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Grand Dukes of Lithuania

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  • Traidenis, Grand Duke of Lithuania (c.1234 - c.1282)
    Traidenis (Polish: Trojden, Belarusian: Трайдзень) (died 1282) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1270 (or 1269) till 1282. He is the second most prominent, after Mindaugas, Grand Duke of Lithuania i...
  • Mindaugas, King of Lithuania (1200 - 1263)
    wikipedia - Mindaugas (ca. 1203 – fall 1263) was the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania and the only King of Lithuania . Little is known of his origins, early life, or rise to power; he is mentioned i...
  • Treniota Grand Duke of Samogitia (c.1220 - 1265)
    Note: It is unclear if Treniota was the son of Vykintas or Erdvilas. Treniota (Belarusian: Транята; Troniata; ca. 1210–1264) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1263–1264). Treniota was the nephew of ...
  • Vaišelga Vaišvilkas Laurutio Mindaugaitis, Grand Duke of Lithuania (1223 - 1268)
    Note: The History of Lithuania Before 1795 by Zigmantas Kiaupa, states Vaišvilkas was the son of Mindaugas' unnamed first wife, while MedLands lists him as the son of his second wife, Morta. Vaišelga...
  • Shvarn "the Lightning" Joan Rurikid (c.1230 - c.1269)
    Medlands Švarnas (krikšto vardas Jonas, 1230 m. – 1270 m. palaidotas Chelme) – Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis (1267–1269), Galicijos kunigaikštis, Chelmo (1264–1269) kunigaikštis. [taisyti] Biografija...

The Grand Dukes of Lithuania, c1200 - 1569

From King Mindaugas to Sigismund III.

The state of Lithuania formed in 1230s, when threatened by the Livonian Order in the north and the Teutonic Knights in the west, Baltic tribes united under Mindaugas leadership. He became the only crowned king of Lithuania. His state became known as Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

After Grand Duke Jogaila became also king of Poland in 1386, the two states became closer connected and since 1440 both were ruled by a common ruler. In 1569 Union of Lublin was signed and a new entity—the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—emerged.

Early Grand Dukes (1236–1291)

Gediminid Dynasty (1291–1440)

Jagiellon Dynasty (1440–1572)

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)

The act of personal union with Poland was signed as early as 1385, however, continuous line of common rulers of the two countries started only with Casimir IV (even then Polish and Lithuanians twice selected different rulers following earlier common monarch's death, but the Lithuanian one always eventually assumed Polish throne). The monarchs retained separate titles for both parts of the state, and their numbering was kept separately. The Jagiellon dynasty was a direct continuation of the Gediminid dynasty.