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Glassmakers in the Baltic Provinces (Livonia, Estonia) and Ingria

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  • Johann Peter Heubach (deceased)
    marriage I: Saaga EAA.1257.2.1:97 marriage II: Saaga EAA.1257.2.1:97
  • Jürgen Albrecht Kiliast (aft.1709 - 1765)
    marriage: KB Sunzel burial: Saaga EAA.1257.2.1:123
  • Johann Friedrich* Östreich (aft.1727 - 1788)
    marriage: Saaga EAA.1265.1.62:149 burial: Saaga EAA.1257.2.1:174
  • Jobst Oestreich (c.1725 - d.)
    Seelenrevision Terrastfer (1782): Saaga EAA.1865.2.127/4:5 marriage: KB Lemburg possibly the father of Hans Östreich
  • Hans Hinrich Oestreich (b. - 1755)
    burial: Saaga EAA.1257.2.1:122 probably the grandfather of Hans Östreich

Towards the end of the Great Northern War, glass manufacturies ("Glashütte"), staffed by foreign glassmakers were established in Ingria.
From the 1740s onwards, other glass manufacturies were established by the Baltic nobility, first in Livonia and later in Estonia, frequently staffed by members of the same families of glassmakers (mostly German immigrants), who can be found among the workers at most of these manufacturies.

Many of these families are listed in the chapter "Glasmacher und Glashütten im Baltikum im 18 Jahrhundert" by Dirk-Gerd Erpenbeck in the book Die baltischen Länder und Europa in der Frühen Neuzeit. The majority of the relevant families (albeit not always with the correct dates) are also listed in "Verzeichnis sämtlicher Glasmacher-Familien in Est- u. Livland" by Robert Feldmann (a descendant of one of these families), published in Baltische Familiengeschichtliche Mitteilungen, 1935, nr 3, pages 40-42 (also listed here: Saaga EAA.5244.1.127:2).

The customs of these families somewhat differ from the established customs in the Baltic area, in terms of marriage age - in the Baltic area men usually married when they were between 26 and 30 years old, while women rarely married before they were 18 years of age (with the average age difference between spouses being 8-10 years). Within the glassmaking families, men tended to marry around the age of 20, with their wives as young as 15 (or the same age as their spouses).

The following is an incomplete list of these glass manufactories (where possible with an indication of the years they were active):


  • Sunzel (Suntaži parish, Latvia); 1739 - 19th century (?) - the church records have a gap between 1777 and 1796 - Seelenrevision 1811 (1795): folio 20 and folio 21
    • Glashütte Sunzel (aka "alte Hütte")
    • Glashütte Annaberg
  • Glashütte Jürgensburg (Zaube parish, Latvia); ca. 1742 - ca. 1749, 1760 - 1762 and ca. 1790 - ca. 1812
    • Glashütte Jürgensburg (active until 1799) - Seelenrevision 1811 (1795): folio 23 and folio 24
    • Glashütte Gustavsberg (Kliģenes - active between ca. 1795 and ca. 1812) - Seelenrevision 1811: folio 14, folio 15 and folio 16
  • Glashütte Kaltenbrunn ("Lemburg" / Mālpils parish, Latvia); 1750 - ca. 1758
  • Talkhof (Kursi parish, Estonia); ca. 1750/1755 - ca. 1785 (?)
  • Alt-Bewershof (Vecbebru , Koknese parish, Latvia); Seelenrevision 1811: folio 1, folio 2 and folio 3
  • Glashütte Laudohn (Ļaudonas parish, Latvia); 1772-1795 - parishoner list 1774, 1776/77, Seelenrevision 1782: page 3, pages 4/5, Seelenrevision 1795: page 34, page 35 and page 36
  • "Serben" / Dzērbene parish, Latvia:
    • Glashütte Alt-Drostenhof (Vecdrustu); ca. 1770 - 1785 - Seelenrevision 1782: folio 319, folio 320
    • Glashütte Nötkenshof (Nēķinamuiža); ca. 1770/1771
  • Glashütte Terrastfer (Tarakvere mõis, Torma parish, Estonia); 1779-1783 - Seelenrevision 1782: Saaga EAA.1865.2.127/4:3, Saaga EAA.1865.2.127/4:4 and Saaga EAA.1865.2.127/4:5
  • Fennern (Vändra parish, Estonia); after 1816 - Seelenrevision 1826: Saaga EAA.1865.3.295/5:10, Saaga EAA.1865.3.295/5:11 and Saaga EAA.1865.3.295/5:12
  • Glasfabriken (glass factories) Catharina & Lisette, aka Spiegelfabrik (mirror factory) Catharina-Lisette (on the estate "Woiseck"/Võisiku in Kolga-Jaani parish, Estonia); from 1795 - list of workers (1796): Saaga EAA.1285.1.124:1
  • Paixt (Taali, Tori parish, Estonia); ca. 1818/1819



  • Glashütte Gorodinka (Ingria, south of Narva); ca. 1763 - 1770/1771
  • Glashütte Karakolja (Краколье/Krakolje, Ingria), ca. 1794 - ca. 1820
  • Glashütte Koskolowa
  • Glashütte Ostrov (Ingria - now Ust-Luga), ca. 1793
  • Glashütte Pulkowa
  • Glashütte Sala