Jewish Mysticism & Kabbalah refers to the doctrines, practices and esoteric exegetical method in Torah, that emerged in 12th-13th century Southern France and Spain, and was developed further in 16th century Ottoman Palestine.
Mystics & their Works:
Jewish Mystics Geni Profiles
- Rabbi Moshe Cordever: Pardes Rimmonim of .
- R. Eliezer of Worms: Sefer HaShem
- Rabbi Vital: Shaarei Kedusha
- Rabbi Abulafia: Hayei Olam HaBa and Sefer Heshek
- Rabbi Moshe Zacuto: Shoreshei HaShemot
- Rabbi Hayim Vital: Sha'arei Kedusha,
- Rabbi Nehuniah ben Hakana in Pardes Rimonim,
- Scroll down to see more . . .
Kabbalah is not a separate area of Torah knowledge, but rather the hidden, spiritual dimension of the revealed aspects of the Torah.
These revealed facets of Torah - such as halakha (Jewish law) - speak primarily about visible, physical things;
Kabbalah, on the other hand, speaks directly about spiritual entities, like the system of olamot (spiritual "worlds," or graduated levels of reality) and sefirot (divine "attributes," or channels of divine energy) through which God creates, sustains and directs the universe. It also discusses the interaction between those entities and the performance of mitzvot in the physical world. It is for this reason that Kabbalah has been called the soul of the Torah.
The character of Kabbalah is perhaps manifested most clearly in Hasidut. By changing the terminology of Kabbalah yet maintaining its messages, Hasidut offers a simpler, more accessible way of unlocking its secrets.
The Hasidic movement, which has prompted dramatic changes in the outlook of the Jewish people, began in the late 18th century with the teachings of Rabbi Yisrael Ba'al Shem Tov. By re-emphasizing the value of every Jew, the Ba'al Shem Tov provided his disciples with the opportunity to link the individual closer to the Almighty.
This is a partial List of Kabbalists, and Mystics
(1CE -11th centuries)
- Nehunya ben HaKanah Traditional attribution of the Bahir. 1st century
- Four Who Entered the Pardes (including Rabbi Akiva c.40–137 CE)
- Simeon bar Yochai (RaSHBI) Protagonist of the Zohar 1st-2nd centuries
- Rashi רש"י
- Hasidei Ashkenaz (1150-1250 German Pietists). Mystical conceptions influenced Medieval Kabbalah:
- Samuel of Speyer (Shmuel HaHasid) 1100s
- Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg (Yehudah HaHasid) 1140-1217
- Eleazar of Worms (Eleazar Rokeach) c.1176–1238
- Abraham ben Isaac of Narbonne (RAVaD II) c.1110–1179
- Abraham ben David of Posquières (RABaD/RAVaD III) 1125-1198
- Isaac the Blind (Yitzhak Sagi Nehor) Neoplatonic approach c.1160-1235
Catalonia/Girona circle (North-East Spain)
- Ezra ben Solomon
- Azriel of Gerona Synthesised Gnostic and Neoplatonic elements c.1160–1238
- Nachmanides (Moses ben Nahman, RaMBaN) Introduced Kabbalah in classic Bible commentary 1194–1270
- Jacob ben Sheshet
- Meshullam ben Solomon Da Piera
Castile circle (Demonic/Gnostic theory)
- Jacob HaKohen
- Isaac HaKohen - Author of Treatise on the Left Emanation
- Todros ben Joseph Abulafia c.1225-1285
- Moses of Burgos
- Abraham Abulafia - Spain, Italy, Malta. 1240-after 1291
Publication of the Zohar in Spain
- Moses de León c.1250–1305
( 13th century )
- Abraham ben Isaac of Granada, Southern Spain - 1200s
- Joseph Gikatilla - Prolific writings, including Shaarei Orah. Spain 1248–after 1305
- Menahem Recanati - Only Italian of his time writing mainly Kabbalah - 1250-1310
( 14th-15th centuries )
- Isaac of Acco - Pupil of Nahmanides. Israel and Spain 1200s-1300s
- Bahya ben Asher (Rabbeinu Behaye) Spain d.1340
( 15th-17th centuries )
- Abraham Cohen de Herrera, Fusion of Philosophy and Kabbalah. c.1570–1635
Emigrees: Founding new centre of Safed in Ottoman Palestine
- Meir ibn Gabbai, Spain to the East. - b.1480
- Joseph Karo (Beit Yoseph - יוסף קארו (בית יוסף Spain to Safed - 1488–1575
- Shlomo Alkabetz, Greece to Safed - c.1500–1580
- Moshe Alshich (Alshich Hakadosh) Turkey to Safed. Kabbalistic classic Bible commentary - 1508–1593
- Moses ben Jacob Cordovero (RaMaK) Taught in Safed. Author of Pardes Rimonim 1522–1570
Lurianic school - Writings of the Ari
- Isaac Luria (HaARI-zal) Safed. - 1534 –1572
- Hayim Vital - Italy, Safed, Syria. Foremost disciple of Luria. Author of Etz Hayim 1543 –1620
- Israel Sarug - Spread Safed disseminationLurianism in Europe 1500s –1610
Safed / Sfad
- Eliyahu de Vidas - Ottoman Palestine. 1518 –1592
(1600 - 1900) Kabbalistic commentary
Central European Kabbalist Rabbis
- Judah Loew ben Bezalel (MaHaRal) Philosophical style. Prague c.1520–1609
- Isaiah Horowitz - SheLaH, Prague to Palestine c.1565–1630
- Jonathan Eybeschutz - Central Europe.Emden-Eybeschutz mysticism controversy 1690-1764
- Nathan Adler - Germany 1741–1800
- Moshe Haim Luzzatto (RaMHaL) Italy, Holland, Israel 1707-1746
- Elijah Benamozegh - Italian Rabbi and scholar 1822-1900
- Abraham Azulai - Morocco to Israel c.1570–1643
- Haim ibn Attar (Ohr ha-Haim ) Morocco to Israel 1696-1743
- Shalom Sharabi (RaShaSh) Yemen to Israel. Esoteric clarifier of Luria 1720–1777
- Haim Joseph David Azulai (HIDA)1724–1806
- Ben Ish Hai (Yosef Hayyim) Sephardi Hakham in Iraq 1832–1909
Sabbatean mystical heresy (founders only)
- Sabbatai Zevi - Messianic claimant. Ottoman Empire 1626–1676
- Nathan of Gaza - Prophet of Sabbatai Zevi. Israel and Ottoman Empire 1643–1680
Eastern European Baal Shem/Nistarim & mystical circles
- Elijah Baal Shem of Chelm - First to be given Baal Shem title. Poland 1550-1583
- Elijah Baal Shem of Worms. Founder of Nistarim mystical activists. Poland/Germany b.c.1532
- Joel Baal Shem of Ropshitz
- Adam Baal Shem. A teacher of the Besht
- Abraham Gershon of Kitov - Brody Rabbinic Lurianic circle before becoming Besht's brother-in-law. Ukraine, Israel c.1701-1761
- Baal Shem of London (Hayyim Samuel Jacob Falk) Ukraine/Germany and England 1708–1782
- Baal Shem of Michelstadt (Seckel Lob Wormser) Germany 1768-1847
- Vilna Gaon (Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, GRA) Head of Litvak Eastern European Judaism.1720–1797
- Hayim Volozhin - Founder of Lithuanian Yeshivah movement. 1749–1821
- Yitzchak Eizik Chaver
- Shlomo Elyashiv (Baal HaLeshem, after his major work) Lithuania 1841-1926
( 18th century ) Hasidic Kabbalah
- Baal Shem Tov (BeSHT, Israel ben Eliezer) Founder of Hasidism. Ukraine 1698-1760
- Jacob Joseph of Polnoye - First writer of Hasidic thought. Ukraine 1710–1784
- Dov Ber of Mezeritch (Maggid of Mezeritch) Ukraine c.1700/1710 – 1772
- Elimelech of Lizhensk - Founder of General-Hasidic "Practical/Popular Tzadikism" leadership. Poland 1717–1787
- Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev - Author of Kedushas Levi, Ukraine 1740–1809
- Schneur Zalman of Liadi - Intellectual-Hasidism Chabad school. Author of Tanya theorisation of Hasidism. Russia 1745–1812
- Nachman of Bratzlav Kabbalistic-Imaginative Breslov school. Ukraine 1772–1810
Other Hasidic commentators on Kabbalah
- Yisroel Hopsztajn (Maggid of Kozhnitz) A father of Polish Hasidism. 1737–1814
- Dovber Schneuri Second Chabad leader. Russia 1773-1827
- Zadok HaKohen of Lublin. Poland 1823-1900
- Yaakov Yehuda Aryeh Leib Frankel (Gevuras Aryeh) Hungary 1850/1855-1940
- Menachem Mendel Schneerson - Lubavitcher Rebbe. 1902–1994
( 20th century Kabbalah )
- Abraham Isaac Kook - Chief Rabbi of Mandate Palestine and poetic-visionary mystical thinker 1865–1935
- Yehuda Ashlag (Baal HaSulam, after main work) Translation of Zohar with new approach in Luria. Poland and Israel 1885—1954
- Baba Sali (Israel Abuhatzeira) Mizrachi sage. Morocco to Israel 1890–1984
- Adin Steinsaltz - Even Yisrael
Alphabetized List (Mystics & Their Writings)
- Abraham (1813 - 1638 BCE), (Avraham Avinu, Our Father), first of the Patriarchs, father of Isaac and grandfather of Jacob and Esau. Sefer Yetzira, Kabbala work is attributed to Avraham, which, according to some, was finally redacted by Rabbi Akiva.
- Abraham Abulafia RaMaH (1240- after 1291 CE) and his school. A leading Kabbalist in Spain and Italy. R. Abulafia was one of the chief proponents and innovators of "prophetic Kabbala." Rabbi Yehuda Chayat and Rabbi Shlomo ben Aderet (the Rashba) vigorously opposed Rabbi Abraham. For Rashba's controversy with him see Rashba, Responsa 458.
- Abraham Azulai (1570-1643), authored the well-known Kabbala work, Chesed l'Avraham. He is the grandfather of one of the famous Sephardic sage, the Chida (Rabbi Chaim Yosef David Azulai, 1724-1806) .
- Abuchatzera - Family of illustrious kabbalists (mekubalim) of Moroccan origin, including Yisrael (the Baba Sali) - (1889-1984 CE) born in Morocco; moved to Israel where he settled in Netivot. His graveside has become a holy site visited by thousands annually. See also David Abuchatzera, Yaakov ben Masoud Abuchatzera, Yitzchak Abuchatzera.
- Abulafia - Family of Spanish and Italian Kabbalists. See: Abraham Abulafia, Chaim Abulafia, Meir Abulafia, Todros Abulafia.
- Aderet Eliyahu - Treatise on Zohar (manuscript in Oxford), by R. Eliyahu Baal Shem of Worms.
- Aharon Ben Shmuel HaNassi of Baghdad (mid 9th Century CE). Brought teachings of Kabbala from Iraq to Italy and Germany. Mentioned in Megilat Achima'atz 4805 (1054 CE) and later in the writings of R. Eliezer of Worms.
- Rabbi Akiva - a very important Tanna born circa (50 CE), died c. 3895 (135 CE). He received from Rabbi Eliezer HaGadol. Rabbi Akiva was one of four Tannaitic sages who entered the Pardes. The others were Ben Azzai (early 2nd Century CE), Ben Zoma (2nd Century CE), Acher [Elisha ben Avuya] (first half of 2nd Century CE). See -- Four Who Entered the Orchard. Akiva was one of the Ten Martyrs killed by the Romans. According to some, Rabbi Akiva was the redactor of the Sefer Yetzira.
- Moshe Alshich (1508-1593 CE). Author of "Torat Moshe," a mystical commentary on the Torah. Often called "The Alshich".
- Alter Rebbe - Shneur Zalman of Liadi (1745-1813 CE), the first Rebbe of the Lubavitch Dynasty. Author of Tanya, an early Chassidic text, and the Shulchan Aruch haRav, an extended work of halacha.
- Amram Gaon, author of Siddur R. Amram became Gaon in Sura (Babylon) 858. Died c. 875 CE.
- Anshei Knesset HaGedola - Sanhedrin (Men of the Great Assembly), received from Baruch ben Neriah and his court. It was comprised of 120 sages included Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Daniel, Chananya, Nehemiah ben Chachalya, Mordechai, Zerubavel and many others.
- Antigonos of Socho, d. circa 3530 (231 BCE). He and his court received from Shimon HaTzaddik and his court.
- Ari (zal) Arizal - Yitzchak Luria, acronym of his appellation, "Ashkenazi Rav Yitzchak", 5294-5332 (1534-1572 CE). Born in Jerusalem, d. in Safed. Founder of a new school in Kabbala -- so-called "Lurianic Kabbala." Studied with Rabbi Moshe Cordovero whom he succeeded as the leading mystic of Safed.
- Asher ben David, 13th C. CE. Grandson of Raavad (Rabad of Posquires). Studied under his uncle R. Yitzchak Sagi-Nahor. Wrote Sefer HaYichud; Tikkun Yud Gimmel Middot.
- Ashlag - Family of scholars and kabbalists; Rabbi Yehudah Leib Ashlag Baal HaSulam, R. Baruch Shalom Ashlag.
- Avraham Azulai - (1570-1643 CE). Grandfather of Chida. Author of Chesed l'Avraham.
- Avraham ben David - Ra'avad III (Rabad of Posquieres, Provence) (1120 -1198 CE). Son-in-law and disciple of Rabbi Avraham ben Yitzchak of Narbonne.
- Avraham ben Yitzchak Gerondi - (mid 13th Century CE). He studied under Rabbi Yitzchak Sagi-Nahor and was held in great esteem by Ramban (R. Moshe ben Nachman).
- Avraham ben Yitzchak of Granada - (Rimon). Although it is disputed among scholars, some authorities identify him with Rabbi Avraham ben Yitzchak of Narbonne. He is one of the earliest kabbalists to quote the Zohar. [However, passages he quotes are not found in the extant versions of the Zohar.] He is the author of Brit Menucha (published in Amsterdam 5408 / 1648 CE) an early kabbalistic treatise regarded by the Ari zal as a significant contribution to the literature of the Kabbala.
- Avraham ben Yitzchak of Narbonne. (1110-1179 CE), Av Beit Din of Narbonne, author of Sefer HaEshkol. Student of Yehuda ben Barzilai of Barcelona, from whom he learned Kabbala. He is also reputed to have received secrets of Kabbala from Elijah the Prophet. He is sometimes referred to as Raavad II (Rabbi Avraham Av Beit Din). Some identify him as the kabbalist Avraham ben Yitzchak of Granada, the author of Brit Menucha.
- Avraham Beruchim (c. 1515-1593 CE). Born in Morocco and probably emigrated to Israel before 1565. Disciple of RaMaK and subsequently of Ari zal. Author of Tikkunei Shabbat. Was said by the Ari zal to be a reincarnation of the prophet Jeremiah.
- Avraham Galante - (1540-1588 CE). Close disciple of RaMaK (R. Moshe Cordovero). Wrote Yare'ach Yakar a commentary on Zohar.
- Avraham Isaac Kook (1865-1935 CE) First Chief Rabbi of Israel, mystic and visionary. Began studying kabbala under Rav Shlomo Eliyashiv, the Leshem, in his early twenties.
- Avraham Zacuto (1425- c. 1515 CE). Author of Sefer HaYuchasin.
- Rabbi Avraham Dov Auerbach of Avritch [1765-1840], a Chasidic Rebbe in Europe for forty years and in Safed for ten, was a disciple of Rabbi Levi Yitzchak of Berdichev and the first two Rebbes of the Chernobyl dynasty. His famous book, Bas Ayin, was written in Europe, but he refused to allow it to be printed until he could 'expose' it to the air of the Holy Land and refine it there.
- Azriel of Gerona (1160 - c. 1238 CE). Student of Rabbi Yitzchak Sagi-Nahor. Wrote among others Shaar HaSho'el; a commentary on Sefer Yetzira; a commentary to Talmudic Aggadata; a commentary on the liturgy (mystical meditations); Sod HaKorban on the mystical meaning of the sacrifices, etc.
- Azulai - Family of Torah scholars and kabbalists; see Avraham Azulai and Chaim Yosef David Azulai.
- Baal Haturim, Jacob Ben Asher (12 Tamuz 5103) Third son of the "Rosh" (Asher ben Jehiel), he achieved fame as a codifier of Jewish law. His code is constructed in four sections: 1) Orah Hayim - dealing with worship, 2) Yorah Deah - on ritual law, 3) Eben ha-Ezer - laws relating to marriage and divorce, 4) Hoshen Mishpat - on civil law. Unlike Maimonides, he only compiled current laws and his works served as a foundation for Joseph Caro and others.
- "Baal Shem Tov'' הבעש״ט Baal Shem Tov], "Master of the Good Name" a title applied to several early Chassidic figures; the most famous is Israel Baal Shem Tov. See entry below.
- Bachya ben Asher, (Rabbeinu) (c. 1265 - c. 1340 CE). Disciple of Rashba. Author of a mystical commentary on the Torah.
- Badei HaAron, Kabbala work by Shem Tov ibn Gaon.
- Baba Sali, Yisrael Abuchatzera, (1889-1984 CE), mekubal (expert in kabbala) from Morocco. Moved to Israel where he settled in Netivot. His graveside has become a holy site visited by thousands annually.
- Bachya ben Asher (c. 1265 - c. 1340 CE). Disciple of Rashba. Author of a mystical commentary on the Torah.
- Bahir, variant of Sefer HaBahir, Kabbala work written by Nechunia ben HaKana ben Zakai.
- Baruch ben Neriah d. (348 BCE). He received from Jeremiah and his court.
- Baruch Shalom Ashlag (1907-1991 CE). Son of and successor to Rabbi Yehudah Ashlag.
- Be'er Hagolah, a kabbalistic treatise by the Maharal of Prague.
- Ben Ish Chai, kabbalistic commentary on the Torah by R. Yosef Chaim of Baghdad.
- Ben Sira (273 BCE) (possibly a son of Jeremiah the Prophet) -- writer of aphorisms and mystical insights in the early Second Temple era in a book called "Wisdom of Sira." See A. Kaplan, Sefer Yetzira Intro., Pp. xiv-xv.
- Besht, acronym for Baal Shem Tov, "Master of the Good Name" a title applied to several early Chassidic figures; the most famous is Israel Baal Shem Tov. See entry below.
- Binyamin haLevi disciple of Ari zal. Sent as an emissary of the Ari zal to Italy to spread his kabbalistic teachings. Was the teacher of Rabbi Moshe Zacuto in Italy.
- Brit Menucha, and early Kabbala work, of Avraham ben Yitzchak of Granada.
- Caro (Yosef) (1488-1575 CE) Rabbi Yosef was born in Spain and fled the Inquisition with his family at the age of 4. Settled in Safed, Israel. Author of Shulchan Aruch (Code of the Jewish Law) and a mystical work entitled Maggid Mesharim.
- Chaim Abulafia, Chief Rabbi of Safed during the 18th century CE. See Abulafia entry.
- Chaim ibn Attar (1696-1743 CE) a Moroccan-born kabbalist who later lived in Israel where he passed away. He is the author of the famous kabbalistic commentary on the Torah known as Or HaChaim. He is buried on Har HaZeitim (Mount of Olives). His graveside has become a holy site visited by thousands annually.
- Chaim Palag'i (1788-1868 CE) from Izmir, Turkey. He was a prolific writer, completing 72 books in his lifetime, many of them in Kabbala.
- Chaim Vital (c. 1543-1620 CE), major disciple of R. Isaac (Yitzchak) Luria, and responsible for publication of most of his works.
- Chaim Volozhin (1749-1821 CE) foremost disciple of the Vilna Gaon
- Chaim Yosef David Azulai (Chida) (1724-1806 CE), prolific author of kabbalistic works, and also of Shem haGedolim, a comprehensive guide to kabbala scholars and works.
- Chesed l'Avraham, Kabbala work by R. Avraham Azulai.
- Chida, acronym for Chaim Yosef David Azulai (1724-1806 CE); see Azulai entry.
- Chozei Tzion, a kabbalistic commentary on Psalms by R. Emanual Chai Riki.
- David (906-836 BCE) son of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai
- Elazar of Worms (c. 1160-1237 CE), also known as the Rokeach. (Born in Speyer, Germany; died in Worms). He was a student of Rabbi Yehuda HaChassid. Wrote a commentary on Sefer Yetzira.
- Eliezer Azikri (1533-1600 CE). Author of Sefer Chareidim. Disciple of Ramak.
- Eliezer HaGadol (author of Pirkei d'Rabbi Eliezer) was one of the five main disciples of Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai.
- Elijah, began prophesying in (798 BCE). He received from Achiya HaShiloni and his court.
- Elisha, began prophesying in (717 BCE). He received from Elijah and his court.
- Eliyahu Baal Shem of Worms (1565-1636 CE) Author of Aderet Eliyahu on Zohar (manuscript in Oxford) among others.
- Eliyahu daVidas, d. (c. 1593 CE). Disciple of RaMaK; possibly studied under the Ari zal as well, whom he certainly knew. Wrote Reishit Chochma, a kabbalistic ethical treatise.
- Eliyahu of Vilna, the 'Gaon of Vilna' (1720-1797 CE), Lithuanian Torah sage and leader, known also for his opposition to Chassidism.
- Emanuel Chai Riki (1688-1743 CE). Studied Kabbalat HaAri zal in Safed for two years (1718- c. 1720 CE). Received rabbinical ordination from the Chief Rabbi of Safed R. Chaim Abulafia. Author of Mishnat Chassidim; Yosher Leivav; Chozei Tzion a kabbalistic commentary on Psalms.
- Emek HaMelech, kabbalistic work by R. Naftali Bachrach.
- Ezekiel, began prophesying in (429 BCE). He saw the Merkava (the manifestation of G-dliness in the world of Yetzira) in a prophetic vision.
- Ezra (313 BCE) and his court, Men of the Great Assembly (Anshei Knesset HaGedola) received from Baruch ben Neriah and his court. The Anshei Knesset HaGedola was comprised of 120 sages included Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Daniel, Chananya, Nehemiah ben Chachalya, Mordechai, Zerubavel and many others.
- Ezra ben Shlomo of Gerona, born in the last 3rd of the 12 Century CE. (1238 CE. 1245 CE according to others). Not to be confused with Rabbi Azriel below. He was a student of Yitzchak Sagi-Nahor. Wrote a commentary on Sefer Yetzira that is no longer extant; wrote a commentary on Shir HaShirim. Wrote commentaries and explanations of Aggadata. Had a great influence on Rabbeinu Bachya and on Rabbi Yitzchak of Acco.
- Gershon Kitover (17th C. CE) member of the Kloiz (the Chassidic Inner Circle), became brother--in-law of the Baal Shem Tov.
- Ginat Egoz, Kabbala work by Yosef Gikatila.
- HaBahir, variant of Sefer HaBahir, Kabbala work written by Nechunia ben HaKana ben Zakai.
- Habakkuk, began prophesying in 3254 (506 BCE). He received from Nachum and his court.
- Hai Gaon (939-1038 CE). Became Gaon of Pumbedita in 4757 (997 CE).
- Heichalot, a mystical manual composed by Rabbi Yishmael describing the ascent to higher worlds and the means to achieve it.
- Hillel, became the leading rabbinical figure in (32 BCE). Hillel and Shammai and their court received from Shmaya and Avtalyon and their court, and began the Talmudic era.
- Hosea, (Hoshea) began prophesying in (670 BCE). He received from Zechariah and his court.
- Isaac, son of Abraham, (1713-1533 BCE)
- Isaac Luria (Yitzchak), (Ari zal, 'the Ari') (1534-1572 CE). Born in Jerusalem, d. in Safed. Founder of a new school in Kabbala -- so-called "Lurianic Kabbala." Studied with Rabbi Moshe Cordovero whom he succeeded as the leading mystic of Safed.
- Isaiah, began prophesying in (620 BCE). He received from Amos and his court.
- Israel Baal Shem Tov (BeSHT) Baal Shem Tov (1698-1760 CE), leader of the early Chassidic movement.
- Jacob, son of Isaac, 2108-2255 (1653-1506 BCE)
- Jeremiah, began prophesying in 3298 (463 BCE). He received from Zephaniah and his court
- Joel, (Yoel) began prophesying in 3190 (570 BCE). He received from Micah and his court.
- Joseph, son of Jacob, 2199-2309 (1562-1452 BCE)
- Joshua ben Nun (1354-1245 BCE). Received authority from Moses.
- Karo Yosef -- variant of Caro (Yosef), (1488-1575 CE) Rabbi Yosef was born in Spain and fled the Inquisition with his family at the age of 4. Settled in Safed, Israel. Author of Shulchan Aruch (Code of the Jewish Law) and a mystical work entitled Maggid Mesharim.
- Kehat, son of Aaron, (1525-1392 BCE)
- Kesser Shem Tov, Kabbala work by Shem Tov ibn Gaon.
- Ketem Paz, an important commentary on the Zohar by R. Shimon ben Lavi.
- Kli Yakar, a kabbalistic commentary on the Torah by Rabbi Shlomo Ephraim of Lunschitz.
- Kol HaReMez, kabbalistic work by Rabbi Moshe Zacuto.
- Avraham Isaac Kook, "Rav Kook" (1865-1935 CE) First Chief Rabbi of Israel, mystic and visionary. Began studying kabbala under Rav Shlomo Eliyashiv, the Leshem, in his early twenties.
- Lecha Dodi, mystical hymn composed by R. Shlomo Alkabetz, recited on Friday evenings at the onset of Shabbat.
- Leshem Shevo V'Achlama, treatise by R. Shlomo Elyashiv. See Shlomo Elyashiv.
- Lifnei v'Lifnim, commentary on SeferYetzira by R. Meir Abulafia.
- Likutei Torah, early Chassidic work by R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the first ("Alter") Rebbe of the Lubavitcher dynasty; it provides Chassidic insight according to the weekly Torah readings from Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
- Limmudei HaAtzilut, a kabbalistic treatise by R. Yisrael Sarug.
- Luria, Yitzchak or Isaac (the Ari zal, 'the Ari') (1534-1572 CE). Born in Jerusalem, d. in Safed. Founder of a new school in Kabbala -- so-called "Lurianic Kabbala." Studied with Rabbi Moshe Cordovero whom he succeeded as the leading mystic of Safed.
- Maggid Mesharim, mystical text by R. Yosef Karo.
- Maharal of Prague, Rabbi Yehudah ben Betzalel Loew (c. 1525-1609 CE). His mystical writings include Be'er Hagolah; Netivot Olam; Tiferet Yisrael. He is also famous for having produced a golem (humanoid).
- Maimonides known as the Rambam, from the acronym of his name R. Moshe ben Maimon; (1135-1204 CE). Physician and Torah scholar originally from Cordoba, Spain, but who fled from persecution to North Africa, passing through Morocco and eventually settling in Egypt. Known for his works of Jewish law and philosophy works, Mishna Torah and Guide to the Perplexed, he also commanded kabbala, though he did not overtly present this knowledge in his works.
- Megaleh Amukot, Kabbala work by R. Natan Nota Shapiro.
- Meir Abulafia (Ramah) (1190-1244 CE). He wrote a commentary on Sefer Yetzira entitled Lifnei v'Lifnim. See also Abulafia entry above.
- Meir ibn Gabbai (1480- ? CE). Fled from the Spanish Inquisition.
- Meir Poppers d. (1622). One of the important kabbalists in the circle of the Ari, lived in Jerusalem and studied kabbala under R. Yaakov Tzemach. Best known for putting in order Rabbi Chaim Vital's manuscripts of the Ari zal's teachings and printing them. He arranged the manuscripts according to the index written in Rabbi Chaim Vital's own handwriting that he found in Damascus in the possession of Rabbi Shmuel Vital, the son of Rabbi Chaim Vital. Rabbi Meir himself wrote several important kabbalistic works. He is buried on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. [See Encylopedia l'Gedolei Yisrael (Margolius) (Hebrew)]
- Men of the Great Assembly, Sanhedrin (Anshei Knesset HaGedola) received from Baruch ben Neriah and his court. It was comprised of 120 sages included Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Daniel, Chananya, Nehemiah ben Chachalya, Mordechai, Zerubavel and many others.
- Menachem Azaryah deFano (Rama miPano) (1548-1620 CE). Very important kabbalist in Italy. Student of Rabbi Yisrael Sarug and Mordechai Dato.
- Menachem of Recanati (1223-1290 CE). Wrote a mystical commentary on the Torah. He quotes frequently from Ramban.
- Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch (the Tzemach Tzedek) (1789-1866 CE),third Rebbe of Chabad-Lubavitch; grandson of R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi (the "Alter" Rebbe) and nephew of R. Dovber of Lubavitch (the "Mittler" Rebbe).
- Menachem Mendel (Schneerson) (1902-1994), Rebbe of Lubavitch from 1950.
- Meshovev Netivot an unpublished commentary on Sefer Yetzira by Rabbi Shmuel Motot.
- Micah, began prophesying in (600 BCE). He received from Isaiah and his court.
- Midrash Shmuel, a commentary on Pirkei Avot, by Shmuel Ozida.
- Mikdash Melech, treatise on Zohar by R. Shalom Buzaglo.
- Minchat Yehudah, commentary on Maarechet HaElokut by R. Yehuda Chayat.
- Mishnat Chassidim, a kabbalistic work by R. Emanuel Chai Riki.
- Moses (1393-1273 BCE). Directed the Exodus from Egypt. Received the Torah for the Jewish People.
- Moshe Alshich (1508-1593 CE). Author of a "Torat Moshe," a mystical commentary on the Torah.
- Moshe ben Maimon (1135-1204 CE) also called "Maimonides", the Rambam. Physician and Torah scholar originally from Cordoba, Spain, but who fled from persecution to North Africa, passing through Morocco and eventually settling in Egypt. Known for his halachic expositions and rationalist philosophic works, the Guide to the Perplexed and Mishna Torah, he also commanded kabbala, though he did not overtly present this knowledge in his works.
- Moshe ben Nachman (Ramban) born c. (1195 CE) in Gerona, Spain, d.(1270 CE) in Acco, Israel. A disciple of Rabbi Ezra and Rabbi Azriel of Gerona.
- Moshe ben Shimon (1240-1310 CE). Spanish kabbalist who was very highly regarded by his contemporaries. He wrote several kabbalistic works.
- Moshe Botarel (c. 1390- c. 1440 CE). Rabbi Moshe was a Spanish kabbalist who became famous for his commentary on Sefer Yetzira.
- Moshe Chaim Luzatto (Ramchal) b. in Padua (1707 CE) d. in Acco, Israel (1746 CE) Author of important kabbalistic works, "KLaCh" Pitchei Chochma, Da'at Tevunot, Derech Hashem, and Mesillat Yesharim.
- Moshe Cordovero - RaMaK (1522-1570 CE). Kabbalist in Safed. Author of several important Kabbalistic works, including Pardes Rimonim (completed at the age of 27); Sefer Eilimah Rabbati; Or Ne'erav, Or Yakar (a commentary on Zohar) and many others. Student of Rabbi Yosef Karo and Rabbi Shlomo Alkabetz.
- Moshe de Leon (c. 1240 - c. 1305 CE) in Leon near Castile. Published the manuscripts of the Zohar that had come into his possession.
- Moshe Zacuto (known as Ramaz or Remez). Born around (1620 CE) in Amsterdam; d. (1697 CE) (studied in Amsterdam, Holland, Poland and Lithuania. Rabbi in Venice and Mantua, Italy where he died). Studied for two years under a student of the Ari zal, Rabbi Binyamin haLevi who came as an emissary from Safed. Wrote Kol HaReMez
- Nachman of Breslov (1772-1810 CE), grandson of Israel Baal Shem Tov, and early Chassidic leader. His stories and teachings have been collected by his followers, beginning with his first disciple, Rabbi Nosson.
- Nachum, began prophesying in (520 BCE). He received from Joel (Yoel) and his court.
- Naftali Bachrach, 1st half of 17th C. CE. Born in Frankfort. Author of Emek HaMelech (pub. (1648 CE).
- Natan Nota Shapiro (1585-1633) Author of Megaleh Amukot and Ranav Ofanim. Eliyahu HaNavi is said to have visited with him regularly.
- Natan Schapira of Yerushalayim, published Tuv Ha'Aretz in 1655, a mystical treatise on Eretz Yisrael. Immigrated from Cracow. Became Chief Ashkenazi Rabbi of Jerusalem. Named after his uncle, author of Megaleh Amukot.
- Nechunia ben HaKana (Tanna of the second half of 1st Century CE). A disciple of Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai. Teacher of Rabbi Yishmael, Rabbi Akiva, Rabbi Eliezer HaGadol. Wrote the Bahir; Sefer HaTemuna (together with Rabbi Yishmael).
- Netivot Olam, a kabbalistic treatise by the Maharal of Prague.
- Or HaChaim, famous kabbalistic commentary on the Torah by R. Chaim ibn Attar.
- Or Ne'erav, Kabbala work by R. Moshe Cordovero.
- Or Yakar, a commentary on Zohar by R. Moshe Cordovero.
- Otzar HaKavod, mystical interpretation of Talmudic passages by Todros Abulafia.
- Pardes Rimonim, Kabbala work by R. Moshe Cordovero.
- Pirkei d'Rabbi Eliezer, Kabbala work written by Eliezer HaGadol.
- Raavad II (acronym of the name Rabbi Avraham Av Beit Din).
- Rama miPano (acronym of the name of R. Menachem Azaryah deFano), (1548-1620 CE). Very important kabbalist in Italy. Student of Rabbi Yisrael Sarug and Mordechai Dato.
- Ramak acronym of the name R. Moshe Cordovero.
- Rambam acronym of the name R. Moshe ben Maimon, also called "Maimonides"; (1135-1204 CE). Physician and Torah scholar originally from Cordoba, Spain, but who fled from persecution to north Africa, passing through Morocco and eventually settling in Egypt. Known for his works of Jewish law and philosophy works, Mishna Torah and Guide to the Perplexed, he also commanded kabbala, though he did not overtly present this knowledge in his works.
- Ramban acronym of the name R. Moshe ben Nachman,"Nachmanides". Torah scholar and kabbalist originally from Gerona, Spain, author of one of the first and the most important mystical commentaries upon the Torah. At the end of his life he moved to the Holy Land and greatly strengthened the Jewish community in Jerusalem. He is buried in Acco.
- Ramaz, acronym of the name of R. Moshe Zacuto. Born around (1620 CE) in Amsterdam; d. (1697 CE) studied in Amsterdam, Holland, Poland and Lithuania. Rabbi in Venice and Mantua, Italy where he died. Studied for two years under a student of the Ari zal, Rabbi Binyamin haLevi who came as an emissary from Safed. Wrote Kol HaReMez.
- Ramchal, acronym of the name of R. Moshe Chaim Luzatto b. in Padua (1707 CE) d. in Acco, Israel (1746 CE). See Moshe Chaim Luzatto.
- Ranav Ofanim, Kabbalah work by R. Natan Nota Shapiro.
- Rashba, acronym of the name R. Shlomo ben Aderet, c. (1235-1310 CE). Born in Barcelona. Student of Rabbeinu Yonah of Gerondi and Ramban.
- Rashbi, acronym of the name of R. Shimon bar Yochai (2nd Century CE) and his circle. Rabbi Shimon was one of the main students of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Shimon and his son Rabbi Elazar hid in a cave to escape Roman persecution in (149 CE). Author of the Zohar, buried at Meron, west of Safed.
- Rashi, acronym of Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki (1040-1105 CE), born in Troyes, France. Foremost commentator and Talmudist. Also knew and practiced Kabbala as is evident from his commentary to Sukka 45a; Sanhedrin 65b, etc.
- Rava (299-353 CE) According to Rashi's commentary on Talmud tractate Sanhedrin 65b, Rava created a golem using the mysteries of Sefer Yetzira and sent it to Rav Zeira, who nullified the golem and returned it to dust.
- Rav Zeira, a contemporary of Rava nullified the golem sent to him by Rava (cf. Rava) and returned it to dust.
- Reishit Chochma, kabbalistic ethical treatise by R. Eliyahu daVidas
- Remez, major work (and play on the acronym of his name) of R. Moshe Zacuto, the Ramaz. "Remez" in Hebrew means 'hint'.
- Responsa from Heaven, Kabbalah work of R.Yaakov of Marvege, France.
- Rokeach, work of Elazar of Worms (c. 1160-1237 CE), also known as the Rokeach. (Born in Speyer, Germany; died in Worms).
- Saadia Gaon b. (882 CE) in Egypt; d. (942 CE) in Sura (Babylon). Author of Emunot v'De'ot; Commentary on Sefer Yetzira. Was appointed Gaon of Sura in 4688 (928 CE).
- Samuel the Prophet (931-878 BCE) received from Eli and his court.
- Sefer Bahir, variant name of SeferHaBahir, Kabbalah work written by Nechunia ben HaKana ben Zakai.
- Sefer Chareidim, a kabbalistic treatise by R. Eliezer Azkiri.
- Sefer Chasidim, Kabbalah work attributed to R.Yehuda HaChassid of Regensburg.
- Sefer HaBahir, Kabbalah work written by Nechunia ben HaKana ben Zakai.
- Sefer Eilimah Rabbati, Kabbalah work by R. Moshe Cordovero.
- Sefer HaEshkol, Kabbalah work of Avraham ben Yitzchak of Narbonne.
- Sefer HaPe'er, Kabbalah work by Shem Tov ibn Gaon.
- Sefer HaTemuna, Kabbalah work written by Nechunia ben HaKana (together with Rabbi Yishmael).
- Sefer HaYichud, Kabbalah work of R. Asher ben David.
- Sefer Yetzira, Kabbalah work attributed to Avraham Avinu (Abraham the Patriarch) which, according to some, was finally redacted by Rabbi Akiva.
- Sefer HaYuchasin, Kabbalah work by R. Avraham Zacuto.
- Shaar HaNikud, Kabbalah work by Yosef Gikatila.
- Shaar HaRazim, Kabbalah work on the 10 sefirot by Todros Abulafia
- Shaar HaShamayim, Kabbalah work attributed to R. Yaakov ben Sheshet of Gerona.
- Shaar HaSho'el, Kabbalah work of Azriel of Gerona.
- Shaarei Orah, Kabbalah work by Yosef Gikatila
- Shaarei Tzedek, Kabbalah work by Yosef Gikatila
- Shabtai Sheftel Horowitz (c. 1561-1619). Author of Shefa Tal.
- Shalom Buzaglo, (c. 1700-1780 CE). Born in Marakesh, Morocco. Student of R. Avraham Azulai, Yaakov Pinto; Yeshayahu HaKohen. Later lived in London. Author of Mikdash Melech on Zohar.
- Shalom Sherabi, (Rashash) (1720-1777 CE). (1780-1837??) Born in Yemen. Later lived in Israel and became head of Yeshivat Bet E-l.
- Shammai, early Talmudic scholar, known for strictness of his decisions. Hillel and Shammai and their court received from Shmaya and Avtalyon and their court, and began the Talmudic era.
- Shefa Tal, a kabbalistic work of Rabbi Sheftel Horowitz.
- Sheftel Horowitz (Shabtai Sheftel), 5321-5379 (c. 1561-1619 CE). Author of Shefa Tal.
- Shelah (Shenei Luchot HaBrit), work of commentary and halacha by noted kabbalist, R. Yeshayahu Horowitz, b. 5320 (1560 CE) in Prague; d. 5390 (1630 CE) in Jerusalem.
- Shem Tov ibn Gaon (1283-c. 1340 CE). Disciple of Rashba and Raavad; studied Kabbala under R. Yitzchak ben Todros. Spent some time in Safed, Israel. Author of kabbalistic works Kesser Shem Tov; a super-commentary on the mystical sections of Ramban's commentary on Torah; Badei HaAron; Sefer HaPe'er among others.
- Shem Tov ibn Shem Tov (1430 CE). A leading Spanish kabbalist. He fought vigorously against philosophy. He wrote several works in kabbala, only fragments of which are still extant.
- Sherira Gaon appointed Gaon of Pumbedita in (968 CE)
- Shimon bar Yochai (Rashbi) (2nd Century CE) and his circle. Rabbi Shimon was one of the main students of Rabbi Akiva. According the Talmud tractate Shabbat 33b, Rabbi Shimon and his son Rabbi Elazar hid in a cave to escape Roman persecution in 3909 (149 CE). Author of the Zohar, buried in Meron, west of Safed.
- Shimon ben Lavi (1488-1588 CE). Born in Spain and fled to Morocco to escape the Inquisition. On his way to Israel, he stopped of in Tripoli N. Africa. When he saw how ignorant of Torah the people there were he decided to stay and teach them. He is the author of Ketem Paz, an important commentary on the Zohar.
- Shimon Lavia left Spain as a child during the expulsion in 1492. His family settled in North Africa, where he grew up to be a renowned scholar and Kabbalist. He set out for Israel in 1549, but when he stopped in Tripoli along the way and saw the ignorance and lack of Torah observance among the Jews who lived there, he decided to remain in order to teach, which he did with great success. Today, he is best known as the composer of the popular Bar Yochai hymn sung on Lag B’Omer, and by many Jews on Shabbat too.
- Shimshon of Ostropolia, a noted kabbalist and the author of a number of esoteric commentaries. He was martyred during the Cossacks' Uprising on July 15, 1648.
- Shlomo Alkabetz (c. 1500-1580 CE). Author of the mystical hymn Lecha Dodi, composed in Safed at the time of the Lurianic influence.
- Shlomo ben Aderet, (Rashba) c. 4995-5070 (1235-1310 CE). Born in Barcelona Student of Rabbeinu Yonah of Gerondi and Ramban.
- Shlomo Elyashiv (1841-1924 CE). Author of Leshem Shevo V'Achlama.Major exponent of Lithuanian Kabbalah of his day. Also known as Rav Shlomo of Shavel. Immigrated to Israel with the help of Rav A.Y. Kook in 1922.
- Shlomo Ephraim of Lunschitz, (1550-1619 CE) Poland; author of Kli Yakar a commentary on the Torah.
- Shlomo Yitzchaki, (1040-1105 CE) better known as Rashi, born in Troyes, France. Foremost commentator and Talmudist. Also knew and practiced Kabbala as is evident from his commentary to Succah 45a; Sanhedrin 65b, etc.
- Sod HaKorban, Kabbalah work of Azriel of Gerona on the mystical meaning of the sacrifices.
- Shmuel Motot, 14th C. CE. Wrote Meshovev Netivot an unpublished commentary on Sefer Yetzira.
- Shmuel Ozida (1540 CE) in Safed. He was one of the disciples of the Ari zal. He is famous as the author of Midrash Shmuel, a commentary on Pirkei Avot.
- Shmuel Vital, son of R. Chaim Vital. Lived in the 17th C. CE. He was born in Damascus and studied Kabbala under his father. When Rabbi Chaim Vital passed away, he inherited many of his father's manuscripts in the kabbalistic teachings of the Ari zal. He arranged these in eight categories, known as the Shmoneh Shaarim. He also wrote several kabbalistic works of his own. Rabbi Shmuel had many important students, among them Rabbi Yaakov Tzemach; Rabbi Meir Poppers. Towards the end of his life he moved to Egypt, and died in Cairo.
- Shlah (Shenei Luchot HaBrit), work of commentary and halacha by a noted kabbalist, R. Yeshayahu Horowitz.
- Shneur Zalman of Liadi (1745-1813 CE), the "Alter Rebbe" of the Lubavitch dynasty. Author of Tanya, an early Chassidic text and the Shulchan Aruch haRav, an extended work on halacha.
- Shulchan Aruch (Code of the Jewish Law), compilation of halacha by R. Yosef Karo, completed 5335.
- Solomon, (849-797 BCE) Son of David, king of Israel. Built the Holy Temple in Jerusalem.
- Sulam, a comprehensive commentary on the entire Zohar, by R. Yehudah Ashlag.
- Tiferet Yisrael, a kabbalistic treatise by the Maharal of Prague.
- Tikun Yud Gimel Middot, Kabbalah work of R. Asher ben David.
- Tikunei Shabbat, Kabbalah work by R. Avraham Beruchin.
- Todros Abulafia, (1234- c. 1300 CE). Author of Otzar HaKavod a mystical interpretation of Talmudic Aggadata; Shaar HaRazim a work that describes the 10 sefirot.
- Tosafot, sons-in-law and grandsons of Rashi. The Baalei HaTosefot lived in France and Germany in 12-13th centuries CE. Rabbeinu Yaakov of Marvege, France wrote Responsa from Heaven 4963 (1203 CE) -- using mystical techniques he obtained responses from the Heavenly Court regarding certain questions he posed.
- Torah Or, early Chassidic work by R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the first ("Alter") Rebbe of the Lubavitcher dynasty; it provides Chassidic insight according to the weekly Torah readings of Genesis and Exodus.
- Yaakov ben Masoud Abuchatzera, (1807-1880 CE) Morocco; author of numerous kabbalistic treatises, and patriarch of a family of kabbala scholars.
- Yaakov ben Sheshet of Gerona, A colleague of R. Ezra and R. Azriel of Gerona. Reputedly the author of Shaar HaShamayim (Warsaw 1798 CE).
- Yaakov of Marvege, France, one of the Tosafot school, wrote Responsa from Heaven (1203 CE) -- using mystical techniques he obtained responses from the Heavenly Court regarding certain questions he posed.
- Yaakov Meir Spielman, Bucharest. Author of Tal Orot (Levov 1876 CE)
- Yaakov Tzemach. Born in Portugal- settled in Safed sometime between (1610-1620 CE). In (1628 CE) went to Damascus, Syria to learn under R. Shmuel Vital. d. after (1665 CE).
- Yare'ach Yakar - A commentary on Zohar by R. Avraham Galante.
- Yehoshua ben Chananya (1st and 2nd C Tanna CE). One of the five main disciples of Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai.
- Yehoyada HaKohen, began prophesying in (705 BCE) received from Elisha and his court.
- Yehoshua ben Prachya and Nittai HaArbeli and their courts. The former was appointed as Nasi of the Sanhedrin in (151 BCE). They and their court received from Yose ben Yo'ezer and Yosef ben Yochanan and their court.
- Yehudah ben Betzalel Loew - the Maharal of Prague. (c. 1525-1609 CE). His mystical writings include Be'er Hagolah; Netivot Olam; Tiferet Yisrael. He is also famous for having produced a golem (humanoid).
- Yehuda ben Tabbai, and his court received from Yehoshua ben Prachya and Nittai HaArbeli. Yehuda ben Tabbai and Shimon ben Shatach and their courts received from Yehoshua ben Prachya and Nittai HaArbeli. Shimon ben Shatach became the rabbinical head of the Sanhedrin in 3688 (73 BCE).
- Yehuda ben Yakar, (c. 1150 - c. 1225 CE). Born in Provence, France; died in Spain. Disciple in Kabbala of R. Yitzchak Sagi-Nahor. Colleague of R. Ezra and R. Azriel of Gerona. Had a great influence on Ramban, and the Rashba spoke very highly of him -- see Teshuvot HaRashba #523.
- Yehuda Chayat suffered terrible persecution at the hands of the Spanish Inquisition until he managed to flee to Venice and then Mantua. He is famous for his commentary -- called Minchat Yehudah -- on Maarechet HaElokut.
- Yehuda HaChassid of Regensburg lived (c. 1150-1217 CE), author of Sefer Chasidim. He headed the movement of Chasidei Ashkenaz. He had learned Kabbala from his father, Rabbi Shmuel ben Klonymos.
- Yehudah Ashlag (Sulam) (1885-1954 CE). Author of the Sulam, a comprehensive commentary on the entire Zohar. Rabbi Ashlag was born in Lodz Poland. In 1921 CE, he emigrated to Israel. He passed away in Jerusalem where he is interred.
- Yehudah ben Barzilai of Barcelona (1035-1105 CE) author of an important commentary on Sefer Yetzira. He was also famous for his encyclopedic knowledge of all major halachic works until his time. His Beit Midrash became the center of halachic rulings in his time.
- Yeshayahu Horowitz (Shlah)(1560 CE) in Prague; (1630 CE) in Jerusalem. Author of Shnei Luchot HaBrit (Shelah).
- Yisrael Abuchatzera (the Baba Sali) (1889-1984 CE) Morocco. Moved to Israel where he settled in Netivot. His graveside has become a holy site visited by thousands annually.
- Yisrael Sarug [or Saruk] (16th century). A disciple of the Ari zal in Egypt and Israel, later influential in Italy. Author of Limmudei HaAtzilut, "Kontres Ne'im Zemirot Yisrael," a kabbalistic commentary on three of Luria's piyutim (sacred poems) for Sabbath, and other kabbalistic works published after his lifetime.
- Yitzchak Abuchatzera, (1897-1970 CE) Morocco.
- Yitzchak of Acco, (1250-1340 CE). A disciple of Ramban after the latter came to the came to the Holy Land.
- Yitzchak Luria, (Ari zal, 'the Ari') 1534-1572 CE). Born in Jerusalem, d. in Safed. Founder of a new school in Kabbala -- so-called "Lurianic Kabbala." Studied with Rabbi Moshe Cordovero whom he succeeded as the leading mystic of Safed.
- Yitzchak Sagi-Nahor, (the Blind) c. 12th C. CE. Son of Raavad III (Rabad of Posquieres); grandson of Rabbi Avraham ben Yitchak of Narbonne. Teacher of Rabbi Ezra and Rabbi Azriel of Gerona, the teachers of Ramban.
- Yohanan Ben Zakkai Yochanan ben Zakai,] (47 BCE-73 CE). He received from Hillel and Shammai and their courts. Expert in Kabbala, Rabbi Yochanan had five main disciples: Rabbi Eliezer HaGadol, Rabbi Yehoshua, Rabbi Yose HaKohen, Rabbi Shimon ben Netanel and Rabbi Elazar ben Arach.. Rabbi Akiva apparently also studied under Rabbi Yochanan. (See Ethics of the Fathers Pirkei Avot 2:8; Talmud Chagiga 14b, Tosefta 2; Sanhedrin 68a.
- Yona Gerondi (Rabbeinu) (c. 1180-1263 CE)
- Yonatan Eybeshutz, (c. 1690-1764 CE). Studied in Poland, Moravia and Prague as a child, and later in Prossnitz and Vienna. Settled in Prague. In 5485, (1725 CE) excommunicated Shabbtai Tzvi's sect. Appointed Dayan of Prague in 5496 (1736 CE); Rabbi of Metz in 5501 (1741 CE) and Rabbi of the three communities Altona, Hamburg and Wandsek in 5510 (1750 CE). Was suspected of Shabbatean leanings by Yaakov Emden and became the center of many disputes.
- Yose ben Yo'ezer of Tzraidah (151 BCE) was appointed as President (Nasi) of the Sanhedrin in 3550 (211 BCE). This court received from Antigonos and his court.
- Yosef Caro, (1488-1575 CE) Rabbi Yosef was born in Spain and fled the Inquisition with his family at the age of 4. Settled in Safed, Israel. Author of Shulchan Aruch (Code of the Jewish Law) and a mystical work entitled Maggid Mesharim.
- Yosef Chaim of Baghdad, (known from the name of his most famous work as the Ben Ish Chai) (1834-1909 CE) Prolific leader of Persian Jewry and kabbalist. In addition to many works on Jewish law and Talmud, authored many kabbalistic commentaries.
- Yosef Gikatila, (1248- c. 1310 CE) born in Medinaceli, Castile and lived in Segovia for many years. Between 1272-1274 studied with Avraham Abulafia who praised him as his most successful student. Wrote Ginat Egoz; Shaarei Orah; Shaarei Tzedek; Shaar HaNikud. Was apparently friendly with Moshe de Leon around 5040 (1280' s CE).
- Yosef Karo, variant spelling of Yosef Caro 4258-5335 (1488-1575 CE) Rabbi Yosef was born in Spain and fled the Inquisition with his family at the age of 4. Settled in Safed, Israel. Author of Shulchan Aruch (Code of the Jewish Law) and a mystical work entitled Maggid Mesharim.
- Yosef Yuzpa, 5250-5330 (c. 1490-1570 CE). An Italian rabbi and kabbalist. See Otzar HaGedolim #520.
- Yosher Leivavv, a kabbalistic work by R. Emanuel Chai Riki.
- Zekel of Worms, the Baal Shem of Michelshtadt, mid 18th C. CE
- Zohar, major Kabbalah work originally redacted by R. Shimon bar Yochai; and subject of many commentaries since that time.