Historically Significant Composers of Classical Music [born before 1850].
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photo: Johann Sebastian Bach
Classical music is the art music produced in, or rooted in, the traditions of Western liturgical and secular music, encompassing a broad period from roughly the 11th century to present times. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common practice period.
European music is largely distinguished from many other non-European and popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 16th century. Western staff notation is used by composers to prescribe to the performer the pitch, speed, meter, individual rhythms and exact execution of a piece of music. This leaves less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, that are frequently heard in non-European art music and popular music.
The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to "canonize" the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836.
Links to other internet sites: *Web Gallery of Art, Classical Music, Composers (and music); *All Art, composers; *Classical music composers at classical net; *Classical composers at Youtube; *Komponister at wikipedia; *Norwegian classical music composers; *Classical music at wikipedia; *List of classical and art music traditions at wikipedia; *National anthems, list; *Classical music composerlist at Naxos; *Gutenberg, recorded music (MP3 Audio)
Ancient music / "The antique music"
The music of ancient Greece was almost universally present in society, from marriages and funerals to religious ceremonies, theatre, folk music and the ballad-like reciting of epic poetry. It thus played an integral role in the lives of ancient Greeks. There are significant fragments of actual Greek musical notation as well as many literary references to ancient Greek music, such that some things can be known—or reasonably surmised—about what the music sounded like, the general role of music in society, the economics of music, the importance of a professional caste of musicians, etc. Even archaeological remains reveal an abundance of depictions on ceramics, for example, of music being performed. The word music comes from the Muses, the daughters of Zeus and patron goddesses of creative and intellectual endeavours. *"First Delphic Hymn to Apollo" - Ancient Greek Music on Lyre. c.138 BCE. * "Recreation of Ancient Greek Music".
Less is known about Ancient Roman music than is known about the music of ancient Greece. There is a number of at least partially extant sources on the music of the Greeks. For example, much is known about the theories of Pythagoras and Aristoxenus (some of it from Greek sources and some through the writings of later Roman authors), and there exist about 40 deciphered examples of Greek musical notation. Very little survives about the music of the Romans, however. There are various reasons for this, one of which is that early fathers of the Christian church were aghast at the music of theatre, festivals, and pagan religion and suppressed it once Christianity became the official religion of the Roman empire.
The Romans are not said to have been particularly creative or original when it came to music. They did not attach any spiritual ethos to music, as did the Greeks. Yet, if the Romans admired Greek music as much as they admired everything else about Greek culture, it is safe to say that Roman music was mostly monophonic (that is, single melodies with no harmony) and that the melodies were based on an elaborate system of scales (called 'modes'). The rhythm of vocal music may have followed the natural metre of the lyrics.
There were also other, non-Greek, influences on Roman culture – from the Etruscans, for example, and, with imperial expansion, from the Middle Eastern and African sections of the empire. Thus there were, no doubt, elements of Roman music that were native Latin as well as non-European; the exact nature of these elements is unclear. An attempt to recreate Roman music reconstructing the instruments has been done recently in Italy by Walter Maioli and his group Synaulia. * "Ancient Visions", composition for replica 3000 year-old-lyre (by M. Levy).
In a culture as full of religious rituals as ancient Egypt, music tends to be a significant part of every day life. With countless wall murals showing musicians playing while dancers danced and others stood off and watched. Instruments have been unearthed as well. But, despite knowing how they played, the ancient Egyptian music itself -- the notes, the composition -- is wholly unknown to us. * "Hymn for the Sunrise" musical tribute to ancient Egypt.
Early medieval music (before 1150)
Medieval music was both sacred and secular. During the earlier medieval period, the liturgical genre, predominantly Gregorian chant, was monophonic. The Jewish Synagogue tradition of singing psalms was a strong influence on Christian chanting. Chant developed separately in several European centres. Although the most important were Rome, Hispania, Gaul, Milan, and Ireland, there were others as well. These chants were all developed to support the regional liturgies used when celebrating the Mass there.
Much of the music from the early medieval period is anonymous. Some of the names may have been poets and lyric writers, and the tunes for which they wrote words may have been composed by others. Attribution of monophonic music of the medieval period is not always reliable.
- Columbanus of Sint-Truiden
(c.780-815) Composer and Abbot of Sint-Truiden, Belgium near the residence of Charlemagne in Aachen, Germany. "Planctus de Obitu Karoli (814 AD)" ("Lament [on the Death] of Charlemagne")
- Notker the Stammerer (c. 840 – 912) Musician, author, poet, and Benedictine monk at the Abbey of Saint Gall in modern Switzerland.
- Tutilo of Saint Gall (ca. 850 – ca. 915) Medieval monk and composer.
- Hucbald (Hucbaldus, Hubaldus) (c. 850 – 930) Frankish music theorist, composer, teacher, writer, hagiographer, and Benedictine monk. "Sonata One - Tokata".
- Saint Odo of Cluny (c. 878 – 942)
- Saint Godric of Finchale (c. 1065 – 1170)
- Hildegard von Bingen (1098 – 1179) German writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, Benedictine abbess, visionary, and polymath. "O frondens virga"; "Caritas abundat in omnia"; "Ave generosa"
- Guillaume IX, the first Troubadour (1071-1126) IX Duke of Aquitaine and VII Count of Poitou. Troubadour and composer of lyric poetry.
High medieval music (1150 – 1300)
The flowering of the Notre Dame school of polyphony from around 1150 to 1250 corresponded to the equally impressive achievements in Gothic architecture. This was the period in which rhythmic notation first appeared in western music, mainly a context-based method of rhythmic notation known as the rhythmic modes.
The motet, one of the most important musical forms of the high Middle Ages and Renaissance, developed initially during the Notre Dame period out of the clausula, especially the form using multiple voices.
The music of the troubadours and trouvères was a vernacular tradition of monophonic secular song, probably accompanied by instruments, sung by professional, occasionally itinerant, musicians who were as skilled as poets as they were singers and instrumentalists.
- Bernart de Ventadorn (c. 1135 – c. 1195) Prominent troubadour of the classical age. "Complete works & music".
- Léonin (fl. 1150s – c. 1210) First known significant composer of polyphonic organum. "Locus iste - Organum a due voci".
- Peirol (ca. 1160 – 1220s) Auvergnat troubadour who wrote mostly cansos of courtly love. "M'entensio".
- Pérotin (fl. c. 1150) European composer, believed to be French. "Viderunt Omnes".
- Walther von der Vogelweide (c. 1170 – c. 1230) Poet and minnesinger (a singer of love songs). "Unter der Linden auf der Heide".
- Gautier de Coincy (1177–1236) French abbot, poet and musical arranger. "Roÿne celeste"; "Chançonetes".
- Guilhem Ademar (1190 – 1217) troubadour from the Gévaudan.
- Adam de la Halle (1237?-1288) French-born trouvère, poet and musician. "Qui a droit veut amours servir"; "Se li maus c'amours envoie"
- Alfonso X 'el Sabio' ('The Wise'), King of Castile and León (1221-1284) Enthusiastic patron of learning and the arts. Commissioned and compiled the Cantigas de Santa Maria, some of which he composed. The following are attributed to him, “Bailemos nós ja todas tres”; “Quantas sabedes amar”; “Todos los santos”
Late medieval music (1300 – 1400)
France: Ars nova. The beginning of the Ars nova is one of the few clean chronological divisions in medieval music, since it corresponds to the publication of the Roman de Fauvel, a huge compilation of poetry and music, in 1310 and 1314. The Roman de Fauvel is a satire on abuses in the medieval church, and is filled with medieval motets, lais, rondeaux and other new secular forms. While most of the music is anonymous, it contains several pieces by Philippe de Vitry, one of the first composers of the isorhythmic motet, a development which distinguishes the fourteenth century. The isorhythmic motet was perfected by Guillaume de Machaut, the finest composer of the time.
Italy: Trecento. Most of the music of Ars nova was French in origin; however, the term is often loosely applied to all of the music of the fourteenth century, especially to include the secular music in Italy. There this period was often referred to as Trecento. Italian music has always, it seems, been known for its lyrical or melodic character, and this goes back to the 14th century in many respects. Italian secular music of this time (what little surviving liturgical music there is, is similar to the French except for somewhat different notation) featured what has been called the cantalina style, with a florid top voice supported by two (or even one; a fair amount of Italian Trecento music is for only two voices) that are more regular and slower moving. This type of texture remained a feature of Italian music in the popular 15th and 16th century secular genres as well, and was an important influence on the eventual development of the trio texture that revolutionized music in the 17th.
Germany: The Geisslerlieder were the songs of wandering bands of flagellants, who sought to appease the wrath of an angry God by penitential music accompanied by mortification of their bodies. There were two separate periods of activity of Geisslerlied: one around the middle of the thirteenth century, from which, unfortunately, no music survives (although numerous lyrics do); and another from 1349, for which both words and music survive intact due to the attention of a single priest who wrote about the movement and recorded its music. This second period corresponds to the spread of the Black Death in Europe, and documents one of the most terrible events in European history. Both periods of Geisslerlied activity were mainly in Germany.
- Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377) Medieval French poet and composer. "Je vivroie liement/Liement me deport"; "Riches d'amour et mandians d'amie"; "Douce Dame Jolie"; "Doulz Viaire"
- Oswald von Wolkenstein (1376 – 1445 in Meran) German poet, composer and diplomat. "Es fügt sich" (2/2); "Nu alrest lebe ich mir werde".
Renaissance music (1400 – 1600)
Renaissance music is music written in Europe during the Renaissance. Consensus among music historians – with notable dissent – has been to start the era around 1400, with the end of the medieval era, and close it around 1600, with the rise of the Baroque period, therefore commencing the musical Renaissance about a hundred years after the beginning of the Renaissance as understood in other disciplines. As in the other arts, the music of the period was significantly influenced by the developments which define the Early Modern period: the rise of humanistic thought; the recovery of the literary and artistic heritage of ancient Greece and Rome; increased innovation and discovery; the growth of commercial enterprise; the rise of a bourgeois class; and the Protestant Reformation. From this changing society emerged a common, unifying musical language, in particular the polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish school.
- Guillaume Dufay (1397 – 1474) Franco-Flemish composer of the early Renaissance and the most famous and influential composer in Europe in the mid-15th century. Blue Heron -- "Ecclesie Militantis"; "Rite Majorem"; "Adieu Ces Bons Vins de Lannoys".
- Johannes Ockeghem (1410 – 1497) The most famous composer of the Franco-Flemish School in the last half of the 15th century. "Deo gratias"; "Missa prolationum", per 4 voc; "Ma maitresse".
- Thomas Tallis (1505 – 1585) English composer. "Thomas Tallis-1"; "40 part motet- Spem in Alium"; "Te Deum".
- Giovanni Pierluigi Palestrina (1525 – 1594) Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition. "Magnificat IV toni"; "Gloria"; "Kyrie: Missa Papae Marcelli".
- Orlande de Lassus (c. 1530 – 1594) Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance. Considered to be the chief representative of the mature polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish school. "Psalmi Davidis Poenitentiales I"; "Salmo Penitenziale N.6 - De Profundis"; "Das große Nasenlied".
- Arnoldus de Fine (1530-1586) Belgian born Danish composer.
- William Byrd (1543-1623) Known as "the father of English music": he was the last great English composer of Catholic church music, as well as the first of the Elizabethan "golden" age of secular music. Music: "Fantasia #2"; "O mistress mine"; "The Barley Break"
- Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548 – 1611) The most famous composer of the 16th century in Spain, and one of the most important composers of the Counter-Reformation. Amicus meus; "Caligaverunt oculi mei"; "Unus ex discipulis meis".
- Giovanni Gabrieli (1556 – 1612) Italian composer and organist. "Canzon Noni Toni a 12"; "Sacra Symphonia" Sonata Pian'e Forte; "O Magnum Mysterium".
- Claudio Monteverdi (May 14, 1567 – Nov. 29, 1643) Italian composer, gambist, and singer. His revolutionary works marked the transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period. "L'Orfeo - Savall"; "Vespro Della Beata Vergine"; "Altri canti d'amor, tenero arciero" (Madrigal from Book VIII).
- Agincourt carol, 1415 and les mélées / the battles (the music)
Baroque music (1600 – 1760)
- Gregorio Allegri (1582 – Feb. 17, 1652) Miserere mei, Deus, Psalm 51, Miserere Mei Deus (Allegri) - King's College Choir, Cambridge
- Heinrich Schutz (Oct. 8, 1585 – Nov. 6, 1672) Magnificat, MATTHÄUSPASSION, JOHANNESPASSION 1665 - Conclusion, Psalmen Davids, Motet "Ist nicht Ephraim mein teurer Sohn"
- Giacomo Carissimi (1605 – Jan. 12, 1674) [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0NrD_jrZvkI&feature=related Plorate, fillii Israel, messa "Sciolto havean dall' alte sponde": Kyrie, Motets: Surgamus, eamus, properemus, O Dulcissimum Mariae Nomen.
- Jean Baptiste Lully (Nov. 28, 1632 – Mar. 22, 1687) Te Deum (1), Marche pour la Cérémonie des Turcs, Chaconne des Scaramouches, Premier Intermède.
- Marc Antoine Charpentier (1643 – Feb. 24, 1704) Te Deum - Prelude, Magnificat for 3 Voices, Marche de Triomphe H.547, Medée (3).
- Arcangelo Corelli (Feb. 17, 1653 – Jan. 8, 1713); Concerto Grosso op. VI, n.4 (parte 1), Sonata No.1, Op.5 in D Major (1/4), Sonata IX op.5 Preludio for violin and cello, Sonata da Chiesa in A, op.3 no.12.
- Johann Pachelbel (Aug. 1653 – 1706) Pachelbel - Canon In D Major
- Henry Purcel (Sep. 10, 1659 – Nov. 21, 1695) Trumpet voluntary, Chaconne in G minor, cold song
- Francois Couperin (Nov. 10, 1668 – Sep. 11, 1733) Les Lis naissans (for harpsichord), La Muse victorieuse - Margaret Fabrizio harpsichord, "Le Tic Toc Choc" ou "Les Maillotins" - Ralf Leenen, 'Les Baricades Misterieuses' - Angela Hewitt, piano.
- Tomaso Albinoni (1671 – 1751) Adagio in G Minor, Oboe concerto D minor Movement 1
- Antonio Vivaldi (Mar. 4, 1678 – Jul. 28, 1741) The Four Seasons: Automn, The Four Seasons: Winter, The Four Seasons: Spring, The Four Seasons: Summer.
- Georg Philipp Telemann (Mar. 14, 1681 – Jun. 25, 1767) Siciliana, Menuet, Trompettes, Magnificat.
- Jean Philippe Rameau (Sep. 25, 1683 – Sep. 12, 1764) Pieces de clavecin les Cyclopes, Tambourin, Chaconne, Castor et Pollux - Ouverture
- Johann Sebastian Bach (Mar. 31, 1685 – Jul. 28, 1750) Toccata and Fugue in D minor, organ, Double Violin Concerto in D Minor, 1st mvt. BWV 1043, Brandenburg Concerto #3, First Movement, Allegro
- Domenico Scarlatti (Oct. 26, 1685 – Jul. 23, 1757) Sonata in G major, K13, Horowitz plays Sonata in A Flat Major K127, Sonata in F Minor K466 and Sonata in FMinor K184.
- George Frideric Handel (Feb. 23, 1685 – Apr. 14, 1759) Messiah "Hallelujah, Water Music, The Arrival of the Queen of Sheba, Finale (Alcina)
- [Thomas Arne] (1710 - 1778), The Winter's Amusement / The Lover's Recantation / Emma Kirkby.
- Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (Mar. 8, 1714 – Dec. 14, 1788) Et Misericordia from CPE Bach's Magnificat, Sonata for Harpsichord in A major, Sonatina n1, Concerto in D Minor, Part 1.
- Christoph Willibald Gluck (Jul. 2, 1714 – Nov. 15, 1787) Luciano Pavarotti - Orfeo ed Euridice - "Che Farò Senza Euridice", Ouvertüre - Orpheus and Eurydike, from Orphee et Eurydice, Finale (Orpheus and Eurydike), The Dance of the Blessed Spirits; Ion Bogdan Stefanescu flute.
Golden Age of Classical music (1750 – 1830)
- Franz Joseph Haydn (Mar. 31, 1732 – may 31, 1809) Symphony No. 94 in G major ("Surprise") - Movement 2, "Military" Symphony No. 100 in G major - Movement 2, Toy Symphony, Symphony No.101 ("Clock") Movement 2.
- Joaquim Jose Emerico Lobo de Mesquita (1746 – 1805) Salve Regina, Bênçao das Cinzas e Missa, Missa em Mí Bemol Maior - Qui sedes
- Luigi Boccherini (Feb. 19, 1743 – May 28, 1805) Minuet - String Quintet, Sonata for violoncello & b.c. in A major, Cello Concerto No.5 in D major, Cello Concerto No.4 in C major.
- John Stafford Smith (March 30, 1750 – Sep. 21, 1836) Star Spangled Banner
- Muzio Clementi (1752 – 1832) Sonatina Op.36 No.2 in G Major, Sonatina in Re+ Op. 37 N. 2 I Allegro, Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli plays Muzio Clementi Sonata in B flat Op. 12 No. 1, Sonata Op. 50 n. 3 in G minor "Didone abbandonata". Introduzione. Allegro.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Jan. 27, 1756 – Dec. 5, 1791) Piano Concerto No. 21 - Andante, Requiem, Turkish March, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, Violin Concerto in G KV 216 - Adagio, Sinfonia n° 40 K550,
- Luigi Cherubini, (Sep. 8, 1760 – Mar. 15, 1842); Missa Solemnis, Requiem di Cherubini: 07 - Agnus Dei, Chant sur la mort de Joseph Haydn (1/2), Ave Maria.
- Ludwig van Beethoven (Dec. 16, 1770 – Mar. 26, 1827) 10,000 singing Beethoven - Ode an die Freude / Ode to Joy, Ivo Pogorelich plays Beethoven's "Fur elis, Molto vivace, Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, 6th symphony - "Pastora, 5th symphony, 9th symphony Molto vivace.
- John Field (Jul.26, 1782 – Jan. 23, 1837) Nocturne No 10 in e minor.(Pedroni, piano), Nocturne No 5 (Alvaro Siviero), Nocturne Nr.1 Es-Dur (Benjamin Frith, Nocturne No12 in G major
- Niccolò Paganini (Oct. 27,1782 – May 27, 1840) Paganini's Caprices 01, 05 and 24 - Ithzak Perlman.
- Daniel Francois Esprit Auber (Jan. 29, 1782 – May 12, 1871) Hidden treasures - Manon Lescaut (1856) - "Errant depuis hier", "Manon": Beginning of Act 2, "Manon Lescaut" - Finale (part 2 of 3), Gustave III - First ballet.
- Georges Bizet (Oct. 25, 1791 – Jun. 3, 1864) The magic of Bizet's Carmen. Video clips from the Movie "Carmen" by Vicente Aranda, Carmen - Habanera (Anna Caterina Antonacci), Carmen - March of Toreadors and Chorus: Les voici! (Act IV.), Toreador Song Carmen (Dmitri Hvorostovsky), Alessandra Ferri dancing Carmen,
- Giacomo Meyerbeer (Sep. 5, 1791 – May 2, 1864) Robert le Diable - "Idole de ma vie" (Joan Sutherland), Robert le Diable - Finale, Robert le Diable - "Robert, toi que j'aime" (June Anderson), Gli amori di Teolinda, Aria - "Diceva un giorno" (Julia Varady)
- Gioacchino Rossini (Feb. 29, 1792 – Nov. 13, 1868) William Tell Overture Finale, The Barber Of Seville - Overture, La gazza ladra (The Thieving Magpie) Overture
- Gaetano Donizetti (Nov. 29, 1797 – Apr. 8, 1848) L'elisir d'amore - "Tra-la-la-la" (Peter Dvorsky, Lucia Popp & Bernd Weikl), Don Pasquale - So anch'io la virtù magica (Diana Damrau), La fille du régiment - Ah mes amis! (Luciano Pavarotti), Lucia di Lammermoor - Mad Scene (Sumi Jo).
- Vincenzo Bellini (Nov. 3, 1801 – Sep. 23, 1835) Maria Callas Casta Diva (Norma), Luciano Pavarotti - Bellini - Vaga Luna, Symphony from "Norma", "Oh quante volte" (Natalie Dessay)
Romantic music (1815 – 1910)
- Franz Schubert (Jan. 31, 1797 – Nov. 19, 1828) Austrian prolific composer, having written some 600 Lieder, nine symphonies (including the famous "Unfinished Symphony"), liturgical music, operas, some incidental music, and a large body of chamber and solo piano music. Ave Maria - Luciano Pavarotti
- Hector Berlioz (Dec, 11, 1803 – Mar. 8, 1869); Hungarian March - Faust, Harold in Italy: Serenade, Roman Carnival Overture, Fantastique Symph. 4th movement.
- Mikhail Glinka (Jun. 1, 1804 – Feb. 15, 1857) Russlan and Ludmilla (Overture), Valse-fantasie (V. Gryaznov), A Life for the Tsar, "Overture", Viola Sonata em Ré Menor, I - Allegro Moderato
- Johann Strauss I, the Father (Mar. 11, 1804 – Sep. 25, 1849) Almacks Quadrille, Op. 243, March of the Royal Horse Guards, Radecki Marsch, Kaiser Walzer, op.437.
- Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (Feb. 3, 1809 – Nov. 4, 1847) A Midsummer Night's Dream - Wedding March, The Hebrides (Fingal's Cave) - Overture, A Midsummer's Night Dream - Scherzo & Song - "You spotted snakes", Itzhak Perlman Mendelssohn Violin Concerto andante, from the Italian Symphony.
- Robert Schumann (Jun. 8, 1810– Jul. 29, 1856) "Träumerei" Op. 15, Dichterliebe, Op. 48 Pt 1-4 (Fischer-Dieskau), Fantasiestücke, Op. 12, 'Arabesque' (Horowitz).
- Frédéric Chopin (Feb. 22, 1810 – Oct. 17, 1849) Ballade in G Minor (Horowitz), Revolution Etude Op.10 No.12 (Encore, Kissin), Nocturne No. 2 (Op. 9) (Tzvi Erez), Piano Concerto No. 1 in E minor, Op. 11, Military Polonaise, Opus 40 #1 (Tzvi Erez),
- Franz Liszt (Oct. 22, 1811 – Jul. 31, 1886); Hungarian Rhapsody No.2 in C- Sharp Minor, Liebestraum, Les Préludes (1/2), Les Préludes (2/2), Three Concert Etudes S.144 No.3 "Un Sospiro" (Hamelin).
- Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – Feb. 13, 1883) Tristan und Isolde - Prelude, Die Walküre: "The Ride of the Valkyries" Act III (Boulez), Flying Dutchman - Overture, Faust Overture, Parsifal Act I Prelude_1.
- Giuseppe Verdi (Oct. 9, 1813 – Jan. 27, 1901) Requiem, Nabucco - Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves from Akt III; Libiamo - Brindisi from Traviata - (Joan Sutherland and Pavarotti), Celeste Aida (Pavarotti), Rigoletto - Questa o quella (Pavarotti).
- Charles Gounod (Jun. 17, 1818 – Oct. 17, 1893) Messe St. Cecilia, Sanctus, Ave Maria, FAUST - Ballets, "Je veux vivre" in Romeo and Juliet (Anna Netrebko).
- Jacques Offenbach (Jun. 20, 1819 – Oct. 5, 1880) La Belle Helene - La Vita è Bella - Barcarolle, Orpheus in the Underworld Overture, "Orphée aux Enfers" Galop Infernal (Can can), "La belle Hélène" Overture.
- César Franck (Dec. 10, 1822 – Nov. 8, 1890) Prelude Fugue et Variation Op 18; Renee Fleming sings "Panis Angelicus"; Panis angelicus by Luciano Pavarotti
- Bedrich Smetana (Mar. 2, 1824 – May 12, 1884) Má Vlast Moldau (Vltava), String Quartet No.1 "Z mého života" 1(from "My Life") (Amadeus Quartet) , The Bartered Bride Overture (Fritz Reiner, Chicago Symph Orch), Danza de los Comediantes, The Bartered Bride.
- Anton Bruckner (Sep. 4, 1824 – Oct. 11, 1896) Symphony No 8 C minor Mvt4 1 Finale (Celibidache, Symphony No 4 E flat major Romantic Mvt3 (Celibidache), Symphony Nr 9 D minor Mvt1 1 (Celibidache), Symphony No 6 A major Mvt 1 2 (Celibidache).
- Johann Strauss Jr., the Son (Oct. 25, 1825 – Jun. 3, 1899) The Blue Danube Waltz, Vienna Waltz, Tales from the Vienna woods (Walzer, op.325), "Die Fledermaus".
- Josef Strauss (Aug. 20, 1827 – Jul. 22, 1870) Sport-Polka; Polka schnell; op. 170, "Delirien Walz", Spharenklange Walzer, Die Libelle op. 204 · Ballett.
- Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – Apr. 3, 1897) Hungarian Dance No. 5, German Requiem, Piano Concerto No.1 (Arthur Rubinstein), Hungarian Dance No.1.
- Alexander Borodin (Nov. 12, 1833 – Dec. 27, 1887) Prince Igor - Polovtsian Dances, String Quartet No 2 D major 1st and intro of 2nd Mov, Symphony No. 2. 1st Mvt., Borodin Nocturne.
- Peter Benoit (Aug. 17, 1834- Mar. 8, 1901) "Panis Angelicus" (Ann de Renais), "Melancholie andante" (Gaby Van Riet), "Fantastische jacht" (Luc De Vos)
- Camille Saint Saëns (1835 – 1921) Introduction & Rondo Capriccioso (Perlman), Danse Macabre, Organ Symphony, Finale!!!, Bacchanale (Samson y Dalila).
- Eduard Strauss (Mar. 15, 1835 – Dec. 28, 1916) Telephone. Polka, Ohne Aufenthalt, Polka schnell, Greetings Waltz, on English Airs, Feuerfest (polka francaise op.269).
- Léo Delibes (Feb. 21, 1836 – Jan. 16, 1891) Coppelia Ballet, Waltz, Lakme - The Flower Duet, Pizzicati from Sylvia, Gabrilowitsch plays Delibes Passepied from Le Roi s'Amuse.
- Modest Mussorgsky (Mar. 9, 1839 – Mar. 16, 1881) Night On Bald Mountain, Pictures at an Exibition, The Great Gate of Kiev, Boris Godunov - Coronation Scene
- Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (May. 7, 1840 – Nov. 6, 1893): Swan Lake, Waltz of the Flowers from The Nutcracker, Piano Concierto nº1 - Daniel Barenboim Zubin Metha, Swan Lake - American Ballet Theatre, 2005: 0:00 Op. 20, Act II No. 13, Danse de petit cygnes; 1:55 Op. 20, Act II No. 13, Danse de cygnes; 3:20 Op. 20, Act II No. 14, Scene; 5:05 Op. 20, Act IV No. 29, Scene finale.
- Antonin Dvořák (Sep. 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904); Slavonic dance No. 2 in E minor op. 72. Violin: Itzhak Perlman, Cello: Yo-Yo Ma, Conductor: Seiji Ozawa, "The New World" Symphony No. 9 (1/4) - I. Adagio - Allegro molto; Berlin Phil., Abbado, Symphony No.9 (2/4) - II. Largo, Symphony No.9 (3/4) - III. Scherzo. Molto vivace, Symphony No.9 (4/4) - IV. Allegro con fuoco
- Edvard Grieg (Jun. 15, 1843 – Sep. 4, 1907) Solveis sang, 'Peer Gynt' Suite No. 1, Op. 46 - 'Morning', In the Hall of the Mountain King from "Peer Gynt", Grieg Piano Concerto, 1st Movement (Pawel Mazurkiewicz).
- Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Никола́й Андре́евич Ри́мский-Ко́рсаков (Mar. 18, 1844 – Jun. 21, 1908); Capriccio Espagnol Op 34 - Berliner Phil, Scheherazade (1/5), The Flight of the Bumble Bee.
- Gabriel Fauré (May 12, 1845 – Nov. 4, 1924) Pavane; Menna Cazel Davies sings Au bord de l'eau (At the water's edge); Pie Jesu (from the Requiem) Winchester Cathedral Choir; Clair De Lune Veronique Gens.
Modern music [by great composers born between 1850 – 1900]
- Leoš Janáček (Jul. 3, 1854 – Aug. 12, 1928) Czech composer, musical theorist, folklorist, publicist and teacher. Was inspired by Moravian and other Slavic folk music to create an original, modern musical style.
- Edward Elgar (Jun. 1857 – Jan. 22, 1934) English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire. Elgar - Cello Concerto - Jacqueline Du Pre (Cello); The Best of Elgar; Elgar: Pomp and Circumstance - BBC Proms 2014
- Ruggero Leoncavallo (1857 – 1919)
- Giacomo Puccini (Dec 22, 1858 – Nov 29, 1924) Italian composer whose operas are among the important operas played as standards. Puccini has been called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi". Puccini - Madama Butterfly; Best Tosca Ever - Kabaivanska Domingo Milnes - Full Movie; Puccini - La bohème - Severini
- Isaac Albéniz (May 29, 1860 – May 18, 1909) Spanish Catalan pianist and composer best known for his piano works based on folk music idioms (many of which have been transcribed by others for guitar). Granada (from "Suite Española") - Isaac Albeniz; Asturias - Isaac Albeniz; Albeniz Piano Concerto No.1; Albeniz - Tango.
- Gustav Mahler (Jul. 7, 1860 – May 18, 1911) Bohemian-born Austrian composer and conductor, Gustav Mahler, was best known during his lifetime as one of the leading orchestral and operatic conductors of his day. He has, since the mid-20th century, been acclaimed as among the most important of the late-Romantic/early-Modernist composers. Gustav Mahler - Adagietto from Symphony no. 5; Gustav Mahler - Symphony No. 1 "Titan" | Vienna Philharmonic, Leonard Bernstein; Gustav Mahler - Symphony No.9 in D-major - IV, Adagio.; Mahler: Symphony No. 6 "Tragic" / Lorin Maazel : Royal Concertgebouw
- Claude Debussy (Aug. 22, 1862 – Mar. 25, 1918) French composer; he was one of the most prominent figures working within the field of impressionist music. Prélude à l'Après-midi d'un faune; Debussy: Nocturne (1892); [
- Antonio Mascagni (Dec. 7, 1863 – Aug. 2, 1945) Italian composer most noted for his operas. His 1890 masterpiece Cavalleria rusticana caused one of the greatest sensations in opera history and single-handedly ushered in the Verismo movement in Italian dramatic music. Cavalleria Rusticana (intermezzo) in The Godfather movie; Elīna Garanča - Ave Maria (Mascagni)
- [Alberto Nepomuceno (Jul. 6, 1864 – Oct. 16, 1920) Brazilian composer and conductor.
- Richard Strauss (June 11, 1864 – Sep 8, 1949) German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known particularly for his operas, his Lieder and his tone poems and orchestral works. Richard Strauss: "Also sprach Zarathustra" op.30; Richard Strauss: Salome (magyar felirattal); The Best of Strauss; “Aus Italien”, fantasia sinfonica op. 16
- August De Boeck (May 9, 1865 – Oct. 9, 1937)
- Jean Sibelius (Dec. 8, 1865 – Sep. 20, 1957) Finnish composer of the later Romantic period whose music played an important role in the formation of the Finnish national identity.
- Ferruccio Busoni (Apr. 1, 1866 – Jul. 27, 1924) Italian composer, pianist, conductor, editor, writer, and piano teacher.
- Louis Victor Jules Vierne (Oct. 8, 1870 – Jun. 2, 1937) French organist and composer.
- Alexander Zemlinsky (Oct. 14, 1871 – Mar. 15, 1942) Austrian composer, conductor, and teacher.
- Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Jan. 6, 1872 – Apr. 27, 1915)
- Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninov (Apr. 1, 1873 – Mar. 28, 1943) Russian composer, pianist, and conductor.
- Arnold Schoenberg (Sep. 13, 1874 – Jul. 13, 1951)
- Fritz Kreisler (Feb. 2, 1875 – Jan. 29, 1962) Fritz Kreisler plays Liebesfreud by him, Caprice Viennois, Kreisler plays Hungarian Rondo by Haydn, Kreisler Plays Smetana Bohemian Fantasie
- Joseph Maurice Ravel (Mar. 7, 1875 – Dec. 28, 1937)
- Manuel de Falla y Matheu (Nov 23, 1876 – Nov 14, 1946) Spanish composer of classical music. MANUEL DE FALLA.- 7 canciones populares Españolas-. Berganza--Yepes; Ricardo Requejo - Manuel De Falla: The Complete works for Piano solo
- Ottorino Respighi (1879 – 1936)
- Béla Bartók (Mar. 25, 1881 – Sep. 26, 1945) Béla Viktor János Bartók was a Hungarian composer and pianist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century; he and Liszt are regarded as Hungary's greatest composers (Gillies 2001). Through his collection and analytical study of folk music, he was one of the founders of comparative musicology, which later became ethnomusicology.
- Zoltan Kodaly (Dec 16, 1882 – Mar 6, 1967) Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist, pedagogue, linguist, and philosopher. He is best known internationally as the creator of the Kodály Method..."
- Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky 17 June [O.S. 5 June] 1882 – 6 April 1971) was a Russian, and later French and American composer, pianist and conductor. He is acknowledged by many as one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century. Igor Stravinsky conducts The Firebird (L'Oiseau de Feu)
- Heitor Villa-Lobos (Mar. 5, 1887 – Nov. 17, 1959) Brazilian composer: Bachianas Brasileiras No. 1 (I. Introduction), cello ensemble; Arthur Moreira Lima interpreta "Trenzinho Caipira e Polichinelo"
- Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Apr. 11, 1891 – Mar. 5, 1953) Russian composer, pianist and conductor. He is regarded as one of the major composers of the 20th century.
- Paul Hindemith (Nov. 16, 1895 – Dec. 28, 1963) German composer, violist, violinist, teacher and conductor. Notable compositions include his song cycle Das Marienleben (1923) and opera Mathis der Maler (1938).
- Carl Orff (1895 – 1982) 20th-century German composer, best known for his cantata Carmina Burana (1937). In addition to his career as a composer, Orff developed an influential approach toward music education for children. Carmina Burana, UC Davis Symphony & Chorus
- Francisco Mignone (1897 – 1986)
- George Gershwin (Sept. 26, 1898 – Jul. 11, 1937) American composer and pianist. Gershwin's compositions spanned both popular and classical genres, and his most popular melodies are widely known.
- Georg von Bertouch (1668 – 1743)
- Johan Henrik Freithoff (1714 – 1767)
- Johan Daniel Berlin (1714 – 1787)
- Israel Gottlieb Wernicke (1755 – 1836)
- Ole Andreas Lindeman (1769 – 1857)
- Hans Hagerup Falbe (1772 – 1830)
- François-Joseph Fétis (1784 – 1871)
- Carl Arnold (1794 – 1873)
- Christian Blom (1782 – 1861)
- Waldemar Thrane (1790 – 1828)
- Franz Berwald (1796 – 1868)
- Hans Skramstad (1797 – 1839)
- Fredrik Pacius (1809 – 1891)
- Ole Bull (1810 – 1880)
- Rikard Nordraak (1842 – 1866)
- Christian Cappelen (1845 – 1916)
- Agathe Backer Grøndahl (1847 – 1907)
- Edgar Tinel (Mar. 27, 1854 – Oct. 27, 1912)
- Gerhard Rosenkrone Schjelderup (Nov. 17, 1859 – Jul. 27, 1933)
- Shmuel Cohen (ca 1850 – ..?..)
- Ole Olsen (1850 – 1927)
- Pancho Vladigerov (1899 – 1978)
- Marlos Nobre (1939)