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Order of Malta Grand Masters

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  • John T. Dunlap
    Fra' John Timothy Dunlap (born 1957) is the Lieutenant of the Grand Master and head of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta since 13 June 2022.
  • Ludwig Hoffmann-Rumerstein
    Ludwig Hoffmann von Rumerstein (born 21 January 1937) is the former Grand Commander of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. He was acting head of the order for some months in 2017.
  • António Manoel de Vilhena, Grão-mestre da Ordem de Malta (c.1650 - 1736)
    António Manuel de Vilhena (1663 - 10 de Dezembro de 1736) foi o 66.º Grão-Mestre da Ordem dos Hospitalários, tendo governado a ilha de Malta (onde então se achava a sede da ordem) desde 19 de Junho de ...
  • Rafael de Cotoner y de Oleza (c.1610 - 1663)
    Rafael Cotoner y de Oleza (Maltese: Raphael Cotoner; 1601 – 20 October 1663) was a Spanish knight of Aragon who served as 60th Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller or, as it is already known by th...
  • Giovanni Paolo de Lascaris (1560 - 1657)
    Vedi Wikipedia...

Knights Hospitaller (Kingdom of Jerusalem)

  • Blessed Gerard 1099/1113–1118/20 Order established in 1099 and given papal recognition in 1113 by Paschal II
  • Raymond du Puy 1118/21/23–1160 Succeeded Gerard after Pierre de Barcelona and Boyant Roger served in ad interim capacity. Began the use of the Hospitallers as a military force in the Holy Land and codified rules of conduct for the Order. Introduced the Order's Great Seal.
  • Auger de Balben 1160–1162/3
  • Arnaud de Comps c. 1162–1163 Historicity uncertain. Arnaud de Comps is today considered by some as a master who never existed, his name having appeared in the chronological lists placed at the top of the statutes, but his rank is still maintained in the lists of the Grand Masters.
  • Gilbert of Assailly 1163–1169 Supported Amalric of Jerusalem in the Crusader invasions of Egypt
  • Gastone de Murols c. 1170–1172
  • Jobert of Syria c. 1169/72–1177 Acted as regent for king Amalric of Jerusalem in 1172. In 1174, opposed Miles of Plancy in favour of Raymond III of Tripoli.
  • Roger de Moulins 1177–1187 Killed at the Battle of Cresson. Commander William Borrel was appointed Grand Master ad interim, and he was killed at the Battle of Hattin, 3 months later.
  • Armengol de Aspa 1187–1190 Grand Master ad interim during the loss of Jerusalem in 1187, headquarters moved to Acre. Included in the canonical list of Grand Masters compiled in the early modern period. After the capture of Acre and the consolidation of the order, Armengol abdicated, and Garnier de Nablus elected as Grand Master.
  • Garnier de Nablus 1190–1192 Supported Richard I of England in the Third Crusade.
  • Geoffroy de Donjon 1193–1202 After his death, replaced by Pierre de Mirmande as Grand Master ad interim.
  • Afonso de Portugal 1202–1206 Resigned in 1206
  • Geoffroy le Rat 1206–1207 First structured the Order by nationality, or Langues.
  • Guérin de Montaigu 1207–1228 Fifth Crusade.
  • Bertrand de Thessy 1228–1231 Sixth Crusade.
  • Guérin Lebrun 1231–1236 Conflict with Bohemond IV of Antioch.
  • Bertrand de Comps 1236–1240 Barons' Crusade, Headquarters moved to Jerusalem.
  • Pierre de Vieille-Brioude 1240–1242 Battle of Gaza, conflict with the Templars.
  • Guillaume de Chateauneuf 1242–1258 Fall of Jerusalem in 1244, headquarters at Acre, Krak des Chevaliers and Margat. Captured at the Battle of La Forbie in 1244. Jean de Ronay served as Grand Master ad interim, dying in 1250 at Mansurah. De Chateauneuf was released by the Ayyubids on 17 October 1250.
  • Hugues de Revel 1258–1277 Loss of Krak des Chevaliers in 1271
  • Nicolas Lorgne 1277–1285 Loss of Margat in 1285. Upon his death, Grand Commander Jacques de Taxi served as Grand Master ad interim until his successor Jean de Villiers arrived in the Holy Land.
  • Jean de Villiers 1285–1294 Siege of Acre.
  • Odon de Pins 1294–1296 Headquarters moved to Limisso, Cyprus.
  • Guillaume de Villaret 1296–1305

Knights of Rhodes

Knights of Malta

  • Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam 1521–1534 Siege of Rhodes (1522), headquarters moved to Malta in 1530
  • Piero de Ponte 1534–1535
  • Didier de Saint-Jaille 1535–1536
  • Juan de Homedes 1536–1553 Malta was attacked by an Ottoman fleet in 1551. The attack was repelled, but the Ottomans captured the island of Gozo, and later also the order's stronghold in Tripoli. De Homedes began a program improve the fortifications at Malta
  • Claude de la Sengle 1553–1557 Continued the improvement of fortifications, expanding Fort Saint Michael into a major bastion and completing Fort Saint Elmo.
  • Jean Parisot de Valette 1557–1568 Valette became the Order's most illustrious leader, commanding the resistance against the Ottomans at the Great Siege of Malta in 1565.
  • Pierre de Monte 1568–1572 Continued the construction of the new capital Valletta. Strengthened the order's fleet, and participated in the Battle of Lepanto of 7 October 1571.
  • Jean de la Cassière 1572–1581 Crisis in the wake of the Protestant Reformation. Expulsion of the Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg) in 1581.
  • Mathurin Romegas 1577–1581
  • Hugues Loubenx de Verdalle 1581–1595
  • Martín Garzés 1595–1601
  • Alof de Wignacourt 1601–1622 Constructed the Wignacourt towers and the Wignacourt Aqueduct. Repelled the last serious Ottoman attempt at capturing Malta in 1614.
  • Luís Mendes de Vasconcellos 1622–1623
  • Antoine de Paule 1623–1636
  • Giovanni Paolo Lascaris 1636–1657 Caribbean possessions
  • Martin de Redin 1657–1660
  • Annet de Clermont-Gessant 1660 Died less than four months after his election, on 2 June 1660.
  • Rafael Cotoner 1660–1663 Commissioned the Italian Baroque artist Mattia Preti to start painting Saint John's Co-Cathedral in Valletta.
  • Nicolás Cotoner 1663–1680 Siege of Candia + Mattia Preti's work at St John's Co-Cathedral completed.
  • Gregorio Carafa 1680–1690 Renovation of Auberge d'Italie in the Baroque style, improvement of Fort Saint Angelo and Fort Saint Elmo. Ottoman attacks were still expected, but there were no longer any notable engagements.
  • Adrien de Wignacourt 1690–1697 Instituted a widows pension for the widows of those fallen in the Ottoman wars.
  • Ramón Perellós 1697–1720 Organised the Consulato del Mare (Consulate of the Sea). Established relations with imperial Russia. Fought corruption within the Order. Engagement against Ottoman pirates.
  • Marc'Antonio Zondadari 1720–1722
  • António Manoel de Vilhena 1722–1736 Restored the city Mdina, constructed Fort Manoel and significantly improved the fortifications of Malta in general. Built Casa Leoni and Palazzo Parisio, and renovated Verdala Palace. Manoel Theatre (1731). Conducted peace negotiations with the Ottomans, without result. Declared neutrality in the War of the Polish Succession.
  • Ramón Despuig 1736–1741 Improved the fortifications of Mdina, modernised legislation, renovated the Co-Cathedral of St. John. Naval engagements with Ottoman Algeria.
  • Manuel Pinto da Fonseca 1741–1773 Expelled the Jesuits from Malta. In 1753 proclaimed the sovereignty of the Order on Malta and a dispute started with the Kingdom of Sicily under King Charles V. Normal relations were resumed the next year, with the Order retaining de facto control over Malta as a sovereign state.
  • Francisco Ximénez de Tejada 1773–1775 Rising of the Priests (1775), bankruptcy of the order.
  • Emmanuel de Rohan-Polduc 1775–1797 Instituted the Anglo-Bavarian langue and the Russian Grand Priory.
  • Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim 1797–1799 First German elected to the office. Abdicated 6 July 1799 following the French invasion of Malta.

Sovereign Military Order of Malta