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French Huguenots and their descendants

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  • Louis Manierre, I (1757 - 1794)
    Louis Manierre has been said to have served under French General Lafayette (1757-1833, aka Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette) in the American Revolution. Lafayette was among the French leaders t...
  • Mary Pease Cooper Hawkins (c.1611 - 1642)
    The "Pease" family are thought to be of Huguenot lineage, and have come to American after several generations in England, where some of them remained. Their original name is thought to be "Pise" or "Pi...
  • Marie Ferree (1653 - 1716)
    Birth surname has also been reported to be: de la Warenbuer de la Warrenbere Warenbauer Warenberger Warenbuer Warrenbuer Warrinbuer
  • Jane Davis (1687 - 1754)
    Jane Ferree Davis was born between 1682 and 1687 in Lyon, France. Her parents were Daniel Ferree and Marie (Mary) Warrembere. She married Richard Davis on August 22, 1715 at Immanuel Episcopal Church...
  • Philip Ferree, Sr. (1686 - 1753)
    Given name has also been reported to be Phillip . Date and place of birth have also been erroneously reported to be: July 1687 at Landau (Landau an der Isar?), Lower Bavaria?, Bavaria, Germany ...

Mission:

Please feel free to use the ship and cross symbol on Geni.com, it was made for that purpose.

This Project seeks to acknowledge people who self-identified as religious Huguenots, sometimes called "French Huguenots," who lived between 1540 and 1790, spoke French, or a language associated with French, were Protestant / Reformed Christians, and were somehow persecuted or discriminated against so that they chose to leave their home (either within France or a mixed-language borderland such as Wallonia, Flanders, Artois, Hainaut, Franche Comte, or Alsace-Lorraine...), and find a better life abroad. We seek to add their profiles to our growing Global Family Tree or to improve those Huguenot profiles already on Geni.com and Wikitree. Adding or improving primary and secondary sources for such profiles is a key part of this Project's mission.

Valuable Resources can also be found at:

https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Project:Huguenot_Migration

Resources for Huegenot history. ' England History of Huguenots, Walloons, Flemish Religions (National Institute)


National Institute for Genealogical Studies.gif

The original content for this article was contributed by The National Institute for Genealogical Studies in June 2012. It is an excerpt from their course English: Non-Anglican Church Records by Dr. Penelope Christensen.

Huguenots, Walloons and Flemish History and Beliefs

The French-speaking Protestants who fled from religious persecution and civil war on the continent are all loosely referred to as Huguenots, however this term properly refers to only those from France, and not to the Walloons from the Low Countries. However, it is often impossible to distinguish the two groups because of the shared language and churches as well as much intermarriage in the early communities in England. Their beliefs were Calvinistic and closest to the English Presbyterian style of church government. Some of the late 17th century Huguenot congregations adopted the Anglican litany translated into French and these were termed conformist Huguenots. Others maintained the Calvinistic style they had used in France and have been called nonconformist Huguenots, although they should be distinguished from the English Nonconformists.

Walloons

The first wave of many thousands of French-speaking Protestants were Walloon refugees who arrived in England from the Spanish Netherlands (now Belgium and the Netherlands) in 1567, having been forced to flee the suppression of Protestantism by King Philip of Spain’s forces lead by the Duke of Alva. This group had been in England for over a century before the true Huguenots came and the two groups settled in London and the same south-eastern towns.

Huguenots

The Huguenots, (Protestants from France), first came in 1572 after the Massacre of St. Bartholomew in Paris, and they were largely from the northern provinces of Brittany, Normandy and Picardy and mostly settled in south-eastern areas of England where the French-speaking Walloon communities had already been established. Although there was support for their religious freedom during the reigns of Elizabeth and James I, during that of Charles I and particularly during Archbishop Laud’s tenure prior to the Civil War only those born abroad and now living in Canterbury were officially allowed to practise their religion, whilst their children were to attend Anglican services. In response, some moved to Holland, and the majority to the USA, taking their craft skills with them. Far more Huguenots arrived after 1685 when Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes which had given toleration to French Protestants in 1598. About 60,000 came at this time, with two-thirds of these settling in London. Most of the others went to towns in SE England and some to Bristol, Plymouth and nearby Stonehouse in the south west.

The history of the Huguenots throughout the English-speaking world can be found in Currer-Briggs and Gambier (Huguenot Ancestry. Phillimore, 1985). The Huguenots were not of any particular social level, althought their textiles and other trades were prized by the courts of Europe and so they had access to many important patrons. They comprised mainly craftsmen with some nobility and some peasants. In London the upper class families and those who worked in the luxury trades such as goldsmiths, silversmiths, lapidaries, diamond cutters, jewellers, bucklemakers, clock- and watch-makers settled in London’s west end around Soho and nearby Westminster parishes. The poorer weavers, and associated tradesmen such as silk throwsters, dyers, thread- and lace makers settled in the east end in Spitalfields and Bethnal Green.

The communities were close-knit and some maintained the French language into the 19th century. Sociological studies show that it takes three generations for immigrants to totally assimilate, and most families had joined the Anglican Church or other Nonconformist groups by at least 1800.

It must also be born in mind that there was a further wave of French refugees, known as the emigrés, mainly upper class and Catholic, entering England from 1789-1814 at and after the French Revolution (circa 1789-1795). Lists of the groups of these that came, but with no union index of names, are on FHL fiche 6035980(1). The Hampshire Record Office have recently acquired a series of their letters giving graphic details of their escape and struggles.

Flemish Migrations

The Protestant immigrants from Flanders and Brabant spoke Flemish, a Dutch dialect, and can thus easily be confused with Dutch settlers. Edward III (1327-1377) encouraged the Flemish to settle in England, as he valued their silk and other textile skills. Other waves came in 1551 and 1567 fleeing the occupying Catholic Spaniards, as did the Walloons.

They settled primarily in south eastern England, particularly in London, Norwich and Canterbury and were employed especially in silk weaving, the New Draperies and market gardening. In the 17th century more Flemish immigrants arrived with the Dutch to drain the fens of East Anglia (Beharrell).

English background:

  The persecution under Archbishop Laud seems to have fallen with peculiar weight upon the clothiers. This may have been owing to the fact that many of the ''clothiers'' were descendants of Dutch and French Protestants.  Mr. Pryer in enumerating the petition for redress of grievances to Parlement in 1640-41 instances under the head of trade, "Divers Clothiers having been forced away who had set up their manufacture abroad to the great hurt of the kingdom."  Smith, in the history of wool, cites the rigor of Archbishop Laud's execution of the acts of conformity as the cause which drove many clothiers out of the kingdom.

Later Migrations from Britain:

Many Protestant refugees from France and the Rhenish Palatinate passed through Chester in the late 17th and the early 18th century en route for Ireland, (fn. 2) notably a party of over 3,000 Palatines who arrived in the city during a three-week period in 1709 and were assisted by the Presbyterian minister Matthew Henry. (fn. 3) Others were in transit in 1713–14. (fn. 4) Some must have stayed, at least for a few years, since there was a French church at Chester in the 1710s. Jacques Denis was its minister in 1713, (fn. 5) but left for Ireland to serve the French church at Waterford in 1716. (fn. 6) His successor at Chester was M. Cortail, who was granted a royal pension in 1717 for the duration of his tenure. (fn. 7) The congregation was evidently conformist and its ministers presumably held services in one of the city churches.

Cottrells /French Huguenots

sailingdeacon (View posts)

Posted: 1110682058000 Classification: Query Surnames: cottrell A book entitled Huguenot Emigration to Virginia, Settlement at Manakin-Town in the opening chapter reads: "It is exhibited that there were numerous instances of indivual settlements of French Hugenots in Virginia and subsequent to the influs of 1700. The names of... Cottrell....and others have been most estimably represented." In a footnote it reads, "Charles Cottrell patented 123 acres of land in Goochland county [Va] August 28, 1748. Susanna Cottrell and Howard Cash, Executors of Thomas Cottrell, deceased, patented 700 acres in Amherst county, August 30, 1763. Virginia Land Registry. The book can be read at http://huguenot-manakin.org/brock1.htm

As we know, Huguenots were a persecuted religious group in France. Some may have had German-sounding names, but they were usually French-speaking Protestants who had been leaving France since the late 1500's. Persecution of non-Catholics started in France in 1572 and continued into the 1700's. The early refugees settled in Germany, Holland, England, and Ireland.

In the following article please note the Cottrell comments in bold (near the end of the article.)

A Brief History of the Manakin Huguenots Reverend Wilbur M. Sims Lecture Presented October 30, 1993 [As copied from http://huguenot-manakin.org/Sims.htm ]

Why were the Manakin Huguenots so late in arriving at their haven of peace and religious freedom? After all, those who bought Manhattan Island for the equivalent of twenty-four dollars arrived in 1623. Those who settled in New Paltz, New York arrived in 1670, and the Charleston Huguenots arrived at that small but growing city in 1680. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes was registered on October 22, 1685, and it was followed by a horrendous holocaust, yet those who became known to history as the Manakin Huguenots did not arrive until the summer of 1700. Why? To answer that question, we must look at Europe and the British Isles and consider the rapid and kaleidoscopic events taking place during those times.

The French refugees who made it to Manakin, Virginia came from all over France. Some had arrived in England some years before 1685 so that even heads of families, and even more children, had not been born in France. These, reading the times, escaped just ahead of the holocaust while others were able to escape to England soon after. It would take much too long, even if it were possible, to trace even a few of the families. We do know, however, that five families escaped at the time of the holocaust from Sedan, and they seem to be more or less representative of the refugees who made it to England. Let’s trace their movements to see what happened in those years between 1685 and 1700.

Relationship between Quakers and Huguenots

The Camisards or Cevennes or Cevennol Prophets, 1700 AD Quakers have roots of origin within the Camisards Camisards: "Probably from camise, a black blouse worn as a uniform" Camisards, southern France (often called the Prophets of the Cevennes). ("Tongues, Gift of," Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, IV, 3310-11.; "Camisards," ERE, 111,175-176; "Pentecostal Churches," EB XIV, 31; Schaff, I, 114; "Tongues, Gift of," B, IV, 796.) A group of Huguenots (French Protestants), mostly peasants, who resisted the attempts of Louis XIV's government to convert them to Roman Catholicism. Many were imprisoned, tortured, and martyred. Observers reported tongues, uneducated peasants and young children prophesying in pure, elegant French, enthusiastic, demonstrative worship, and people "seized by the Spirit." Cevennes: After Montanus, the next time any significant tongues-speaking movement arose was with the Cevennol Prophets of the seventeenth century. The Cevennol prophets likewise were outside of the church - their primary emphasis was on politics and the military. Converts of Camisards, England. ("Tongues, Gift of," Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, IV, 3310-11.) Some Camisards fled to England to avoid persecution, making converts there. Camisards, or Prophets of the Cevennes: The rapid growth of an enthusiastic group among those who endorsed resistance, largely confined to the Cevennes mountains, further complicated the divisions. These Camisards, or Prophets of the Cevennes mountains, claimed that they were directly inspired by the Holy Spirit. Their religious "enthusiasm" as well as their political resistance made them special targets of the king's wrath. In the course of prolonged armed conflict, thousands on both sides were killed. Under divine inspiration, their prophets encouraged the Camisards to wage war against Louis' dragoons from 1701 until 1710. They fought for religious reasons, but the intensity of their political opposition was reflected in the increasing enthusiasm of their spiritual experiences. (Andre Ducasse, La Guerre des camisards (Paris, 1946).) The Camisards maintained that "God has no where in the Scriptures concluded himself from dispensing again the extraordinary Gifts of His Spirit unto Men." Indeed, a "more full Accomplishment" of Joel's prophecy than that of Acts could be awaited. They found historical roots by developing an interesting view of church history: "the Christian Truth survived the Deluge of the Grand Apostacy, and rested upon the Mountains of Piemont, Dauphine, and Languedocq, as the Ark once upon Mount Ararat; the Waldenses and Albigenses could never be quite rooted out by the Legions of Hell in Croisade; and when the great Tribulations of the modern Pharaoh had extinguished in appearance the other Churches of France, out of the Ashes of those of Languedocq there arose within a few Years last past, a powerful Testimony of Jesus, animated by immediate Inspiration...." (John Lacy, A Cry from the Desert (London, 1708), pp. v-vi.

This includes reminiscences of Camisard refugees in England.) This "inspiration" had startling results. Those so moved "struck themselves with the Hand, they fell on their Backs, they shut their Eyes, they heaved with the Breast, they remained a while in Trances, and coming out of them with Twitchings, they uttered all that came into their Mouths." (De Brueys, Histoire du fanatisme de notre temps (Paris, 1692), p. 137.) Children as well as adults were so affected, and illiterates of the "Dregs of Mankind" amazed their hearers by quoting Scripture texts at length. (De Brueys, Histoire du fanatisme de notre temps (Paris, 1692), p. 89.) John Vernett, who escaped from Bois-Chastel to England, recalled that when under this power of the Holy Spirit his mother spoke only French. This "surprized [him] exceedingly, because she never before attempted to speak a Word in that Language, nor has since to my Knowledge, and I am certain she could not do it."(John Lacy, A Cry from the Desert (London, 1708), p. 14) This testimony was given in London on January 14, 1706. His mother had first experienced this linguistic ability in 1693 and had been imprisoned because of her spiritual gifts since 1695. Similar phenomena occurred repeatedly, and often when the operation had ceased the inspired had no memory of what he had uttered. Another strange phenomenon which occurred quite frequently among the Camisards was the sudden ability of infants who could not yet speak to deliver discourses in perfect, fluent French. In 1701, for example, a child about fourteen months old "which had never of itself spoken a Word, nor could it go alone," in a loud, childish voice began exhorting "to the Works of Repentance." (John Lacy, A Cry from the Desert (London, 1708), p. 15) The Camisards also spoke sometimes in languages that were unknown: "Several persons of both Sexes," James Du Bois of Montpellier recalled, "I have heard in their Extasies pronounce certain words, which seem'd to the Standers-by, to be some Foreign Language." These utterances were sometimes accompanied by the gift of interpretation exercised, in Du Bois' experience, by the same person who had spoken in tongues. (John Lacy, A Cry from the Desert (London, 1708), p. 32) (The Charismatic Movement, 1975, Michael P. Hamilton, p 75)

Timeline Events

Background Events 1460-1550 – printing of the Bible in several languages over many years in German, French and English, etc; opens its passages to the common man; homes are afire with God’s word for the first time; took issue with the fallacies and debauchery of the day in the predominant religion

1517 – Martin Luther advocates reform in the Catholic Church, posts the 95 Theses

1510-1530 – Printing of the Bible douses Dark age stagnation; ignites religious Reformation throughout Europe and France. First time in history the word of God in Biblical writ opens public and private discourse in the towns, villages, streets, in homes and in the minds of hundreds of thousands throughout Europe and casts contrasting shades of light in the corners of the prevailing religion; hostility grows in the hearts of the governing ecclesiastic authorities. Harsh laws ensue against Protestantism.

1523 – Barbaric measures result in the first Martyrs of the Protestant movement in France; many are imprisoned, disenfranchised, or begin to flee into exile

1545 – First Calvinistic town founded at Meaux, France; about a million converts to Protestantism throughout France and bordering countries

1547-1553 – by this period, surveys revealed about 40,000 French Protestants in London; French Protestantism spreads to England with French and Dutch church established at Austin Friars (London)

1551 – Persecution of Protestants intensifies in France with Edict of Chateaubriant

1558 – Newly deigned Queen Elizabeth I of England is excommunicated from Catholicism—for accepting and harboring French Protestant refugees; Philip II, King of Spain and Pope Pius seek Elizabeth I’s death and envision plans to invade England by armada to re-enthrone Catholicism as the national religion

1560 – The word ‘Uguenot’ or “Huguenot” is first used about this time

1550-90 – French & Flemish austere laws send the first wave of emigrants to England

1562-1598 – Phillip II wages a brutal war against all Protestants causing waves of French Protestant refugees to flee into England—a Protestant refuge during this era

1565 – Norwich becomes a refuge of numerous French Protestants

1567-8 - More Protestant refugees from Netherlands and France build a church at Southampton and come to other Walloon places of settlement at London, Canterbury, Norwich, etc.

1572 -3 – A marked increase of French refugees due to revolts and massacres on the continent

1575 – Foundation of the French church at Canterbury

1581 – The first conference (Colloquy) of French churches in England

1598 – Edict of Nantes brought some measure of peace to French Protestants for a period

1604 – First synod of French and Dutch churches in England

1610-1629 – Peaceful era in France

1634- Under the King’s direction, Archbishop Laud of England wages war on Nonconformist churches including Huguenots

1635-1649 – England erupts in sporadic civil wars; the King commits genocide on his own people; thousands of Nonconformists—including some Huguenot families flee i.e. the city of Norwich due to Charles I’s warring campaigns against Nonconformists. This nightmare was repeated in various areas throughout the realm

1649-1660 – Charles I’s death and resultant Interregnum with no monarch brought a period of great tranquility to all Nonconformists in the realm. Nonconformity flourishes during the period

1660-1690 – Any prior advances in the establishment of peace won by Parliament for Nonconformists during the Civil War and Interregnum period throughout England is erased respectively by King Charles II and James II’s oppressive policies; still, Nonconformists (and Huguenots) held some degree of social maneuverability in England and Ireland

1662-1685 – 10 French congregations with churches were established in Ireland—at Dublin (4), Cork (2), Lisburn, Portarlington, Carlow, and Waterford (1 each); congregations—without churches were located in colonies at Dundalk, Clonmel, Innishannon, Kilkenny, and Wexford.

1685 – Revocation of the Edict of Nantes sends about 80,000 to Great Britain and Ireland

1687 – James II publishes Declaration of Indulgences giving greater freedoms to Huguenots

1689-1697 – Nine years war

1762 - the last known Huguenot martyr in France

1787 – Peace brought about by government-sponsored religious freedoms is at last established in France

Sources:

400 Years of Creativity In Soho: The Huguenots, How It All Began (SohoCreate 2014) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cpAd4epZ_mk

The Huguenot Society http://www.huguenotsociety.org.uk/history.html

https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/ches/vol5/pt2/pp180-183

Some Descendant Family Names; NAMES of the Foreign Refugees* who settled in Great Britain and Ireland before the reign of Louis XIV, (1643) of France; and their descendants:

http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~fianna/surname/hug1.html

444 Years: The Massacre of the Huguenot Christians in America http://www1.cbn.com/ChurchWatch/archive/2008/07/02/444-years-the-huguenot-christians-in-america

http://huguenot-manakin.org/manakin/Sims.php

R. A. Brock

Documents, Chiefly Unpublished relating to the Hugenot Emigration to Virginia and to the Settlement at Manakin Town, Published by the Virginia Historical Society in 1886, Richmond Virginia

To Part II: DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE HUGUENOT EMIGRATION TO VIRGINIA

To Part III: LISTE GENERALLE DE TOUS LES FRANCOIS PROTESTANTS REFUGIES ESTABLYS DANS LA PAROISSE DU ROY GUILLAUME, COMTE D'HENRICO EN VIRGINIA, Y COMPRIS LES FEMMES, ENFANS, VEUSES, ET ORPHELINS

To Part IV: REGISTER CONTAINING THE BAPTISMS MADE IN THE CHURCH OF THE FRENCH REFUGEES AT MANNIKIN-TOWN IN VIRGINIA and Notes

http://huguenot-manakin.org/manakin/brock1.php

The Huguenots By Samuel Smiles

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