian governor of the district Achaia, Francesco Donado.

Dr. Demetrios Armenis (*1729 Potamos, Corfu) (†5.4.1817 Potamos, Corfu) son of Giannakis Armenis and Anastasia Mourmouraki.

  • Doctor of Law
  • Studied at the Flanginian School (29.9.1745 Venice)
  • Studied Law at University of Padua
  • Senator
  • Member of Onoranda Deputazione (21.10.1801 Corfu)
  • Member of 1st Administration for the establishment of the Public Education System, Septinsular Republic
  • Ornithologist

Antonios Armenis (*1776 Corfu) (†2.2.1844 Corfu) son of Dr. Pietro Antonio Armeni and Massimiliani Tefa.

  • He acquired great wealth and land in central and southern Corfu from the administration of the Tron Barony
  • Commissioned by the Ionian Senate to oversee the finances of Lefkada
  • Financier of Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, 1st Governor of Independent Greece

Giovanni Armeni (*1704 Corfu) (†12.4.1743 Corfu) son of Gerolimo Armeni. His father Gerolimo was the mayor of the suburb of Potamos and distinguished for his command of the defense of the New Fortress during the 1716 Seige of Corfu. Giovanni was a wealthy Landowner and administrator of the Viaro Barony that included Kanakades, Sinarades, Pelekas, Roppa, Giannades, Liapades and another sixteen villages located in central Corfu.

  • He acquired great wealth and land in central Corfu from the administration of the Viaro Barony.

Sir Peter Archimede Brailas-Armenis, GCMG, LL.D. was born on the 10th of December 1812 on Corfu and died in 1884 in London. He was the son of Demetrios Brailas of Vonitsa and Anna Angiola Armeni from Corfu. He was a judge, a professor of Philosophy at the Ionian Academy, president of the Legislative Assembly of the Ionian Islands and he served as ambassador of Greece at St. Petersburg, Paris and London. In addition, he was the founder of the Corfu Reading Society, he established the National Archives on Corfu and established the free press in Greece by creating the first two independent newspapers on Corfu.

  • Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George (GCMG) Sir Peter Brailas-Armenis

Kingdom of Naples - Avellino (Armeni alias Armino -> Arminio)

A branch of this family under Blasio d'Arminio arrived in the county of Avellino together with Simon VI de Monforte [April 1240 – 1271] when Charles I d'Anjou conquered the territory in 1271. Blasio married Costanza dell’Aquila in the year 1258. During the Norman rule of Campania in southern Italy, the county of Avellino was acquired by Riccardo dell'Aquila. In the year 1271 Charles I d'Anjou assigned the county of Avellino to the Montfort family, who were succeeded by the Des Baux (Del Balzo) and the Filangieri.

Armoriale (Avellino, Castile): d'Azur à trois fasces d'or chacune de trois mouchetures d'hermine de sable.

In 1270 Jean-Jacques Armenius de Montforte (also Giovanni d'Arminio, Iohannes Armenus and Iohanni Armeno) was Magister of the Messarium of Capua and Castellan / Governor of the castle of Capua. He held estates in the Land of Otranto and on the island of Corfu. He married Thomasine de Capua and together they had children, among them a son named Jean d'Arminio (*1250) (†1313) (also Saint Jean d'Avellino).

Original text: Guillocto Accillatore castellano castri Capuane de Neapoli. Scriptum est eidem etc. Cum per Philippum de Gonessa regni Sicilie mare- scallum balium et vicarium et Gualterium de Collepetro prothovestiarium principatus Achaye in Clarencia et per Iordanum de Sancto Felice capitaneum et iudicem Florium de Venusio mag. massarium insule Corphoy in eadem insula certum ordinare mandemus numerum forgiarum pro faciendo ibi ad opus Curie nostre quarrellis tam ad unum quam ad duos pedes quod fieri volumus secundum quod alii quarrelli Curie nostre quos fecit qd. Iohannes Armenus facti sunt in castro pred. sub tua custodia existente f. t. precipimus qt. . . . quarrellos II ad unum et alios II ad duos pedes de pred. quarrellis factis per Iohannem Armenum qui sub custodia tua sunt eos vid. qui sint integre et melius impennati nullumque defectum habeant nobili viro Lodoyco de Monte assignare procures per eum ap. Brundusium ad Iustitiarium Terre Ydronti et deinde per ipsum Iustitiarium ad pred. fideles nostros ad partes easdem absque mora qualibet destinanda Dat. ap. Urbem Veterem IX octobris X ind. (c.1282AD) (Reg. 39, f. 200 bis t.).


  • Iohannes Armenus, the late Governor of the Castle of Capua
  • Philippo de Lagonessa, Mareschal (governor) and Vicar of Sicily
  • Guillotto Accillatore (Guillaume l'Artilleur), Governor of the Castle of Capua
  • Gualterio de Collepietro, Chamberlain and Vicar General of the Principality of Achaea
  • Giordano Sanfelice, family member of Charles I d'Anjou, the Justiceship of Basilicata and Vicar General of Corfu
  • Florio de Venusio, Capitaneus, Judge and Magister Massarius of Corfu
  • Ludovico de Montibus, spouse of Giovanna dell'Aquila, the Justiceship of the Land of Otranto and Viceroy

The text states that the estate of the late Iohannes Armenus (also known as Giovanni Armeno) was disputed by his two sons. The above individuals held the estate until the dispute could be resolved.

In 1280 Lazius Armenius (also Lazio Armenio ) was appointed fundicarius of the fundico salis Neapolis together with Giffus de Goffrido, Martucius de Madio, Sergius Pappacoda and Iohannes de Ruta from Aversa. This position was charged with regulating the salt industry in the Kingdom of Naples.

Charles III d'Anjou [Reign: 12.5.1382 to 24.2.1386] made honorable mention of Nicolaus d'Arminio and Jacobus d'Arminio was ennobled by King Ladislaus of Naples [Reign: 24.2.1386 to 6.8.1414] and appointed capitano della baronia di Tocco and a delegate to certain diplomatic commissions. He appears in the Royal register of 1390 and was commissioned in 1391 to demand the new duty imposed on the city of Salerno to arm the Royal galleys. In the year 1394 Martinello d'Arminio was appointed capitano della baronia di Tocco by King Ladislaus of Naples. Guglielmo III di Tocco was Conte de Martina and baron di Tocco.

The Baronia del Conte de Martina on Corfu was established out of the baronies of Guglielmo II di Tocco in 1330, while a part of these lands were inherited by his son Pietro II di Tocco, who became conte de Martina and seignor di Montemiletto. When Philip II of Taranto died without issue, his nephew, Jacques Des Baux became ruler of Corfu. The Corfiots however swore allegiance to Joanna I of Naples. The Navarrese company serving Jacques Des Baux took Corfu in 1378. Soon afterwards, Corfu fell back into Angevin hands under Charles III d'Anjou.

Barons di Tocco

1. Pietro I di Tocco (born between 1275-1305) (+before 1330) 1st marriage, Pellegrina Malerba daughter of Sir Rogerio (+ after 1278); 2nd marriage to Isabella daughter of Pandolfo Dentice, Patrician of Naples, and Florella (+ after 1330)

1.1. Guglielmo II di Tocco (+22.9.1335), Governor of Corfu 1328-1335. He was married twice. By his first marriage to Giovanna Torelli he had one son, Pietro II di Tocco (Petrillo), seneschal of Robert of Taranto and Count of Martina Franca (Conte de Martina). By his second marriage, to Margherita Orsini Angelo Ducas, Lady of the island of Zante, daughter of Giovanni I, Lord of Lefkada and Maria Angela of the Despotate of Epirus, he had four children:

1.1.2. Leonardo I Tocco (+1375/1377), who became Count palatine of Cephalonia and Zakynthos in 1357, beginning the Tocco line that ruled over the Ionian Islands and eventually Epirus.

1.1.3. Nicoletto Tocco (+1347/1354), who became a monk.

1.1.4. Ludovico Tocco (+1360), seneschal of Robert of Taranto in 1354.

1.1.5. Margherita Tocco, who became nun at Naples.

1.1.1. Pietro II di Tocco (Petrillo) (+ after 1346/1377), Seneschal of the Kingdom of Sicily during the reign of King Roberto I, received the fiefs on the island of Corfu in 1353, became the first Conte de Martina in 1364. 1st marriage to Covella Capece (+ after 1340); second marriage before 19.4.1359 to Isabella de Sabran, daughter of Guglielmo, Count of Celano, Governor of Abruzzo and Molise; and Francesca of the Counts of Celano (+ after 1378). Guglielmo III di Tocco (Gurello) (+1408), Conte de Martina, purchased Montemiletto in 1383; his fiefs were confiscated by King Ladislaus of Naples. 1st marriage in 1381 to Caterina Cantelmo daughter of Rostaino, Lord of Popoli (+ after 24.2.1382 and before1387); 2nd marriage in 1387/1392 to Costanza Filangieri daughter of Giacomo Antonio, 1st Count of Avellino and Giovanna Minutolo.

Land of Otranto: The Armeniis family, lords of Martina

The Terra di Otranto (Eng: Land of Otranto) is a historic and geographic region of Apulia, anciently part of the Kingdom of Sicily and later of the Kingdom of Naples, which became a province of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The comune of Martina (also known as Martina Franca) is the capital of the district.

Palagianello (de Armeniis alias Domini Roberti)

The town of Palagianello is first mentioned in the year 1463, located in the land of ravines which stretches from Matera to Grottaglie. The first landowners of Palagianello were the de Armeniis (also known as Domini Roberti) family. They received the title in 1463 following the death of the Prince of Taranto,
Giannantonio Orsini del Balzo, II principe di Taranto (†14.11.1463), the stepson of King Ladislaus of Naples.

The rocky settlement named Palagiano dates back to the 14th century. In the 15th century Palagiano Vecchio and Palagianello were established. The town is not far from Taranto. The Caracciolo Castle was commissioned by this family in the 17th century.

The de Armeniis family were the barons of Palagianello, an ancient lordship of this family. According to the protocols of the notaries of Altamura, the house of Domini Roberti of Taranto was originally known as de Armeniis. Baron Giovanni Vincenzo de Armeniis Domini Roberti was the ancestor of Livia de Armeniis Domini Roberti, the spouse of Felice Antonio Viti, son of Giovanni Vincenzo Viti and Clarice Mastrilli.

Ostuni (de Armeniis)

In the city of Ostuni numerous members of the de Armeniis family held the esteemed office of notary and magister. Among them, during the 15th century, Leo de Armeniis was a magister and notary from as early as 1445 - 1470. Stefano de Armeniis is noted as a magister and notary in Ostuni during the same time. In 1489 Iacobus de Armeniis, a notary in the service of the Aragonese Kingdom of Sicily, was a notary in the city of Ostuni. In the archives of Ostuni a priest named Donato de Armeniis is mentioned in 1558.

Bari (de Armeniis alias Armenise)

The Armenise family in Bari is a prominent and historically significant family in Italy. The family coat of arms are identical to the family from Franche-Comté in Burgundy, France.

Arma: D'azzurro alla fascia d'oro accompagnata da 3 armellini di nero posti 2 in capo ed 1 in punta.

Abruzzo (Armeniis - Armeni - de Armini alias Armenio)

The Armeniis family was a noble house in the city of Penne located in the province of Teramo, Abruzzo. Giuseppe Armeni was ordained bishop of Atri, Penne in the year 1670 and bishop of Teramo in 1681. He held the titles Prince of Teramo, Count of Bisemnii and Baron of Rocca Santa Maria.

Arma (Armeni): Torre difesa da due cannoni sul più alto di tre monticelli.

Arma (Armenio): D'argento, alla torre sormontata da due cannoni al naturale.

Arma (Armenio): D'argento, alla torre di rosso, sormontata da due cannoni al naturale.

Motto: Undique Tuta

In the late 15th century Dr. Nicolaus Armini was the Medical Doctor in the city of Atri, Penne. His son Sir Rogerio Armini was the rector of the rural church of St. Giovanni and procurator of the church of Santa Maria in the year 1532. In the year 1595 magister Donato Armeni and Dr. Pietro Armeni from Penne in the province of Teramo traveled to Venice. Dr. Pietro Armeni's daughter Donna Diomira Armeni married Dr. Giuseppe De Simone in the year 1596. Magister Donato Armeni was the ancestor of Baron Andrea Armeni (Andreas Armeniis, also de Armini). The Gaudiosi acquired properties and titles from the Armeni family. With the marriage between Matteo Gaudiosi and Dorotea Mirti of Tossicia, the latter widow of Baron Andrea Armeni, patrician of the city of Penne, began the Gaudiosi branch from Penne. An altar in the Cathedral of San Massimo dedicated to San Lorenzo and endowed in the 17th century with an ecclesiastical benefit by the Montesecco family, of which the patronage passed to the Armeni family and finally the Gaudiosi family inherited the rights and privileges. Of the original altar, following the bombing of 01/24/1944 and the subsequent restructuring, no trace remains.

Sul Registro dei Pubblici Parlamenti, nella seduta del 22 febbraio 1733, in allegato si legge: La vedova Dorotea, Giov. Battista, e Domenico Gaudiosi di lei figli del secondo matrimonio, ed attuali possessori di tutti e singoli beni provenienti dall eredità della Casa Armenii siti nelle pertinenze di detta Città; si ancora nella Terra e distretti di Montebello, ed altrove feudali.

Naples -> Venetian Albania (Navarrese Company -> Pampalione -> Pamaliotti)

The Navarrese Company [Gran Compañía Navarra] was a company of mercenaries, mostly from Navarre and Gascony, that fought in Greece during the late 14th and early 15th centuries, in the twilight of Frankish power and dwindling remnant of the Latin Empire. "Navarrese Company" is an informal, modern, somewhat inaccurate, term for these soldiers. The enrolment lists for those years have been preserved in Pamplona [preserved in the Archive de la Camara de Comptos de Pamplona].

Members of the company were alternatively known as the Pamaliotti, a name derived from Pampalione, meaning from Pamplone. The capital of the region of Navarre was known during the Middle Ages as Pompalion ... today we know it as Pamplona.

Though these soldiers were recruited for service in Albania, they were first organized in Naples. In 1372, Louis d'Évreux (also called "of Navarre"; 1341 – 1376) became Duke of Durazzo in right of his second wife, Joanna I of Naples, in 1366. He brought over the Navarrese Company of mercenaries, who had fought with him during the war in France, to assist him in taking Durazzo. In 1375 and 1376, many men from Navarre began enlisting and travelled directly to Albania to join their countrymen. The enrollment lists for those years have been preserved in Pamplona and reveal the important presence of many engineers. The total number of men who left Tortosa between February 1375 and June 1376 numbered in the thousands. They were paid thirty gold Aragonese florins a month. In 1376, Louis and the Navarrese captured Durazzo, thus re-establishing the regnum Albaniae.

Louis was the brother of Charles of Navarre, who supported his endeavour to recapture lost Durazzo and the regnum Albaniae. Louis' second wife, Joanna I of Naples, was the sister of Agnes (1345–1388, Naples) who married Jacques Des Baux.

Jacques Des Baux (aka Jacopo del Balzo, Prince of Taranto and Prince of Achaea, Despot of Romania, Lord of Albania and Corfu, Titular Latin Emperor of Constantinople) hired the services of the Navarrese Company to retake the regnum Albaniae and its capital Durazzo. The centres of their influence included the settlements of Drivasto, Scutari, Suacio, Dulcigno, Cattaro and Antivari.

Venetian Albania (Pamaliotti)

Before the Venetian conquest of Venetian Albania, Catarino Darmer was appointed mayor of the Dalmatian city of Split in 1323. The name Catarino was derived from the city of Cattaro, the capital of Venetian Albania. In 1389, the bailo & Venetian governor of Corfu, Simon Darmer, was elected governor & mayor of the city of Capo d’Istria. In 1415, Jacopo Darmer was appointed Castellano of Zara (now known as Zadar) in Dalmatia by the Grand Council of Venice.

In 1423, the elder of the family, Nicha Armeni (It. Vito; Grk. Νικά), was awarded the title of count (Comes – Κόμης) by ducal decree from the Venetian Senate. He was awarded the region of Suacio (In Serbo-Croatian known as Svac), located on lake Sas, and was styled voivode of the Pamaliotti. Since the establishment of the Navarrese company in Albania, it had started to develope into a community that included local pastoralists on the coastal highlands of the region under Venetian administration.

Nicha Armeni interceded on behalf of his sons, who were also awarded titles and land by the Venetian Senate, his three sons were named Calozorzi Armeni (aka Georgius Armenia), Theodoro Armeni (aka Theodore Armenia) and Duca Armeni (aka Duche Armenia). The family residence in Dulcigno, aka Ulcinj, was granted as a refuge should they be exiled from the borderlands, the residence is said to have belonged to Petri de Nicha. This may be the same individual noted in the Venetian archives as Petro Darmer the son of Vito Darmer (†1413) from Corfu. Petro Darmer was the father of Arseni Darmer who in 1463 provided the credit needed for the construction of the palazzo di Albaniae Veneta, completed in 1478. Therefore, Nicha Armeni may have been the grandson of Vito Darmer (†1413) from Corfu. Isaura, Vito Darmer's daughter, married in the same year as her father's death (†1413), to Januli Fiomaco son of barone e giudice Anastasio Fiomaco. It was this same Anastasio Fiomaco who following the death of Charles III d'Anjou had represented the community of the city of Corfu during the transfer from Angevin rule to Venetian suzereignty on June 9th, 1386. In the same year Isaura and Januli were married, the knight Pietro Malipiero abducted her to Durazzo in Albania. The Venetian Republic seized them and Isaura was confined to a convent, her barony was confiscated and Malipiero was punished with a three-month prison term in the dungeon.

DNA Evidence

The Armeni family on Corfu match the descendants of Stefano Konjević (born 28 Dec. 1812) from Herceg-Novi, Bay of Kotor (Cattaro). He migrated to the United States around 1833 and is the progenitor of the Cognevich family in the United States.

Y-DNA test results between members of both families suggest that the estimated time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) is approximately 650 years before the present. Both male lineages belong to the R-U152/S28 > L2/S139 > FGC13617 y-DNA haplogroup.

Common SNPs (Armenis/Cognevich):
FGC13617 2972251-AC-A BY31087 7346614-AAGG-A FGC13619 FGC13621 FGC13624 FGC13625 FGC13627 FGC13629 FGC13630 FGC13633 FGC13634 FGC13635 FGC13636 FGC13637 FGC13638 FGC13639 BY31131 FGC13640 FGC13641 FGC13642 FGC13615 FGC13643 FGC13644 FGC13645 FGC13646 FGC13649 FGC13650

Both participants were found to have 11 private SNPs each. Each SNP equates to a period of approximately 40 years or slightly more than one generation per SNP. In addition to SNP testing the 67 STR-marker results indicate a genetic difference of 5 on 67 markers (62/67). It is estimated that on average a single STR mutation occurs over a period of 130 years. Therefore, the estimated TMRCA is 650yrs (5x130=650) before the present. Moreover, the expected 95% confidence interval for a genetic difference of five is between 150 and 840 years before the present.

Cognevich private SNPs: BY99534 BY120493 FGC13616 6652398AC-A aka 6784357AC-A BY72344 BY77462 BY79174 BY81038 BY85420 BY37029 BY115466

Armenis private SNPs: FGC13648 FGC13618 FGC13622 FGC13626 FGC13628 FGC13631 FGC13632 FGC13653 FGC13652 FGC13651 FGC13647

Angevin (Guelph)

Frederick II was King of Sicily (1198–1250), as well as King of Germany from 1212 and then Holy Roman Emperor. The title of Holy Roman Emperor was held in conjunction with the rule of Germany and northern Italy. Both Frederick II and the Pope wanted universal power.

Frederick's supporters became known as Ghibellines, while the Lombard League (the medieval alliance formed in 1167 and supported by the pope) and its allies became known as Guelphs. After being defeated in the Battle of Legnano in 1176, Frederick recognized the full autonomy of the cities of the Lombard League.

Most often, existing factions in the cities (usually among the nobility) adopted a pro-papal or pro-imperial attitude, thus drawing themselves into the wider international struggle but without losing their local character. The fighting between Guelphs and Ghibellines in various communes often ended with the exile of the losing party from the city. The rivalry between Ghibellines (in this case representing feudal aristocrats) and Guelphs (representing wealthy merchants) was especially ferocious in Florence, where the Guelphs were exiled twice (1248 and 1260) before the invading Charles d'Anjou ended Ghibelline domination in 1266.

After the Hohenstaufen loss of southern Italy (1266) and the final extinction of their line (1268), the Guelph and Ghibelline conflict changed in meaning. In the international sphere, Guelphism constituted a system of alliances among those who supported the Angevin presence in southern Italy—including the Angevin rulers of Sicily themselves, the popes, and Florence with its Tuscan allies. Within the many cities where the Guelphs triumphed, the party became a conservative force, a property-owning group interested in maintaining the exile of the Ghibellines whose holdings had been confiscated.

During the course of the 14th century, the importance of both parties rapidly declined. They lost international significance because the emperors no longer interfered in Italy and the popes moved from Rome to France.

Provence - Chateaux de Noves - Orgon (Armeni de Noves -> de Noves -> Aimini -> Aymini)

The Armeni family held the lordship of Orgon and Noves. The House of Noves, held the first rank at Noves, a town of Provence, situated about a mile from Avignon. In 1165 the Earl of Provence divided the lordship of Noves awarding one portion to the bishopric of Avignon and the other to the House of Noves.

With regards to the lordship of Orgon, Foulques d'Agoult, Grand Seneschal of Provence and Grand Chamberlain of Sicily [1290-1375] married Alix des Baux from Avellino, daughter of Raymond I des Baux, Count of Avellino [1265-1321]. Their son, Foulques d'Agoult (Dagout), was Marquis of Corfu and lord of Orgon.

In the year 1185 Guillaume Arméni de Noves was present in the cloister of St. Marie with his sons Aldebert, Pontius and Rufus where he had his seignorial rights confirmed in an Act signed by Geoffrey, bishop of Avignon.

His son, Aldebert Armene, held the first rank in Noves and was Judge of Avignon from 1190. At Tarascon on February 1211 he sold the lordship of Orgon to Sancha of Aragon (1186-1241). She was an Aragonese princess who by marriage became Countess of Toulouse and Marchioness of Provence from 1211 to 1241. In 1211 Sancha married Raymond VII (1197-1249), becoming his first wife to divorce him in 1241. Raymond VII was the Count of Toulouse, Duke of Narbonne and Marquis of Provence from 1222 until his death.

The grandfather of Simon VI de Montfort, Count of Avellino, defeated Raymond VII, and took control of the county of Toulouse from 1215 until his death during the seige of Toulouse in 1218. His son, the father of Simon VI, Count of Avellino, was ten years of age and present with his mother in Toulouse. Aldebert Armene was appointed Judge, Assessor & Chancellor of the Counts of Toulouse in the county of Provence from 1200 until 1222.

In the year 1280 Petrus de Noves was the Castellan / Governor of the old castle on Corfu.

Bertrand Armini (also Bertrand III Aymini) was born in Tarascon. He was the son of Pierre de Noves (also Pierre Aymini), knight of Avignon, who married (c.1269) Raymondette Bérenger of Tarascon. From this union were born two sons, one of whom was Bertrand who had been provost of Notre-Dame des Doms in 1295.

On April 3, 1298, the Chancellor Pierre de Ferrieres, was replaced with Bertrand the provost of Avignon at the time, for the convocation of the grades of the school of Avignon. On the 8th, Bertrand received a royal commission with the vicar of Aix, Raymond Roux of Comps, to investigate the territorial limits between Arles and Tarascon on one side and the possessions of the Baux d'Avellino on the other. The proceedings had been initiated by Guillaume de Ferrieres, at the time when he was provost of Marseilles. In these two cases, he began as Auxiliary and Continuer des Ferrières. At that time, he resided mainly in Marseille and Aix, following Charles II of Anjou.

Bertrand was promoted to the bishopric of Avignon in 1300. It was under his administration that Bertrand de Got, archbishop of Bordeaux, elected sovereign pontiff under the name of Clement V on the 5th of January, 1305, at the conclave held at Perugia, came to Avignon to establish the pontifical siege, after having been crowned at Lyons.

The authors of Gallia Christiana state that there is an Act dated December 3, 1309 by which this bishop paid tribute to Robert of Anjou, King of Naples & Count of Provence, and to Charles, Duke of Calabria, who recognized his lordship over Noves.

Provence - Orgon -> Corfu

Joanna I of Naples (1326 – 27 July 1382) was Queen of Naples and Countess of Provence and Forcalquier from 1343 to 1382; she was also Princess of Achaea from 1373 to 1381. At Joan's death, Louis of Anjou, to whom she bequeathed her kingdom, made himself master of the principality, and erected Corfu into a marquisate which he bestowed on Foulques d'Agoult (Foulque Dagout), his Seneschal of Provence.

Foulques d'Agoult was Count of Gérassi, lord of Val d'Oulle, Orgon, Marquis of Corfou, Vicount of Reillanne (1372), Grand Seneschal of Provence (1376-1385) and Chamberlain of Joanna I of Naples. He was the son of Alix Des Baux, the daughter of Raymond I Des Baux, Count of Avellino.

Avellino - Burgundy (Armini -> Arminerii -> Armenie)

On y lit, à la date de 1303: « Arminerius Jean Bisuntinus eut (pour fils) Pierre (Armenier) dit Rosselat. » Ce qui paraît indiquer l' origine bisontine de la famille.

Translation: We read there, at the date of 1303: “Arminerius Jean Bisuntinus had a son Pierre (Armenier) dit Rosselat. This seems to indicate the Bizantine origin of this family.

Before 1333 Humbert II de la Tour-du-Pin, brought with him from Naples to Dauphine, magister Nicolao Constantino Arminerio, a nobleman from Avellino in the Kingdom of Naples also documented as domino Castri Novi de Bordeta (lord of the new castle in Bourdeau).

In October 1367 Guillelmus Armini is mentioned as a beneficiary of King Charles V the Dauphine.

In the year 1394 Gui Armenie, documented as Guido Arminerii, was Councellor to Etienne the Count of Montbéliard. In the Church of Montigny is engraved in Gothic letters an anagram of his name and the words Praeses Burgundiae. He was appointed speaker of parliament by Philippe the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. He was also appointed president of parliament in Paris and noted as Comte of Burgougne, Seigneur de Montigny, Jura et de Bermont.

Armoriale (Franche-Comté): D'azur à la fasce d'or, accompagnée de trois hermines de sable, 2 en chef, 1 en pointe.

Coat of Arms (Armenie ('d) from Franche-Comté): Azure, a fess Or, accompanied of three Ermines Sable.

Republic of Genoa (Arminii -> Ermenio -> Erminio -> Ermirio)

The Armeni family was well established in Liguria, patricians of the Republic of Genoa, merchants and consuls in the eastern Mediterranean. They were named as one of a hundred prominent families, most of them patricians of Genoa, lenders and landholders in the Holy Land during the 12th and 13th centuries. Some of the families mentioned include: Boccanegra, Buroni, Cataneo, Calvo, Cicala, Doria, Dinegro, Ermirio, Fattinanti, Gattilusio, Grimaldi, Grillo, Guarco, Lercaro, Pagano, Piccaniiglio, Recco, Rapallo, Sauli, Stregghiaporco, Scarella, Vignolo, Valdettaro, ect.

Baldoini Arminij, also known as Baldovino Ermenio, was the owner of a merchant vessel that left for Constantinople in the year 1186. Ansaldo Bonvicino, the confidant of Marquis Conrad de Montferrat, procured the vessel to sail from Constantinople to Jerusalem in the year 1187. He is also documented in a manuscript from the year 1250 as the deceased owner of a house within the Genoese quarter of the city of Tyre.

Petro Erminio was the Genoese consul in Caffa on the Black Sea in the year 1212.

A wealthy Genoese merchant named Poli Erminio (Polidoro?) was a resident in the city of Constantinople in the year 1286.

The Genoese consul of Caffa in the year 1318 was Mondino Erminio.

From 1319 to 1323 Antonio Erminio was the Genoese consul to the court of Robert of Anjou [Reign: 5.5.1309 to 20.1.1343].

In 1346 Giacopo Erminio, also documented as Iacopo Ermirio, was sent as part of a Genoese delegation together with Arturo Pinelli to negotiate a treaty with the Emperor of Constantinople whereby the island of Chios was to be evacuated by Genoa within a period of ten years in exchange for two million scudi.

A document from the 22nd of February 1350 mentions a monk named Iohanes Erminius from the Dominican Order in Pera, Constantinople.

In the year 1351, a nobleman from Genoa named Raffo Erminio, was sent as part of a Genoese embassy together with Oberto Gattilusio, to the city of Ephesus and the Genoese colonies of Pera in Constantinople, Chios and Caffa on the Black Sea. He was sent as 'syndic' and representative of Giovanni de' Valenti, the Doge / Governor of Genoa. Raffo is documented as Raphus Ermirius on the 30th of March 1357.

A Genoese merchant named Sarchis Erminio, son of Costantino Erminio from Caffa on the Black Sea, was resident in Chilia on the Danube delta in the year 1361.

In the year 1363, the chief magistrate of the Genoese administration of Cyprus and later Bailo of the island was Guglielmo Erminio, also known as Guglielmo Ermirio and Guliermi Ermirii.

Chios (Genoese period 1304–1566)

On the Aegean island of Chios there are two unrelated families with the surname Armeni. The one has its origins in the west (Europe) and the other in the east (Anatolia). The western branch was related to the celebrated house of Embriaco, Genoese adventurers who played an important role in the history of the Crusader States.

βλ. Λέων Act. Dipl. IV 92, 94, 123, 228) Θεόδωρος (αυτ. 259). Κωνστ. 'Αρμένης (αυτ. 76, 79 ). 'Εν δε τη Χίω: 1610 Κωνστ 'Αρμένης (Λατ. κώδ.) 1688 Λαυρέντιος 'Αρμένης (αύτ.) 1691 Παναγιώτης Αρμένης da Samo ( ? ) (αυτ.) 1714 Μαρία Δημ. 'Αρμένη (αυτ.) Γεωργάκης Αρμένης καθολικός (αυτ), όθεν φαίνεται ότι δύο κλάδους είχεν ό όικος, δυτικός καί άνατολικός. Giuseppe Ίωάννου Άρμένη (αύτ.) 1747 A: Embriaco Armeni οίκον γενοατ. Embriaco καί 1768 Mich. Embriaco Armeni, τώ 1756 μόνον Μίχ. Άρμένης. Μολαταύτα δέν είνε βέβαιον, εάν ό οίκος αύτος ήτο βυζαντιακός ή άλλος άσημότερός τις μεσαιωνικός οίκος έπηλύδων έν Χίω.

Milan (Armeni)

The two main cities during the 12th century in Italy were Milan and Pavia. Milan sided with the Church and Pavia with the Emperor. Thus Milan was Guelph and Pavia was Ghibelline. Following the independence from Imperial and Papal authority (1137-1154), Italian cities were independent. Citizens no longer acknowledged the bishops, counts or marquises as Imperial vicars. Nor were the latter, without the support of Germany, able to sustain their authority. The cities had long ago elected their magistrates whom they called Consuls. The number of these officers differed in the various cities from 5 to 20. They administered justice and commanded the militia of the towns. They were chosen from the three orders, namely: the Capitani or high feudatories who sided with the citizens; the Valvassours or knights, and the burghers.

The Armeni, the Bernareggi, the Balbi, and the Castelli families made their first appearance in the memoires of Milan as Capitani. The Armeni family is found among the decorated families of 1388 with the nobleman Lanzarolo Armene living in the parish of S. Andrea alla Pusterla Nuova.

Arma (di Milano): Di verde, al leone d'oro, coronato dello stesso.

Kingdom of Sicily (Armenis -> Armeni -> Armeno)

The Armeni family is a noble house of the Kingdom of Sicily.

Joanna I of Naples [Reign: 20.1.1343 – 12.5.1382] sent Manuel Armenus as her interpreter to Joanne de Clavaxo, the Archbishop of Sitia on the island of Crete in the year 1372. He was appointed ambassador of Joanna I of Naples to the court of Queen Maria of Korikos in Cilicia and served as a special envoy of Queen Maria of Cilicia to the Vatican. Manuel was the son of Joannis, the son of Leone Armenis. His father, Joannis, was a Genoese knight from the city of Acireale (Jaci) and his grandfather, Leone Armenis, was the governor / proedros of the province of Catania after 1362. Manuel resided with his family in the Kingdom of Sicily.

In 1382 Lutio Armeni, a Capitano from the city of Piacenza in Lombardy, arrived in the Kingdom of Sicily in the service of Peter of Aragon, Duke of Athens and Neopatria [Reign: 24.1.1336 – 6.1.1387]. Mugnos states this to be a noble family originally from Piacenza, relocated to Sicily under the royals of Aragon, settling in the city of Lentini, where it occupied primary offices of significance.

In the 15th century, a distinguished man of science named Pietro Armeni from Cymbae located near Gela, owned a shop of relics (magazeni relictae) and a warehouse (apotheca) with a sundial. He is described by Sabellico as patrono melitensis. The term melitensis refers to Malta and patrono refers to the owner of a naval vessel. He was the owner of a Maltese ship.

Pietro Armeni occasionally served the King of the Two Sicilies, of which Malta then formed part. In 1468 he appears in the records of the town council of Malta as the captain of a vessel transporting wheat from Sicily to Malta. Later the same year Pietro sailed east on behalf of the Spanish king with two galiots, the one his own, the other belonging to Giovanni Rebesaltes, the Royal Curator of the Kingdom of Sicily.

In 1470 Pietro Armeni appears in the records of Rhodes as the captain of a Maltese galley belonging to a nobleman from Malta named Giovanni di Nava. It was at Rhodes that he was honoured by Grand Master Fr. Battista d'Ursino of the Order of St. John on 11 October, 1470.

Documents from Syracuse on Sicily in 1494 mention that Pietro Armeni was engaged in corsairing and trading with Cyrenaica on the Libyan coast. In the following year he is recorded as the owner of a 25% share in a caravel. A year later in 1496 he paid the ransom of a Maltese captive among the Moors. He then proceded to employ the services of a procurator to see to his interests as he could not visit Malta on business due to more urgent affairs pertaining to his work in the service of the King of Sicily. The island of Djerba rebelled against the Hafsid rulers of Tunis in the middle 1490s and the Viceroy of Sicily, Giovanni de la Nuca, declared on 20 March 1496 that Pietro Armeni had informed him by letter and by word of mouth that the Xech and inhabitants of Djerba had raised the flag of the Spanish King (who ruled also over Sicily) on the island of Djerba.

The keys of Djerba were handed over to the Viceroy of Sicily by Pietro Armeni himself. On returning to Malta Pietro persuaded five other ships to accompany him to Djerba to join the expedition at his own expense.

In 1498, after an agreement between Viceroy of Sicily and the rebels of Djerba had been reached, de la Nuca's correspondent in Malta, Pietro Armeni, already present at the sedition, arrived at the court of King Ferdinand to give a full report on the events.

In 1500 Pietro Armeni was noted as the patron and commander of a galliot in the Venetian armada. On 30 October, 1500 Pietro Armeni was mentioned by the historian Marco Sanudo as the owner of a galiot under the command of the Venetian armada off the island of Sapienza near the city of Modon on the Peloponnese.

An Act dated January 2, 1502 mentions that Pietro Armeni cittadino di Malta, presented to the Doge of Venice, a letter from the King of Spain. The letter mentioned that years ago Pietro Armeni sailed East on behalf of the said sovereigns with two galiots, one his own, the other belonging to Giovanni Rebesaltes, conservatoire of the Royal Heritage in Sicily, and commanded by captain Pietro de Arona (also de Arna). Three Venetian galleys seized the latter, then released on order from Antonio Grimani, admiral of the Venetian fleet; and how he then kept the two ships at the service of Venice, without payment; claim for compensation. Following the presentation of this letter it was agreed by the Venetian Doge that 250 gold ducats was to be paid to the claimant, Pietro Armeni, for the first ship's services to the Venetian armada; and 100 gold ducats to the second claimant, Giovanni Rebesaltes. Pietro Armeni signed receipt for payment and renounced any further claim in writing.

An Act from November 10, 1503 mentions the arrival of his ship at the port of Syracuse in Sicily. The Act states that he obtained payment from the Royal court for damages sustained to his ship as a result of fighting pirates off the coast of Sicily.

In 1508 Pietro Armeni was offered the post of keeper of the City by King Ferdinand for his merits and loyal service. He was also awarded the barony of Baccari. He was unfortunately killed in a naval battle with barbary pirates before his investiture. On the 14th of June, 1508 King Ferdinand recognized his merits and loyal service to the Kingdom of Sicily by conferring the said title and lands to Antonio, his eldest son.

Antonio had two sons, a Dominican priest named Fr. Leo and a son named Lucas.

In 1612 Giulio Armeni from Ragusa in Sicily purchased a ship able to accomodate 300 men, in partnership with Matteo Violla for 250 Spanish gold crowns from Yusuf Dey, the ruler of Tunis (Sept.1610 - Dec.1637).

Arma (di Lentini): D'oro, al leone di rosso unghiato d'azzurro.

Before 1440 Giorgio Armeni, a family member of King Martin of Aragon from the House of Barcelona who was the King of Aragon, Valencia, Sardinia and Corsica, Count of Barcelona from 1396 and King of Sicily [19.5.1396 - 31.5.1410], was a doctor of theology and had established himself in the Kingdom of Sicily in the city of Messina. He was charged by the King to visit all the churches and the poor, helping them in their time of need; for which the King had given him 200 ounces of gold a year. His wife was Evandra, daughter of Giuliano Alevandro, a nobleman from the same city. This household had three sons: Giuliano, Giovanni, and Nicolo.

In 1742 Placido Samperi wrote that the grandson of Giorgio, Joannem Mattheum, settled in Mdina, Malta circa 1514.

Arma (di Messina): D'oro, a due orsi controlevati di rosso.

Reggio Calabria: Sinopoli

The medieval county of Sinopoli was uniquely Italo-Greek in character. As early as the 12th to 14th centuries the following individuals can be found in the ecclesiastic archives of the county of Sinopolis:

Iohannes de Armeni

Andreas Armeni

Costantinus Armeni

Papa Costa Armeni

Nicolaus Armenus

Bartholottus Armeni

Charismenus Armeni

Leo Armeni

Orlandus Armeni

In October 1354 the Abbot of the Holy Saviour monastery of Saint Angelus of Bloro in Calabria was Philaretus de Armeni from Messina. Saint Angelus was a daughter-house and affiliate of the monastery of the Holy Saviour in the diocese of Messina in Sicily.

The primary monastery in the diocese of Messina is that of the Holy Savior (S. Salvatoris, San Salvatore), which had been established by the Normans in the year 1059AD. The monks of that monastery followed the rules of St. Basil. Their abbot bore the Greek title Archimandrite and acquired pre-eminence and control over all of the Basilian monks in Sicily and Calabria.



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Annales Islamismi: sive Tabulæ synchronistico-chronologicæ ... by Jens Lassen Rasmussen - 1825

L'antica Università di Fermo. Gian Paolo Brizzi. Silvana, 2001

Αντίγραφα νοταριακών πράξεων τοϋ 15ου αί. στα κατάστιχα τοϋ κερκυραίου νοταρίου Ιερέα Σταματίου Κοντομάρη 157-171, Καρύδη Χρ. Σπυρίδωνος. ΠΑΡΝΑΣΣΟΣ ΦΙΛΟΛΟΓΙΚΟ ΠΕΡΙΟΔΙΚΟ. ΤΟΜΟΣ ΜΑ' 1999

Αποδείξεις αστικής ιδιότητας στην Κρήτη το 17ο αιώνα (Ρrove di Cittadinanza), Πεπραγμένα του Ζ' Διεθνούς Κρητολογικού Συνεδρίου, τ. 2/2, 619-634. Ασπασία Παπαδάκη

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Archipelagus turbatus: les Cylades entre colonisation latine et occupation ottomane c. 1500-1718. B. Slot. Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te Istanbul, 1982

Armeni Family DNA project

Armorial historique du diocèse et de l'état d'Avignon. Henri Reynard-Lespinasse. Société française de numismatique et d'archéologie, 1874

Armorial général: précédé d'un dictionnaire des Termes du blason by Rietstap, Johannes Baptist, 1828-1891

Atakta. (Sammlung verschiedener Beiträge zur Kenntniß der hellenischen und romäischen Sprache.) neogr, p.70-71, Volume 1. Adamantios Korais. Didot, 1828

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Il blasone in Sicilia, ossia raccolta araldica. Vincenzo Palizzolo Gravina. Visconti, 1871

Bulletin historique et archéologique de Vaucluse et des départménts limitrophes, Joseph Sequin, 1882

Byzantine Families in Venetian Context: The Gavalas and Ialinas Families in Venetian Crete (XIIIth–XIVth Centuries) ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙΝΑ SYMMEIKTA. Vol. 29 – Appendix. Charalambos Gasparis, Athens, 2019

Byzantium After Byzantium by Nicolae Iorga. Center for Romanian Studies, 2000

Catalogus librorum impressorum bibliothecæ collegii b. Mariæ Magdalenæ in academia Oxoniensi. [Followed by] Appendix, Volume 1. Edward Mactier Macfarlane, 1860

Cenni storici sulle chiese arcivescovili, vescovili, e prelatizie (nulluis) del Regno delle Due Sicilie raccolti, annotati, scritti per l'ab. Vincenzo D'Avino dalle stampe di Ranucci, 1848

Charanis Studies: Essays in Honor of Peter Charanis. Angeliki E. Laiu. Rutgers University Press, 1980

A Companion to Latin Greece. Nickiphoros I. Tsougarakis, Peter Lock, 2014

A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. Eric R. Dursteler, 11 Jul 2013

Creta sacra; sive, De episcopis utriusque ritus, Græci et Latini, in insula Cretæ. Accedit series præsidum Venetorum inlustrata, Volume 1. Flaminio Cornaro, 1755

Cretan Studies, Volume 8. A.M. Hakkert, 2003

La Dalmazia Giornale Letterario Economico Inteso Agli Interessi Della Provincia, Volume 2 - Demardi Rougier, 1846

La France pontificale (Gallia Christiana): histoire chronologique et biographique des Archevêques et Evêques de tous les diocèses de France, depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 18 provinces ecclésiastiques. Honoré Fisquet. Etienne Repos, 1864

Darmer barony

Delle istorie del suo tempo di mons. Paolo Giouio da Como, vescouo di Nocera, Diuise in libri quarantacinque, & tradotte da m. Lodouico Domenichi. Prima [-seconda] parte. Oue sono aggiunti dodici libri ... del medesimo auttore. Con gli sommarij a ciascun libro ... per m. Curtio Marinello. Et un supplimento del signor Girolamo Ruscelli ...: 1581.

Dell'historie venetiane di Pietro Giustiniano nobile veneto. Di nuouo riuedute, & ampliate, nelle quali si contengono tutte le cose notabili, occorse dal principio della fondatione della città, sino all'anno 1575. Pietro Giustiniani, appresso Gio. Battista Brigna, 1671 - 1691

Dictionnaire français et grec vulgaire dans lequel sont spécifiées les différentes acceptions des mots français: avec les termes grecs qui leur correspondent, et les caractéristiques des verbes. Pierre Julien Daviers. Librairie de St. Benoit, 1844

A dictionary, English-Latin, and Latin-English: containing all things necessary for the translating of either language into the other. ... The fourteenth edition, with large additions. By Elisha Coles. D. Midwinter, J. and J. Bonwicke, S. Ballard, R. Ware, W. Innys, [and 27 others in London], 1742

A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects and Doctrines: Hermogenes-Myensis. William Smith, Henry Wace. Little, Brown, 1882

Dissertatio Ivridica De Delictis Maritimis, Heller, 1736

Dizionario storico-blasonico delle famiglie nobili e notabili italiane, estinte e fiorenti by G. B. di Crollalanza

Dizionario storico-blasonico delle famiglie nobili e notabili italiane estinte e fiorenti by Giovanni Battista di Crollalanza, Presso la direzione del Giornale araldico, 1886

Dizionario storico blasonico delle famiglie nobili e notabili italiane estinte e fiorenti" vol.III, compilato dal Comm. G.B. di Crollalanza, edito presso la direzione del giornale araldico, Pisa 1888

Documents inédits pour servir à l'histoire de la domination vénitienne en Crète de 1380 à 1485: tirés des archives de Venise. Hippolyte Noiret, A. Haudecoeur. Thorin & fils, 1892

Dōdōnē, Volume 27, Issue 1. Philosophikē Scholē Panepistēmiou Iōanninōn., 1998

Dubrovacka biblioteka. Serafin Marija Crijevic, Stepan Krasic. Jugoslavenska Akadamija Znanosti, 1977

Dubrovnik, Volumes 11-12. Ogranak Matice Hrvatske Dubrovnik, 1968

Estense University Library: Veneto families with their weapons Ms., 15.-16. sec. Venice

Estense University Library: Venetian families with their weapons Ms., 16.-17. sec. Venice

Eutropii Historiæ Romanæ libri septem, etc. Flavius EUTROPIUS. Longman & Company, 1867

Le fiere del Regno di Napoli in età aragonese. Alberto Grohmann. Nella seda dell'Istituto [italiano per gli studi storici], 1969

Fréjus, ses évêques et les comtes angevins autour de 1300 : l’épiscopat de Jacques Duèze. Thierry Pécout

From Byzantium to modern Greece: Hellenic art in adversity, 1453-1830: from the collections of the Benaki Museum, Athens. Angelos Delēvorrias, Elektra Georgoula, Dēmētrēs Arvanitakēs, Anna Ballian, Mouseio Benakē, Onassis Cultural Center, Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation; Athens : Benaki Museum, 2005

Fontes. Typis polyglottis Vaticanis, 1961

Genealogia del nobile casato Gaudiosi della cittá di Penne, Antonio Di Vincenzo

Grandes familles de Grèce: d'Albanie et de Constantinople. Mihail Dimitri Sturdza, 1983

A Greek and English Dictionary, Comprising All the Words in the Writings of the Most Popular Greek Authors. John Groves. Hilliard, Gray, 1832

Greek Gradus; or, Greek, Latin, and English prosodial lexicon ... Second edition. John Brasse, Baldwin & Company, 1832

A Greek-English Lexicon: Based on the German Work of Francis Passow. Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott. Harper & Brothers, 1846

Griechischer Biographischer Index - Page 98. 2003

Η παρά Trivan απογραφή της Κρήτης (1644) και ο δήθεν κατάλογος των κρητικών οίκων Κερκύρας. Μανούσακας, Μ. Ι., Κρητικά Χρονικά τ. 3, σ. [35-59. 1949]

Hellēnes hagiographoi mechri to 1821. Phoivos I. Piompinos. Hetaireia Hellēnikou logotechnikou kai historikou archeiou, 1984

Heraldic-genealogical-diplomatic newspaper, Volume 23, 1895

Histoire de la noblesse crétoise au moyen âge. Ernst Gerland. E. Leroux, 1907

Historia dell'antichità di Milano, diuisa in quattro libri, del r.p.f. Paolo Morigia milanese, dell'Ordine de' Giesuati di San Girolamo. Nella quale si racconta breuemente, & con bell'ordine da quante nationi questa città è stata signoreggiata, dal principio della sua fondatione sino l'anno presente 1591. ... Con due copiossisime tauole, ..
Paolo Morigia appresso i Guerra, 1592

History of Crete. Theocharēs Eus Detorakēs. Detorakis, 1994

Identity and socio-economic mobility in Venetian Crete: the evolution of a citizen family (sixteenth century) Kostas E. Lambrinos. Pages 57-70 | Published online: 16 Jul 2014

Istituzione delle comunità cittadine in territorio greco durante il periodo della dominazione veneziana (XIII-XVIII sec.). Αναστασία Παπαδία-Λάλα. Ελληνικό Ινστιτούτο Βυζαντινών και Μεταβυζαντινών Σπουδών Βενετίας, 2004

12th International Congress of Cretan Studies Διακίνηση αγαθών, παραγόμενων προϊόντων και ειδών διατροφής στην Κρήτη (1555-1608) Georgios Spanakis-Voreadis, Maria Kalaitzaki. 2016, 12th International Congress of Cretan Studies

Inventaire sommaire des Archives départementales antérieures à 1790, Bouches-du-Rhône: Archives civiles, Série B, Volume 1. Archives départementales des Bouches-du-Rhône, Louis Blancard, Raoul Busquet, Maurice Raimbault (archiviste-adjoint.) Paul Dupont, 1865 - Bouches-du-Rhône (France)

The history of the Mohammedan dynasties in Spain: extracted from the Nafhu-t ... by Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Maqqarī, Ibn al-Khaṭīb, Pascual de Gayangos, 1840

Krētika chronika, Volume 23 p.392. Andreas G. Kalokairinos, 1971

Les annales municipales de la ville d'Avignon (de 1790 à nos jours). Marius Lechalier. Administration municipale, 1929

Les petits Bollandistes vies des saints de l'Ancien et du Nouveau Testament ...: du 19 mai au 13 juin, Volume 6. Louis Guérin, 1872

Le vite dei dogi di Marin Sanudo, Issue 1. Marino Sanudo, Tipi dell'editore S. Lapi, 1900 - Venice

Makedonikē vivliothēkē, Volumes 22-24. Hetaireia Makedonikōn Spoudōn., 1959

Marci Antonii Sabelli... summa diversorum tractatuum: in quibus ... by Marco Antonio Coccio Sabellico, 1697

Οι μεταβιβάσεις της κερκυραϊκής βαρoνίας του conte de Martina κατά τον 14ο και 15ο αι.», Δελτίον Εραλδικής και Γενεαλογικής Εταιρείας Ελλάδος 9 (1992) σσ. 9-36.

Mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences et des lettres de ... Kongelige Danske videnskabernes selskab, 1911

Mémoires de la Société d'emulation du Doubs. Société d'émulation du Doubs, Besançon. 1938

Memorie storico-diplomatiche della chiesa vescovile di Ostuni. Ludovico Pepe. B. Longo, 1891

Men of Empire: Power and Negotiation in Venice's Maritime State. Monique O'Connell. JHU Press, 27 Apr 2009

Mnēmosynon Sophias Antōniadē. Sophia A. Antōniadē, Hellēnikon Institouton Venetias Vyzantinōn kai Metavyzantinōn Spoudōn, 1974

Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium: Commissiones et relationes venetae ; 2 : annorum 1525-1553 / collegit et digessit. Šime Ljubić, 1877

Moskau und die Politik des Kaiserhofes im XVII. Jahrundert, Volume 1. Walter Leitsch. H. Böhlaus Nachf., 1960

Nella Quale si Narrano le cose piu memorabili, che le sono interuenute, tanto nello stato Ecclesiastico, quanto nel Politico, dal principio della nostra salute insino a gli anni 600. del Signore (etc.): 2. Bonacota, 1668

Noble families of the kingdom of Naples, Vol. 1, Carlo de Lellis,1654 - Naples

Noms du Christ et voies d'oraison. Pontificium institutum orientalium studiorum., 1960

Notitia orbis antiqui, siue geographia plenior, ab ortu rerumpublicarum ad Constantinorum tempora orbis terrarum faciem declarans. Christophorus Cellarius ex vetustis probatisque monimentis collegit, & nouis tabulis geographicis, singulari cura & studio delineatis, illustrauit: Notitiæ orbis antiqui, siue geographiæ plenioris tomus alter Asiam et Africam antiquam exponens. Christophorus Cellarius .., Volume 2. apud Ioh. Friderici Gleditschii, B. fil., 1732

Nuoua, e perfettissima descrittione del regno di Napoli, diuiso in dodice prouincie, ... Opera d'Enrico Bacco Alemanno. Ampliata da Cesare d'Engenio. Aggiuntoui in quest'ultima impressione un nuouo discorso di D. Gioseffo Mormile intorno l'antichità di Napoli, e di Pozzuolo. ... Enrico Bacco per Lazaro Scoriggio. Ad istanza di Pietr'Antonio Sofia, 1629

Omaggio a Luigi di Vincenzo e Maria Gaudiosi sposi il 30 gennaio 1908. L’Altare Gaudiosi nella chiesa di S. Domenico a Penne. Antonio di Vincenzo. 30 gennaio, 2008

Origin of noble surnames in the kingdom of Naples. With some dissertations (etc.) p.291

Pandōra: syngramma periodikon, Volume 3. 1853

Παραχωρήσεις αμπελιών στην Κρήτη κατά την τάξιν των κονομιανών, τέλη 16ου–μέσα 17ου αιώνα, Βιολιδάκης Γ. Ν., Θησαυρίσματα 36 (2006) 266–67.

La platea della contea di Sinopoli. Pietro De Leo. Rubbettino, 2006

Peri tes politikes katastadeos tes Heptanesu epi heneton. p.47 - 55. Philadelpheus, 1856

Πλούσιοι και φτωχοί: στην κοινωνία της ελληνολατινικής Ανατολής. Chrysa A. Maltezou, 1998

Πολεις και Χωρια της Κρητης στο περασμα των αιωνων: μητρωον των οικισμων, Volume 1. Στεργιος Γ Σπανακης. Γ. Δετορακης, 1991

Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit: Addenda zu Faszikel 1 - 12: Volume 12 - Σελίδα 10. Erich Trapp, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Wien) Kommission für Byzantinistik - 1995

Proto-Romance phonology. Robert Anderson Hall. Elsevier, 1976

Raccolta degli storici italiani dal cinquencento al millecinquecento, Volume 22, Issue 4, Nicola Zanichelli, 1900

I raguagli historici del Vespro Siciliano. Filadelfo Mugnos. Per Pietro Coppola, 1645

I registri della Cancelleria angioina, Volume 30. Naples (Kingdom). Regia Cancelleria, Riccardo Filangieri. L'Accademia Pontaniana, 1971

I registri della Cancelleria angioina, Volumes 24-26. Naples (Kingdom). Regia Cancelleria, Riccardo Filangieri. L'Accademia Pontaniana, 1976

Régestes des arrêts civils et des mémoriaux (1363-1399) des Archives du duc de Crète: Epitomai tōn astikōn apophaseōn kai tōn katachōriseōn (1363-1399) tou archeiou tou douka tēs Krētēs. Elisabeth Santschi, Crete (Duchy)., Archivio di Stato di Venezia. l'Institut, 1976

Il Regno di Napoli in prospettiva, Volume 3. Giovanni Battista Pacichelli

Relation de ce qui s'est passé ... à Sant-Erini, isle de l'Archipel, depuis l'établissement des Pères de la Compagnie de Jesus en icelle. Avec ... plusieurs choses touchant le rit et la créance des Grecs de ce temps, etc. François RICHARD (Jesuit.). 1657

To rempelio tōn Popolarōn‎ by Dionysios Rōmas, 1979

Re-Reading Leonardo: "The Treatise on Painting across Europe, 1550?900 ". Claire Farago, 05 Jul 2017

Revue Historique, Volume 2. Institute for Neohellenic Research, 2005

Ricerche sull'istoria di Avellino di Serafino Pionati. Serafino Pionati presso Borel e comp, 1829

S. Rotae Romanae Decisiones. Perachon & Cramer, 1728

Slavery in the Islands of Malta and Gozo ca. 1000-1812. Godfrey Wettinger. Publishers Enterprises Group, 2002

Stemmi inediti delle famiglie nobili e notabili di Penne, Antonio Di Vincenzo

Storia della repubblica di Venezia dalla sua fondazione sino l'anno 1747. Di Giacomo Diedo senatore proseguita da dotta penna fino all'anno 1792, Volume 3.

Storia Della Repubblica Di Venezia Dalla sua Fondazione sino al presente: Tradotta dal Francese, Volume 8. Marc-Antoine Laugier, Presso Carlo Palese e Gasparo Storti, 1768

Ta Historika, Issue 32, Ekdot. Oikos Melissa, 2000

Teatro della nobilta del mondo del sig. dottore don Filadelfo Mugnos ... Doue si leggono molte famiglie imperiali, regie, ed altre titolate, e graduate ... e tutte l'altre famiglie nobili d'Europa, d'Asia, e d'Africa ... nelle quali si scorgono le serie, i dominij, le patrie, gli huomini illustri d'armi, e di lettere ... Diuiso in tre libri. Filadelfo Mugnos per Nouello de Bonis stampator arciuescouale, 1680

Teatro genologico delle famiglie nobili, titolate, feudatarie ed antiche nobili del fidelissimo regno di Sicilia viventi ed estinte, ... del S. Don Filadelfo Mugnòs, 1647

De thematibus, sive De agminibus militaribus per imperium Orientale ... by Constantinus Porphyrogenitus, Byzantine emperor Constantinus, Bonaventura de Smet, 1588

Testi e documenti di storia napoletana, Volumes 13-14. 1950 - Naples (Kingdom)

Thesaurus antiquitatum et historiarum Italiae ...: regionum et urbium juris Veneti ... excudit Petrus Vander Aa, 1722

Thesaurus antiquitatum et historiarum Italiae, Neapolis, Siciliae, Sardiniae, Corsicae, Melitae, atque adjacentium terrarum insularumque: constans rarissimis, praestantissimis ... scriptoribus qui ... suae cuique patriae situm, res gestas, antiquitates ... illustrarunt excudit Petrus vander Aa, 1725

Thēsauros tēs hellēnikēs glōssēs: Arō - Aō, Volume 2. Henri Estienne, Valpianis, 1821

Totius latinitatis lexicon opera et studio Aegidii Forcellini lucubratum et in hac editione post tertiam auctam et emendatam a Josepho Furlanetto alumno Seminarii patavini novo ordine digestum amplissime auctum atque emendatum cura et studio doct: Vincentii De-Vit... Egidio Forcellini. typis Aldinianis, 1867

The travels and journal of Ambrosio Bembo. Ambrosio Bembo, Clara Bargellini, Anthony Welch. 2007

Vade Mecum, Volume 1. International Congress of the History of Medicine, 1954

Venice and It's Merchant Empire. Kathryn Hinds. Marshall Cavendish, 2002

The Works of Sir Walter Ralegh: The history of the world. Sir Walter Raleigh. The University Press, 1829


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