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Denman College, Berkshire (Now Oxfordshire), England

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  • Charles Philip Duffield (deceased)
    Sheriff of Berkshire 1859* Burke, Bernard, Sir. A genealogical and heraldic history of the landed gentry of Great Britain & Ireland 6th ed . London : Harrison 1879. Vol I. page 486
  • Henry Duffield (deceased)
    Burke, Bernard, Sir. A genealogical and heraldic history of the landed gentry of Great Britain & Ireland 6th ed . London : Harrison 1879. Vol I. page 486
  • George Elwes (b. - 1833)
    Burke, Bernard, Sir. A genealogical and heraldic history of the landed gentry of Great Britain & Ireland 6th ed . London : Harrison 1879. Vol I. page 486
  • Michael Duffield (deceased)
    Burke, Bernard, Sir. A genealogical and heraldic history of the landed gentry of Great Britain & Ireland 6th ed . London : Harrison 1879. Vol I. page 403

Denman College, Berkshire (now Oxfordshire), England

(Formerly known as Marcham Park)

Denman College, is a residential adult education college centred on Marcham Park at Marcham in the English county of Oxfordshire (formerly Berkshire).

Founded by the National Federation of Women’s Institutes (NFWI) in 1948, Denman offers day schools and residential courses in cookery, craft and lifestyle.

Marcham Park

Marcham Park stands on the site of the original manor house of Marcham which was a grange of Abingdon Abbey. The present house dates from the late 17th century, but was heavily remodelled for Thomas Duffield in around 1820. Its most well-known resident was Duffield's grandfather-in-law, the infamous miser,John Elwes.

Women's Institute College

The college was formally established in 1948, and named after Lady Denman, the first chairwoman of the WI federation.[1] Today, students attending Denman do not have to be members of the WI, and the college accepts both male and female learners.

Marcham Park in Victoria County History

According to a spurious charter King Egbert in 835 confirmed to Abingdon Abbey 50 manses in MARCHAM (fn. 33) granted to the abbey by a very wealthy man and his son. (fn. 34) The lands of Abingdon were actually derived from King Edgar, who in 965 granted 50 hides within stated boundaries to the abbey, (fn. 35) which still held Marcham in 1086, when its lands here were assessed at 10 hides. Anchil held of the abbot I hide previously held by Alvin. (fn. 36) Anchil forfeited in 1088, (fn. 37) but his son William, having married the daughter of Simon the king's steward, recovered his land at Marcham through his influence. (fn. 38) During the reign of William II Abbot Reynold granted the church, whatever the clerk Ælfric had held and a farm to William, a son born to him before he took the religious habit. (fn. 39) During the rule of Abbot Faritius, however, these premises were recovered for the convent, the son himself becoming a monk of the abbey, where he died. (fn. 40) Simon the king's steward, (fn. 41) as a relative of William, then claimed these premises—that is, the church, mill, a farm and 2 hides of land, besides a hide at Garford and other lands, but relinquished them to Abbot Vincent, who succeeded in 1117. (fn. 42) Turstin son of Simon represented to King Stephen in 1153 that these were hereditary possessions of which the abbot had disseised him, and obtained the king's writ for their restitution. (fn. 43) Immediately on the accession of Henry II the abbey obtained an investigation, and Turstin was ordered to pay 4 marks to make good the abbey's loss. (fn. 44)

Several of the officials of the abbey held lands appropriated to their offices: the cordwainer had 4 acres, the master cobbler 4; the cook received payments from Marcham for the expenses of carrying fish to the kitchen, and this place furnished the abbey table with 45s. 4d., 3,000 eggs, 136 cocks and a specified amount of vegetables. (fn. 45) The Serjeant (serviens) had his allowance of food in the abbey hall, ½d. at Christmas and ½d. at Easter. (fn. 46) In the time of Henry I Abbot Faritius charged 40s. on the tithe and 20s. on the customary payments of Marcham for supplying fuel. (fn. 47) By 1291 £2 of the issues of Marcham and Garford had been appropriated to the woodman of the abbey. (fn. 48)

The abbey held the manor until 1538, (fn. 49) when Abbot Thomas surrendered the manors of Marcham, Frilford and Garford and the advowson of the church to the Crown. (fn. 50) In 1546 Henry VIII granted Marcham in fee to William Boxe, citizen and grocer of London, and Anne his wife. (fn. 51) Their son William, an outlaw in 1576, (fn. 52) sold it in 1578 to Sir Henry Unton of Bruern, Oxfordshire, kt. (fn. 53) Sir Henry sold the Marcham estates early in 1589 to Bessel Fettiplace and Ellen his wife. (fn. 54) Bessel and his son Richard in 1602 and 1607 conveyed the site and demesnes to Giles Simpson and Christine his wife. (fn. 55) Giles Simpson in 1607 conveyed the site to Francis Searle and Francis his eldest son, (fn. 56) to whom in 1609 Richard Fettiplace, now a knight, conveyed the manor. (fn. 57) In 1646 it was said to be in the possession of the Pigot family, and Francis son of Alban Pigot was living here in 1662. He sold the manor (fn. 58) in 1691 to Felix Calvert, (fn. 59) a member of a Buckinghamshire family, who settled here. (fn. 60) Felix Calvert in 1717 (fn. 61) sold it to Robert Meggot, (fn. 62) a wealthy brewer of Southwark. Robert married Amy sister of Sir Hervey Elwes, bart., of Stoke, Suffolk, and had a son John, who in 1751 assumed the name Elwes and in 1763 succeeded to the estates of his uncle Sir Hervey, (fn. 63) a miser into whose favour he had ingratiated himself. (fn. 64) John Elwes inherited the Elwes' miserly traits to an extent that became proverbial. He was M.P. for Berkshire 1772–84, (fn. 65) and died unmarried in 1789, when, his personal estate being divided between two illegitimate sons, most of the real property descended to his great-nephew John Timms, who also assumed the name of Elwes (fn. 66); Marcham, however, passed by bequest to the illegitimate son then living there. George Elwes, (fn. 67) whose daughter and heir Emily Frances married Thomas Duffield, M.P. for Abingdon, son of Michael Duffield of Abingdon. Their eldest son George took the name Elwes; he died under age in 1833, and was succeeded by his brother Henry Duffield, and afterwards by another brother Charles Philip Duffield, who was Sheriff of Berkshire in 1859 and died in 1889. He left a son and their Charles John Edwin Duffield, (fn. 68) the present owner.

At an early date the daughters of William Grim held one-fifth of a knight's fee in Marcham and Westwike of the Abbot of Abingdon. (fn. 69) Walter de Hendred was concerned with lands here in 1235, (fn. 70) and in 1236 Roger son of Walter de Marcham conveyed tenements here to John de Hendred, (fn. 71) tenant of a fifth of a knight's fee under Abingdon Abbey in 1240–1. (fn. 72) This part was afterwards held by 'the monk of the Wodefold' and Alice de Fyfield, and was subsequently appropriated to the sacristan of Abingdon Abbey. In 1428 it was stated to be at 'le Hyde.' (fn. 73) It is commemorated by Hyde Copse, north-east of Marcham village.

FRILFORD (Frileford, x–xv cent.; Frigeleford, Frieleford, Frielford, xi cent.) was a member of the manor of Marcham in 965, (fn. 74) and was presumably granted with Marcham to Abingdon Abbey, which was holding it in 1086. (fn. 75)

The abbey held part as a manor in demesne, and was overlord of the rest until the dissolution of the monasteries. (fn. 76) 'Custumary Landes' in Frilford were granted with Marcham Manor in 1546 to William Boxe, (fn. 77) who is mentioned later as lord of the manor. (fn. 78) The further descent has not been traced, and the estate may have become merged in Marcham Manor.

In 1086 Rainald de St. Helen held 4 hides of land here of the abbey. (fn. 79) The manor descended with that of St. Helen's (q.v.) to Maud daughter of William de St. Helen, (fn. 80) who sold it in 1383 to Isabel widow of John Golafre (fn. 81) of Fyfield. It has since passed with Fyfield (fn. 82) (q.v.), the present owner being St. John's College, Oxford.

Rainbald, tenant of Sunningwell and Kennington, held I hide of land here in 1086; it was said to have been given by Berner to Turstin de St. Helen. (fn. 83) Another hide was held by Salwi and was probably one of the two hides acquired later by Rainbald de Tubney. (fn. 84) These lands must have been the part of Frilford in the possession of Henry de Tubney in 1240–1, (fn. 85) and lands sometimes called a manor at Frilford descended with Tubney (q.v.) to Magdalen College, Oxford, (fn. 86) which still owns it.

Fifteen manses in GARFORD (Garanford, x cent.; Wareford, (fn. 87) xi cent.) were given by King Edmund in 940 to his thegn Wulfric, (fn. 88) and confirmed to him by King Edgar in 960. (fn. 89)

Abingdon Abbey held Garford at the time of the Conquest, (fn. 90) and continued to do so until the Dissolution. (fn. 91) Henry VIII alienated the site and capital messuage in 1544, (fn. 92) and in 1576 Queen Elizabeth granted the manor to Edward Earl of Lincoln and William Raven of Horsepool Grange, in the parish of Thornton, Leicestershire, in fee. (fn. 93) They conveyed it on the following day to John and Geoffrey Morley, (fn. 94) who in 1577 conveyed it to Edward Wilmott. (fn. 95) He in 1580 conveyed it to William Boxe, (fn. 96) who in 1588 conveyed it to Edward again. (fn. 97) He, in 1604, with Elizabeth his wife and Sir Charles Wilmott, kt., conveyed it to Thomas Goddard. (fn. 98) Thomas died seised of the site of the manor in 1610, leaving a son and heir Francis, (fn. 99) who, with Katherine his wife, conveyed the manor to Elizabeth Craven, widow, Sir William Whitmore, kt., and Thomas Craven in the spring of 1624. (fn. 100) The manor was among the possessions of William Lord Craven forfeited during the Commonwealth and bought from the treason trustees by Edmund Rolfe and Thomas Robinson. (fn. 101) Restored at the Restoration, it remained in the Craven family (fn. 102) until in 1821 William Earl of Craven conveyed it to Charles Thomas Johnson and John Dalrymple, (fn. 103) perhaps for a sale to the Duffield family, who purchased it at about this time. (fn. 104) Charles Philip Duffield sold it in 1869 to Samuel Jones (Loyd), Lord Overstone, (fn. 105) of Overstone Park, Northants, and Lockinge House, Wantage. His daughter, Lady Wantage, is the present owner.

Berner, tenant of Sunningwell (q.v.), held 2 hides of land at Garford under the abbey in 1086, (fn. 106) as Rainbald had done. (fn. 107) Geoffrey de Sunningwell was tenant about the middle of the 12th century, (fn. 108) and a later holder appears to have been Nicholas de Sunningwell. (fn. 109) In the early 13th century William Buffi and Warin Boystard held this fee jointly, (fn. 110) being subinfeoffed under the Sunningwells, and in 1223 the latter sued Lettice, widow of Richard de Chilswell (Cheueleswella), for her services, stating that William Richard's son exchanged his whole land at Chilswell with Warin for I hide in Garford and 10 marks, the land to be held of Warin and his heirs. (fn. 111) In the following year Warin sued William son of Lettice for Lettice's dower lands in Chilswell which Warin had obtained in exchange for one-third of the Garford property. (fn. 112) Warin died in 1226 and John Boystard was tenant of 1 hide in 1242. (fn. 113)

The family of Poer was also holding of this fee in the 13th century. In 1224–5 John le Poer had granted a hide of land here to his brother Roger and John was still tenant of 6 hides in 1242. (fn. 114) In 1255 Michael de Huchenden and Emma his wife and Robert de Chilswell and Katherine his wife arraigned an assize of novel disseisin against John le Poer and Richard his son concerning tenements in Garford, (fn. 115) and in 1259 Robert and Katharine conveyed a hide in Garford to Richard le Poer. (fn. 116) William le Poer had succeeded by 1306 (fn. 117) and was followed before 1328 by a son Richard, (fn. 118) and this family held lands here until in 1407 Thomas son of Sir Thomas Poer, kt, and a minor, died seised of half a carucate of land and 13s. rent, held of the Abbot of Abingdon, in Garford, leaving a sister and heir Agnes wife of William Winslow. (fn. 119) In 1428 John Golafre held the Poer lands in Garford of Abingdon Abbey, (fn. 120) and a 'manor' descended with the Golafre lands at Fyfield (q.v.) to St. John's College, Oxford. (fn. 121)

In March 1460–1 Sir William Vaux, kt., held a messuage and 100 acres of land in Marcham called HORSEPATH (Herspath, Horsepathes, (fn. 122) xv cent.). He was soon afterwards attainted, (fn. 123) and in 1462 and 1464 these possessions were granted by the Crown to Ralph Hastings, esquire of the body. (fn. 124) Richard Fowler, sometime Chancellor of the Exchequer to Edward IV and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, received a grant of the manor in 1467 to himself and his male issue. (fn. 125) He died in November 1477 leaving a son Richard age eleven; nevertheless as Katharine widow of Sir William Vaux had no means of support for herself and children, the king in March 1477–8 granted her these lands for life as 'the manor of Marcham.' (fn. 126) Perhaps this was the 'manor of Marcham' which Sir Nicholas Vaux, kt., and Elizabeth his wife sold in 1493 to Roger Bourchier and others. (fn. 127) Henry VII granted the 'manor of Horsepath' to Abingdon Abbey in February 1496–7, (fn. 128) and it was granted with Marcham Manor to William Boxe in 1546. (fn. 129) Robert Hawkins, yeoman, died seised of the capital messuage called 'Horsepath farm-house' in 1601 and was succeeded by Simon his son (fn. 130); later in the 17th century it had become an appurtenance of the main manor. (fn. 131)

UPWOOD in Marcham is a reputed manor. The wood called Upwood was originally in Tubney, but was secured by Abingdon Abbey in January 1408–9. (fn. 132) It was parcel of the manor of Marcham, with which it was granted in 1546 to William Boxe. (fn. 133) In the spring of 1715 the farm was claimed to have been for many years past in the hands of the ancestor of William Lane, then tenant. (fn. 134) No evidence has been found to show whether his son William succeeded to the property which was in 1813 in possession of Sir Charles Saxton, bart. (fn. 135) It was purchased by Thomas Duffield and merged in the manor of Marcham, but the estate was again separated by sale in 1898 to the Rev. Constantine Arthur Dillon; it is now the property of Mr. John Peel. (fn. 136)

In 1815 the 'manor and inclosed farm of Upwood' was expressly excepted from the Inclosure Act. (fn. 137)


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