Bol is a town on the south of the island of Brač in the Split-Dalmatia County of Croatia, population 1,661 (2005)
Surnames to be found in Bol, island Brač
Marinković Karmelić Eterović Cvitanić Pavišić Bodlović Baković Karninčić Jakšić Šćepanović Brešković Kusanović Vrsalović Kraljević Martinić Barhanović Petrić Radić Trutanić Koljatić
HISTORY. Bol is set on a geological contrast, that of a junction of limestone and marl. This is why it has a fresh water spring which was the condition required for the development of the settlement. It is no wonder, therefore, that the settlement was already populated in Roman times. Above the Zlatni Rat, there are the remains of the walls of a Roman arched water storage tank. They are coated with water-proof mortar mixed with brick-like grains of road-metal. The ceiling is destroyed. Neither the ancient dock, lying in the sea east of Rat on Bork (Cape on Bork) nor the accidentally discovered tombs on the way to Murvica, can be seen any more today. The remains of the walls in the surroundings point to the existence of a stronger agglomeration of populace that needed both, water and the harbour. In support of this hypothesis there are also the right numismatic discoveries from this location, kept now in the museum of Dominican friars in Bol. Above Bol, there is an ancient fortified castle, Kostilo, raised on an almost unapproachable cliff. The castle was already fortified in Roman times for it served as a shelter to the Romans who lived and worked on the fertile coastal fields of ancient Bol.
With the arrival of the Croatians in the 7th century, many Romans from Skrip and other places took refuge in this well protected region and erected a fortified settlement near the present village of Podbarje. That Bol was attacked by the Saracens in the second half of the 9th century and thereupon heavily destroyed and plundered. To the Roman period belongs the relief of Neptune (now in the Archaeological Museumin Zadar), an ornamented stele walled in at the Dominican Monastery. In the monastery yard there is and Early Christian sarcophagus, carved with long-stemmed crosses.
Name. The name of Bol, together with the names of the surrounding environs throws more light on the history of the settlement.
Bol had a dual choice of site: the one underneath the range of mountains, under the prehistoric fort of Kostilo and the one near the sea. The fertile lands needed to be protected for tilling. The old Bol had chosen its site under the mountain range because it was necessary to work and to defend oneself. The Bol of today sees its opportunity in the beaches and therefore has stretched itself along their edges. That the ancient prehistoric fort already served its purpose in the Roman period, is supported by its Croatized Latin Name, Kostilo, (from Lat. castellum- castle, fort, stronghold). The name Bol is derived from the Latin Vallum which means trench, earth-rampart or a settlement reinforced with earthen walls. Latin vallum has the same meaning as the old Croatian word obala (coast). The present beach the former quay of Borak is derived from Lat. burgum and denotes the same as varos (a secluded settlement outside a fortified town). This is a common feature of many Dalmatian towns. When the forts on Bol lost their former function, a new more accurate name, that of Podbarje (Pod brde, The Under-Hill) was created. [P.Simunović]