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  • Maj. Otto Reinhold von Berg, Linie I, Haus Stenhusen (1647 - 1696)
    Haus Stenhusen(Kullamaa) Kullamaa khk., Läänemaa, Estland VI.1 a.Stenhusen(Teenuse) Kullamaa khk., Läänemaa, Estland Teenuse
  • Count Göran Gyllenstierna af Björksund och Helgö, till Björksund (1632 - 1686)
    Göran Gyllenstierna af Lundholm , greve Gyllenstierna af Björksund och Helgö , greve till Björksund i Tystberga socken, Södermanlands län, friherre till Lundholmen i Vrigstads socken, Jönköpings län, h...
  • Otto Dragendorff (1877 - 1962)
    Otto Dragendorff Otto Heinrich Carl Gustav Hermann Dragendorff war ein deutscher Anatom. Leben Otto Dragendorff war ein Sohn des Dorpater Pharmazeuten Georg Dragendorff . Er besuchte ein Privat...
  • Hans Dragendorff (1870 - 1941)
    Hans Dragendorff Hans Dragendorff war klassischer und provinzialrömischer Archäologe. Hans Dragendorff war Sohn des Pharmazeuten Georg Dragendorff und studierte in Dorpat, Berlin und schließlich in...
  • Ernst Dragendorff (1869 - 1938)
    Ernst Dragendorff Ernst Georg Dragendorff war ein deutscher Historiker und Archivar. Leben Ernst Dragendorff war der älteste Sohn des Pharmazeuten Georg Dragendorff . Er studierte Geschichte an...

Start 8.4.2018.

Tähän projektiin voi etsiä ja lisätä Tartossa asuneiden henkilöiden profiileja. Under construction.


Narva I Tallinn-Reval I Tartto I

Riga I Daugavpils I


History

Archaeological evidence of the first permanent settlement on the site of modern Tartu dates to as early as the 5th century AD.[5][6] By the 7th century, local inhabitants had built a wooden fortification on the east side of Toome Hill (Toomemägi).[6]

The first documented record of the area was made in 1030 by chroniclers of Kievan Rus. Yaroslav I the Wise, Prince of Kiev, invaded the region that year, built his own fort there, and named it Yuryev[6][7] (literally "Yury's" – Yury (a Russified form of George) being Yaroslav's Christian name). Kievan rulers then collected tribute from the surrounding ancient Estonian county of Ugaunia,[citation needed] possibly until 1061, when, according to chronicles, Yuryev was burned down by Estonian tribe called Sosols.[8] Kievan Rus' again controlled Tartu from 1133 for an unknown period, possibly up to 1176/1177.[9] In the 12th century Tartu was the most notable Slavic settlement in Chud territory.[10]

Estonian amateur historian Enn Haabsaar speculates that the "Yuryev" mentioned in this context is actually Bila Tserkva, Ukraine, a town that was also founded by Yaroslav I the Wise as Yuriev about the same time, 1032.[11] His views have been criticized by historian Ain Mäesalu.[6]

Medieval bishopric

The city of Tartu in 1533

Tartu Cathedral ruins During the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century the fort of Tarbatu (or Tharbata, Tartu) was captured by the crusading Livonian Knights — also known as the Brothers of the Sword (German: Schwertbrüder) — and recaptured by Estonians on several occasions. In 1224, after Ugaunia had recognized the supremacy of Novgorod and Pskov princes who sent additional troops led by prince Vyachko of Kukenois to the fort, it was besieged and conquered for one last time by the German crusaders.[12] Subsequently, known as Dorpat (Latin: Tarbatum), Tartu became a commercial centre of considerable importance during the later Middle Ages and the capital of the semi-independent Bishopric of Dorpat.

In 1262 the army of Prince Dmitri of Pereslavl, son of Alexander Nevsky launched an assault on Dorpat, capturing and destroying the town. His troops did not manage to capture the bishop's fortress on Toome Hill. The event was recorded both in German and Old East Slavic chronicles, which also provided the first record of a settlement of German merchants and artisans which had arisen alongside the bishop's fortress.

In medieval times, after the Livonian Order was subsumed into the Teutonic Knights in 1236, the town became an important trading city. In the 1280s Dorpat joined the Hanseatic League. As in all of Estonia and Latvia, the largely German-speaking nobility, but in Tartu/Dorpat (as in Tallinn) even more so, the Baltic German bourgeoisie, the literati, dominated culture, religion, architecture, education, and politics until the late 19th century. For example, the town hall of Dorpat was designed by an architect from Rostock in Mecklenburg, while the university buildings were designed by Johann Wilhelm Krause, another German. Many, if not most, of the students, and more than 90 percent of the faculty members were of German descent, and numerous statues of notable scholars with German names can still be found in Tartu today. Most Germans left during the first half of the 20th century, in particular as part of the Heim ins Reich program of the Nazis, following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in 1939.

Swedish and Polish rule

University of Tartu main building. In 1558, tsar Ivan the Terrible invaded Tartu beginning the Livonian War. Dorpat was captured without a fight and the local bishop was imprisoned in Moscow, which effectively ended the period of local self-government. In the effect of the Truce of Jam Zapolski of 1582 the city along with southern regions of Livonian Confederation became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1598 it became the capital of the Dorpat Voivodeship of the Duchy of Livonia. A Jesuit grammar school "Gymnasium Dorpatense" was established in 1583. In addition, a translators' seminary was organized in Tartu and the city received its red and white flag from the Polish king Stephen Báthory.

The activities of both the grammar school and the seminary were stopped by the Polish–Swedish War. Already in late 1600 the forces of Charles IX of Sweden besieged the city defended by three banners of reiters and the city's burghers. Despite repeated assaults, the Swedes could not enter the city. Finally in 1601 Capt. Hermann Wrangel switched sides, assaulted the castellan and opened the gates for the Swedish forces. The town was retaken by Poland on 13 April 1603 following a brief siege led by hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz; roughly 1000 Swedish soldiers surrendered and were escorted to Tallinn.

In the effect of yet another Polish-Swedish War, in 1625 Tartu was once again captured by Sweden, this time for good. In the effect of the 1629 Truce of Altmark the city became part of the Dominions of Sweden, which led to the foundation of the University of Tartu in 1632 by king Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.

Imperial Russia

The Stone Bridge and the Old Town in 1860 With the Treaty of Nystad in 1721, the city became part of the Russian Empire and was known as Derpt. Fires in the 18th century destroyed much of the medieval architecture, the Great Fire of Tartu in 1775 removed most of the buildings in the centre. The city was rebuilt along Late Baroque and Neoclassical lines including the Tartu Town Hall which was built between 1782 and 1789.[13]

During the second half of the 19th century, Tartu was the cultural centre for Estonians in the era of Romantic nationalism. The city hosted Estonia's first song festival in 1869. Vanemuine, the first national theatre, was established in 1870. Tartu was also the setting for the foundation of the Society of Estonian Writers in 1872.

Tartu Town Hall Tartu railway station was opened in 1876 when Tapa–Tartu route was built. The station building was opened in 1877.

In 1893, the city was officially retitled to the ancient Russian name Yuryev. The university was subsequently russified from 1895 on with the introduction of compulsory Russian in teaching. Much of the university property was relocated to Voronezh in 1918 and during the German occupation the University worked under the name Landesuniversität Dorpat. During the Estonian War of Independence university of Tartu was re-opened as an Estonian language university on 1 December 1919. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartu


Historical affiliations

  • Ugandi County pre-1030
  • Kievan Rus' 1030–1061
  • Ugandi County 1061–1134
  • Kievan Rus' 1134
  • Ugandi County 1134–1191/1192
  • Kievan Rus' 1191/1192
  • Ugandi County 1191/1192–1220
  • Livonian Brothers of the Sword 1220–1223
  • Ugandi County 1223
  • Novgorod Republic 1223–1224
  • Bishopric of Dorpat 1224–1558
  • Tsardom of Russia 1558–1582
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1582–1600
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1600–1603
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1603–1625
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1625–1656
  • Tsardom of Russia 1656–1661
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1661–1704
  • > Tsardom of Russia 1704–1721
  • > Russian Empire 1721–1917
  • Russian Republic 1917
  • Russian Soviet Republic 1917–1918
  • Republic of Estonia 1918
  • Ober Ost 1918
  • United Baltic Duchy 1918
  • Republic of Estonia 1918
  • Commune of the Working People of Estonia 1918–1919
  • Republic of Estonia 1919–1940
  • Republic of Estonia (Soviet occupation) 1940
  • Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic 1940
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1940–1941
  • German Military Administration 1941
  • Reichskommissariat Ostland 1941–1944
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1944–1990
  • Republic of Estonia (in transition) 1990–1991
  • Republic of Estonia 1991–onwards

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartu

Start 8.4.2018.

Tähän projektiin voi etsiä ja lisätä Tartossa asuneiden henkilöiden profiileja. Under construction


Narva I Tallinn-Reval I Tartto I

Riga I Daugavpils I


Historical affiliations

  • Ugandi County pre-1030
  • Kievan Rus' 1030–1061
  • Ugandi County 1061–1134
  • Kievan Rus' 1134
  • Ugandi County 1134–1191/1192
  • Kievan Rus' 1191/1192
  • Ugandi County 1191/1192–1220
  • Livonian Brothers of the Sword 1220–1223
  • Ugandi County 1223
  • Novgorod Republic 1223–1224
  • Bishopric of Dorpat 1224–1558
  • Tsardom of Russia 1558–1582
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1582–1600
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1600–1603
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1603–1625
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1625–1656
  • Tsardom of Russia 1656–1661
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1661–1704
  • > Tsardom of Russia 1704–1721
  • > Russian Empire 1721–1917
  • Russian Republic 1917
  • Russian Soviet Republic 1917–1918
  • Republic of Estonia 1918
  • Ober Ost 1918
  • United Baltic Duchy 1918
  • Republic of Estonia 1918
  • Commune of the Working People of Estonia 1918–1919
  • Republic of Estonia 1919–1940
  • Republic of Estonia (Soviet occupation) 1940
  • Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic 1940
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1940–1941
  • German Military Administration 1941
  • Reichskommissariat Ostland 1941–1944
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1944–1990
  • Republic of Estonia (in transition) 1990–1991
  • Republic of Estonia 1991–onwards

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartu




Start 8.4.2018.
Under construction

Tähän projektiin voi etsiä ja lisätä Tartossa asuneiden henkilöiden profiileja.


Narva I Tallinn-Reval I Tartto I

Riika I Väinänlinna I


Historia

Tartto on Viron vanhin ja Pohjois-Euroopan vanhimpia kaupunkeja. Ensimmäinen kirjallinen maininta siitä on vuodelta 1030[8][9].

Tartto vuonna 1554. Venäläisten, saksalaisten, puolalaisten ja ruotsalaisten kiistakapula Arkeologiset tutkimukset osoittavat, että Tarton kohdalla Toomemäen laella on ollut virolaisten muinaislinna jo 400-luvulla. Vuonna 1030 Kiovan ruhtinas Jaroslav I Viisas valloitti Tarbatun ja rakensi paikalle linnoituksen, josta on käytetty nimeä Jurjevin linnoitus.[8][9] Tarton kautta kulkivat kauppatiet Suomenlahdelta länteen liiviläisten maille sekä itään Pihkovan ja Novgorodin valtakuntiin. Virolaiset valtasivat Tarton takaisin vuonna 1061.[10].

Saksalaiset ristiritarit valloittivat Liivinmaan ja Vironmaan useita kertoja. Vuonna 1224 Tartto päätyi saksalaisten käsiin.[10] Saksalaiskaudella kaupunki oli piispan valtapiirissä. Piispanlinna mainitaan kirjallisissa lähteissä 1234.[11] Venäläiset hyökkäsivät Tarttoon vuonna 1262, ja aiemmin on oletettu että kaupunginmuurin rakentaminen alkoi pian sen jälkeen, mutta uudemmat tutkimukset ajoittavat muurin rakentamisen 1300-luvun alkupuolelle, jolloin kaupungin suunnitelma oli valmis.[12] Muurin rakentamisen aloituksesta ei ole kirjallisia mainintoja.[13]

Tuolloin siitä käytettiin nimeä Tarbatu. Vanhat linnoitusrakennelmat jäivät saksalaisten piispanlinnoituksen muurien alle. Toomemäen pohjoisosaan alettiin rakentaa Baltian suurinta kirkkoa, Pyhän Dionysiuksen tuomiokirkkoa, joka jäi pois käytöstä uskonpuhdistuksen levittyä alueelle vuonna 1525.[14][15]

1200-luvun lopusta lähtien Tartto kuului Hansaliittoon saksalaisella nimellä Dorpat. Kun Pihkova ja Novgorod joutuivat Moskovan valtapiiriin, Tarton merkitys kauppakaupunkina väheni.[10]

Liivinmaan sodassa 1500-luvun jälkipuolella venäläiset valloittivat Tarton. Sen jälkeen valta vaihtui tiuhaan tahtiin, kun venäläisten jälkeen tulivat puolalaiset, sitten ruotsalaiset, kunnes taas puolalaiset. Venäläisvalta kesti pisimpään (1558–1582), mutta Venäjän–Puolan rauhansopimuksessa 1583 Tartto jäi Puolalle. Jesuiitat perustivat Tarttoon 1583 Viron ensimmäisen korkeakoulun, kymnaasin.[10] Kaupunkiin saapuneet jesuiitat alkoivat käännyttää katolisuuteen takaisin virolaisia, jotka eivät olleet ehtineet omaksua uudistettua, luterilaista uskoa. Käännytysyritykset eivät vaikuttaneet saksalaisiin, jotka pysyivät luterilaisina[16][17].

Kaupunki joutui jälleen Ruotsin valtaan 1625,[10] ja jesuiittojen käännytystyö päättyi[16]. Vuonna 1630 ruotsalaiset perustivat sinne kymnaasin[18] ja 1631 kirjapainon. Seuraavana vuonna (1632) perustettiin Tarton yliopisto, Academia Dorpatensis,[19] josta kaupunki erityisesti tunnetaan. Kansalta alettiin edellyttää lukutaitoa, ja siksi tarvittiin opettajia. Tarttoon perustettiin koko Ruotsin valtakunnan ensimmäinen kyläkoulunopettajien seminaari, niin sanottu Forseliuksen seminaari.[20] https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartto

Tsaarin aika ja kansallinen herääminen Suuressa Pohjan sodassa venäläiset pääsivät taas Tarton isänniksi. Ruotsalaiset siirsivät yliopiston sodalta turvaan Pärnuun, ennen kuin sen toiminta lakkasi kokonaan.[19] Ruotsalaisten paluuta pelätessään venäläiset karkottivat vuonna 1708 kaupungin lähes kaikki saksalaiset asukkaat Venäjälle[21] ja hävittivät kaupungin talot ja puolustusrakennelmat.[22]

Vuodesta 1782 lähtien Tartto ei ole ollut enää linnoituskaupunki. Tuolloin Toomemäki siirtyi kaupungin hallintaan. Asukkaita kaupungissa oli 1800-luvun alussa 3 500.[26] Yliopisto avattiin uudelleen vuonna 1802[23]. Sen ansiosta kaupungin elämä vilkastui, ja se alkoi kasvaa nopeaan tahtiin, niin että ensimmäisen virallisen väestönlaskennan mukaan vuonna 1881 asukkaita oli 30 000[27] ja vuonna 1897 jo 42 000.[28] Vuonna 1876 Tartto sai rautatien, joka yhdisti sen Tallinnaan ja sitä kautta Pietariin. Myöhemmin rautatieyhteyttä jatkettiin Valgaan ja Riikaan.[29]

Kaupunki toipui sodasta hitaasti, ja 1700-luvun kuluessa kaupunkia tuhosivat myös tulipalot vuosina 1755, 1763 ja pahimmin 1775, jolloin kaupungista tuhoutui kaksi kolmasosaa. Sen jälkeen, keisarinna Katariina Suuren hallintokaudella, Tartto rakennettiin lopullisesti uudelleen. Keisarinna lahjoitti kaupungille myös Kivisillan,[23] joka oli ensimmäinen pysyvä silta joen yli ja koko Baltian ensimmäinen kivisilta[24][25].

Tartto oli yliopiston ansiosta koko Vironmaan ja Liivinmaan henkinen keskus. Siitä tuli myös Viron kansallisen heräämisen keskipiste 1800-luvun loppupuolella.[30] Kaupungissa alkoi ilmestyä Eesti Postimees -sanomalehti[31] ja siellä perustettiin 1865 Vanemuine-yhdistys[32]. Tartossa perustettiin myös Eesti Kirjameeste Selts (Viron kirjailijoiden seura)[33] ja Õpetatud Eesti Selts (Viron sivistysseura)[34 https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartto

Tartto oli yliopiston ansiosta koko Vironmaan ja Liivinmaan henkinen keskus. Siitä tuli myös Viron kansallisen heräämisen keskipiste 1800-luvun loppupuolella.[30] Kaupungissa alkoi ilmestyä Eesti Postimees -sanomalehti[31] ja siellä perustettiin 1865 Vanemuine-yhdistys[32]. Tartossa perustettiin myös Eesti Kirjameeste Selts (Viron kirjailijoiden seura)[33] ja Õpetatud Eesti Selts (Viron sivistysseura)[34]. Tartossa aloitti toimintansa myös ensimmäinen vironkielinen oppikoulu, Miina Härman koulu vuonna 1906[35].

Lokakuun vallankumouksen jälkeen tilanne Virossa oli pitkään epäselvä. 24. helmikuuta 1918 Viro julistettiin itsenäiseksi, mutta käytännössä saksalaiset miehittävät maan ja etenivät etelästä kohti Tallinnaa, jolloin Tarttokin joutui saksalaisten ankaran miehityksen alle.[36] Vallankumous Saksassa pakotti saksalaiset miehitysjoukot lähtemään, ja seuraavaksi kaupunki joutui Viron työkansan kommuunin joukkojen hirmuhallinnon alle 22. joulukuuta 1918.lähde? Viron joukot vapauttivat kaupungin lopulta 14. tammikuuta 1919 Julius Kuperjanovin johdolla[37].

Kaupungin nimi oli vuosina 1893–1919 jälleen Jurjev (ven. Юрьев).[8][9] Tämän nimisenä Liivinmaan kuvernementin kihlakuntakaupunkina se on esimerkiksi vuoden 1897 väestönlaskennassa.[38]

Itsenäisen Viron sivistyspääkaupunki Tartossa solmittiin rauhansopimukset Neuvosto-Venäjän ja Viron välillä 2. helmikuuta 1920[39] ja Suomen ja Neuvosto-Venäjän välillä 14. lokakuuta 1920[40]. Itsenäisessä Virossa Tarton asema sivistyspääkaupunkina säilyi ja jopa vahvistui. Kaupungissa toimi kansallinen yliopisto, musiikkikorkeakoulu, taideyhdistys Pallas ja sen perustama taidekoulu Pallas.

https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartto


Historical affiliations

  • Ugandi County pre-1030
  • Kievan Rus' 1030–1061
  • Ugandi County 1061–1134
  • Kievan Rus' 1134
  • Ugandi County 1134–1191/1192
  • Kievan Rus' 1191/1192
  • Ugandi County 1191/1192–1220
  • Livonian Brothers of the Sword 1220–1223
  • Ugandi County 1223
  • Novgorod Republic 1223–1224
  • Bishopric of Dorpat 1224–1558
  • Tsardom of Russia 1558–1582
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1582–1600
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1600–1603
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1603–1625
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1625–1656
  • Tsardom of Russia 1656–1661
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1661–1704
  • > Tsardom of Russia 1704–1721
  • > Russian Empire 1721–1917
  • Russian Republic 1917
  • Russian Soviet Republic 1917–1918
  • Republic of Estonia 1918
  • Ober Ost 1918
  • United Baltic Duchy 1918
  • Republic of Estonia 1918
  • Commune of the Working People of Estonia 1918–1919
  • Republic of Estonia 1919–1940
  • Republic of Estonia (Soviet occupation) 1940
  • Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic 1940
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1940–1941
  • German Military Administration 1941
  • Reichskommissariat Ostland 1941–1944
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1944–1990
  • Republic of Estonia (in transition) 1990–1991
  • Republic of Estonia 1991–onwards

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartu




Lähteet:

  • A. R. Cederberg, Suomalainen aines Baltian kirkon ja koulun palveluksessa vuoden 1561:n jälkeen. SSV 21 (1937)

Start 8.4.2018.

Tähän projektiin voi etsiä ja lisätä Tartossa asuneiden henkilöiden profiileja. Under construction.


Narva I Tallinn-Reval I Tartto I

Riga I Daugavpils I


History

Archaeological evidence of the first permanent settlement on the site of modern Tartu dates to as early as the 5th century AD.[5][6] By the 7th century, local inhabitants had built a wooden fortification on the east side of Toome Hill (Toomemägi).[6]

The first documented record of the area was made in 1030 by chroniclers of Kievan Rus. Yaroslav I the Wise, Prince of Kiev, invaded the region that year, built his own fort there, and named it Yuryev[6][7] (literally "Yury's" – Yury (a Russified form of George) being Yaroslav's Christian name). Kievan rulers then collected tribute from the surrounding ancient Estonian county of Ugaunia,[citation needed] possibly until 1061, when, according to chronicles, Yuryev was burned down by Estonian tribe called Sosols.[8] Kievan Rus' again controlled Tartu from 1133 for an unknown period, possibly up to 1176/1177.[9] In the 12th century Tartu was the most notable Slavic settlement in Chud territory.[10]

Estonian amateur historian Enn Haabsaar speculates that the "Yuryev" mentioned in this context is actually Bila Tserkva, Ukraine, a town that was also founded by Yaroslav I the Wise as Yuriev about the same time, 1032.[11] His views have been criticized by historian Ain Mäesalu.[6]

Medieval bishopric

The city of Tartu in 1533

Tartu Cathedral ruins During the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century the fort of Tarbatu (or Tharbata, Tartu) was captured by the crusading Livonian Knights — also known as the Brothers of the Sword (German: Schwertbrüder) — and recaptured by Estonians on several occasions. In 1224, after Ugaunia had recognized the supremacy of Novgorod and Pskov princes who sent additional troops led by prince Vyachko of Kukenois to the fort, it was besieged and conquered for one last time by the German crusaders.[12] Subsequently, known as Dorpat (Latin: Tarbatum), Tartu became a commercial centre of considerable importance during the later Middle Ages and the capital of the semi-independent Bishopric of Dorpat.

In 1262 the army of Prince Dmitri of Pereslavl, son of Alexander Nevsky launched an assault on Dorpat, capturing and destroying the town. His troops did not manage to capture the bishop's fortress on Toome Hill. The event was recorded both in German and Old East Slavic chronicles, which also provided the first record of a settlement of German merchants and artisans which had arisen alongside the bishop's fortress.

In medieval times, after the Livonian Order was subsumed into the Teutonic Knights in 1236, the town became an important trading city. In the 1280s Dorpat joined the Hanseatic League. As in all of Estonia and Latvia, the largely German-speaking nobility, but in Tartu/Dorpat (as in Tallinn) even more so, the Baltic German bourgeoisie, the literati, dominated culture, religion, architecture, education, and politics until the late 19th century. For example, the town hall of Dorpat was designed by an architect from Rostock in Mecklenburg, while the university buildings were designed by Johann Wilhelm Krause, another German. Many, if not most, of the students, and more than 90 percent of the faculty members were of German descent, and numerous statues of notable scholars with German names can still be found in Tartu today. Most Germans left during the first half of the 20th century, in particular as part of the Heim ins Reich program of the Nazis, following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in 1939.

Swedish and Polish rule

University of Tartu main building. In 1558, tsar Ivan the Terrible invaded Tartu beginning the Livonian War. Dorpat was captured without a fight and the local bishop was imprisoned in Moscow, which effectively ended the period of local self-government. In the effect of the Truce of Jam Zapolski of 1582 the city along with southern regions of Livonian Confederation became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1598 it became the capital of the Dorpat Voivodeship of the Duchy of Livonia. A Jesuit grammar school "Gymnasium Dorpatense" was established in 1583. In addition, a translators' seminary was organized in Tartu and the city received its red and white flag from the Polish king Stephen Báthory.

The activities of both the grammar school and the seminary were stopped by the Polish–Swedish War. Already in late 1600 the forces of Charles IX of Sweden besieged the city defended by three banners of reiters and the city's burghers. Despite repeated assaults, the Swedes could not enter the city. Finally in 1601 Capt. Hermann Wrangel switched sides, assaulted the castellan and opened the gates for the Swedish forces. The town was retaken by Poland on 13 April 1603 following a brief siege led by hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz; roughly 1000 Swedish soldiers surrendered and were escorted to Tallinn.

In the effect of yet another Polish-Swedish War, in 1625 Tartu was once again captured by Sweden, this time for good. In the effect of the 1629 Truce of Altmark the city became part of the Dominions of Sweden, which led to the foundation of the University of Tartu in 1632 by king Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.

Imperial Russia

The Stone Bridge and the Old Town in 1860 With the Treaty of Nystad in 1721, the city became part of the Russian Empire and was known as Derpt. Fires in the 18th century destroyed much of the medieval architecture, the Great Fire of Tartu in 1775 removed most of the buildings in the centre. The city was rebuilt along Late Baroque and Neoclassical lines including the Tartu Town Hall which was built between 1782 and 1789.[13]

During the second half of the 19th century, Tartu was the cultural centre for Estonians in the era of Romantic nationalism. The city hosted Estonia's first song festival in 1869. Vanemuine, the first national theatre, was established in 1870. Tartu was also the setting for the foundation of the Society of Estonian Writers in 1872.

Tartu Town Hall Tartu railway station was opened in 1876 when Tapa–Tartu route was built. The station building was opened in 1877.

In 1893, the city was officially retitled to the ancient Russian name Yuryev. The university was subsequently russified from 1895 on with the introduction of compulsory Russian in teaching. Much of the university property was relocated to Voronezh in 1918 and during the German occupation the University worked under the name Landesuniversität Dorpat. During the Estonian War of Independence university of Tartu was re-opened as an Estonian language university on 1 December 1919. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartu


Historical affiliations

  • Ugandi County pre-1030
  • Kievan Rus' 1030–1061
  • Ugandi County 1061–1134
  • Kievan Rus' 1134
  • Ugandi County 1134–1191/1192
  • Kievan Rus' 1191/1192
  • Ugandi County 1191/1192–1220
  • Livonian Brothers of the Sword 1220–1223
  • Ugandi County 1223
  • Novgorod Republic 1223–1224
  • Bishopric of Dorpat 1224–1558
  • Tsardom of Russia 1558–1582
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1582–1600
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1600–1603
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1603–1625
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1625–1656
  • Tsardom of Russia 1656–1661
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1661–1704
  • > Tsardom of Russia 1704–1721
  • > Russian Empire 1721–1917
  • Russian Republic 1917
  • Russian Soviet Republic 1917–1918
  • Republic of Estonia 1918
  • Ober Ost 1918
  • United Baltic Duchy 1918
  • Republic of Estonia 1918
  • Commune of the Working People of Estonia 1918–1919
  • Republic of Estonia 1919–1940
  • Republic of Estonia (Soviet occupation) 1940
  • Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic 1940
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1940–1941
  • German Military Administration 1941
  • Reichskommissariat Ostland 1941–1944
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1944–1990
  • Republic of Estonia (in transition) 1990–1991
  • Republic of Estonia 1991–onwards

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartu

Start 8.4.2018.

Tähän projektiin voi etsiä ja lisätä Tartossa asuneiden henkilöiden profiileja. Under construction.


Narva I Tallinn-Reval I Tartto I

Riga I Daugavpils I


History

Archaeological evidence of the first permanent settlement on the site of modern Tartu dates to as early as the 5th century AD.[5][6] By the 7th century, local inhabitants had built a wooden fortification on the east side of Toome Hill (Toomemägi).[6]

The first documented record of the area was made in 1030 by chroniclers of Kievan Rus. Yaroslav I the Wise, Prince of Kiev, invaded the region that year, built his own fort there, and named it Yuryev[6][7] (literally "Yury's" – Yury (a Russified form of George) being Yaroslav's Christian name). Kievan rulers then collected tribute from the surrounding ancient Estonian county of Ugaunia,[citation needed] possibly until 1061, when, according to chronicles, Yuryev was burned down by Estonian tribe called Sosols.[8] Kievan Rus' again controlled Tartu from 1133 for an unknown period, possibly up to 1176/1177.[9] In the 12th century Tartu was the most notable Slavic settlement in Chud territory.[10]

Estonian amateur historian Enn Haabsaar speculates that the "Yuryev" mentioned in this context is actually Bila Tserkva, Ukraine, a town that was also founded by Yaroslav I the Wise as Yuriev about the same time, 1032.[11] His views have been criticized by historian Ain Mäesalu.[6]

Medieval bishopric

The city of Tartu in 1533

Tartu Cathedral ruins During the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century the fort of Tarbatu (or Tharbata, Tartu) was captured by the crusading Livonian Knights — also known as the Brothers of the Sword (German: Schwertbrüder) — and recaptured by Estonians on several occasions. In 1224, after Ugaunia had recognized the supremacy of Novgorod and Pskov princes who sent additional troops led by prince Vyachko of Kukenois to the fort, it was besieged and conquered for one last time by the German crusaders.[12] Subsequently, known as Dorpat (Latin: Tarbatum), Tartu became a commercial centre of considerable importance during the later Middle Ages and the capital of the semi-independent Bishopric of Dorpat.

In 1262 the army of Prince Dmitri of Pereslavl, son of Alexander Nevsky launched an assault on Dorpat, capturing and destroying the town. His troops did not manage to capture the bishop's fortress on Toome Hill. The event was recorded both in German and Old East Slavic chronicles, which also provided the first record of a settlement of German merchants and artisans which had arisen alongside the bishop's fortress.

In medieval times, after the Livonian Order was subsumed into the Teutonic Knights in 1236, the town became an important trading city. In the 1280s Dorpat joined the Hanseatic League. As in all of Estonia and Latvia, the largely German-speaking nobility, but in Tartu/Dorpat (as in Tallinn) even more so, the Baltic German bourgeoisie, the literati, dominated culture, religion, architecture, education, and politics until the late 19th century. For example, the town hall of Dorpat was designed by an architect from Rostock in Mecklenburg, while the university buildings were designed by Johann Wilhelm Krause, another German. Many, if not most, of the students, and more than 90 percent of the faculty members were of German descent, and numerous statues of notable scholars with German names can still be found in Tartu today. Most Germans left during the first half of the 20th century, in particular as part of the Heim ins Reich program of the Nazis, following the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in 1939.

Swedish and Polish rule

University of Tartu main building. In 1558, tsar Ivan the Terrible invaded Tartu beginning the Livonian War. Dorpat was captured without a fight and the local bishop was imprisoned in Moscow, which effectively ended the period of local self-government. In the effect of the Truce of Jam Zapolski of 1582 the city along with southern regions of Livonian Confederation became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1598 it became the capital of the Dorpat Voivodeship of the Duchy of Livonia. A Jesuit grammar school "Gymnasium Dorpatense" was established in 1583. In addition, a translators' seminary was organized in Tartu and the city received its red and white flag from the Polish king Stephen Báthory.

The activities of both the grammar school and the seminary were stopped by the Polish–Swedish War. Already in late 1600 the forces of Charles IX of Sweden besieged the city defended by three banners of reiters and the city's burghers. Despite repeated assaults, the Swedes could not enter the city. Finally in 1601 Capt. Hermann Wrangel switched sides, assaulted the castellan and opened the gates for the Swedish forces. The town was retaken by Poland on 13 April 1603 following a brief siege led by hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz; roughly 1000 Swedish soldiers surrendered and were escorted to Tallinn.

In the effect of yet another Polish-Swedish War, in 1625 Tartu was once again captured by Sweden, this time for good. In the effect of the 1629 Truce of Altmark the city became part of the Dominions of Sweden, which led to the foundation of the University of Tartu in 1632 by king Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.

Imperial Russia

The Stone Bridge and the Old Town in 1860 With the Treaty of Nystad in 1721, the city became part of the Russian Empire and was known as Derpt. Fires in the 18th century destroyed much of the medieval architecture, the Great Fire of Tartu in 1775 removed most of the buildings in the centre. The city was rebuilt along Late Baroque and Neoclassical lines including the Tartu Town Hall which was built between 1782 and 1789.[13]

During the second half of the 19th century, Tartu was the cultural centre for Estonians in the era of Romantic nationalism. The city hosted Estonia's first song festival in 1869. Vanemuine, the first national theatre, was established in 1870. Tartu was also the setting for the foundation of the Society of Estonian Writers in 1872.

Tartu Town Hall Tartu railway station was opened in 1876 when Tapa–Tartu route was built. The station building was opened in 1877.

In 1893, the city was officially retitled to the ancient Russian name Yuryev. The university was subsequently russified from 1895 on with the introduction of compulsory Russian in teaching. Much of the university property was relocated to Voronezh in 1918 and during the German occupation the University worked under the name Landesuniversität Dorpat. During the Estonian War of Independence university of Tartu was re-opened as an Estonian language university on 1 December 1919. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartu


Historical affiliations

  • Ugandi County pre-1030
  • Kievan Rus' 1030–1061
  • Ugandi County 1061–1134
  • Kievan Rus' 1134
  • Ugandi County 1134–1191/1192
  • Kievan Rus' 1191/1192
  • Ugandi County 1191/1192–1220
  • Livonian Brothers of the Sword 1220–1223
  • Ugandi County 1223
  • Novgorod Republic 1223–1224
  • Bishopric of Dorpat 1224–1558
  • Tsardom of Russia 1558–1582
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1582–1600
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1600–1603
  • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1603–1625
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1625–1656
  • Tsardom of Russia 1656–1661
  • Kingdom of Sweden 1661–1704
  • > Tsardom of Russia 1704–1721
  • > Russian Empire 1721–1917
  • Russian Republic 1917
  • Russian Soviet Republic 1917–1918
  • Republic of Estonia 1918
  • Ober Ost 1918
  • United Baltic Duchy 1918
  • Republic of Estonia 1918
  • Commune of the Working People of Estonia 1918–1919
  • Republic of Estonia 1919–1940
  • Republic of Estonia (Soviet occupation) 1940
  • Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic 1940
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1940–1941
  • German Military Administration 1941
  • Reichskommissariat Ostland 1941–1944
  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1944–1990
  • Republic of Estonia (in transition) 1990–1991
  • Republic of Estonia 1991–onwards

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartu