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  • William Sloan Tough (1840 - 1904)
    William Sloan Tough aka "Captain Tough", "Tufts" or "Tuff" (May 19, 1840 – May 24, 1904) was a member of the guerrilla or irregular forces called the Kansas Red Legs. The Kansas Red Legs fought on th...
  • Lt. Colonel Axalla J. Hoole (CSA) (1822 - 1863)
    John Hoole was of English decent, his grandfather, Joseph Hoole, having emigrated from York, England, about the close of the Revolutionary War, and settled at Georgetown, S. C.James C. Hoole, the fathe...
  • Perry Fuller (1827 - 1871)
    Fuller: Indian Agent, Self-Made Man, and White-Collar CriminalFuller was a Kansas territorial representative and senator. Fuller was the leading scoundrel in 1860s Kansas politics. He stole money from ...
  • Brevet Maj. General William S. Harney (1800 - 1889)
    Selby Harney (22 August 1800 – 9 May 1889) was a cavalry officer in the U.S. Army during the Mexican-American War and the Indian Wars. He was born in what is today part of Nashville, Tennessee but at t...
  • John Winter Robinson, 1st Secretary of State of Kansas (1824 - 1863)
    Secretary of State of Kansas. Impeached, found guilty and dismissed from office. No criminal charges were ever filed. (Term of Office: February 9, 1861 - July 28, 1862)In October of 1862, John W. Robin...

"Abolitionism proposes to destroy the right and extinguish the principle of self-government for which our forefathers waged a seven years' bloody war, and upon which our whole system of free government is founded." -- Senator Stephen A. Douglas, in a speech in the Senate Chamber, March 3, 1854
"Come on, then, gentlemen of the slave states. Since there is no escaping your challenge, we accept it in the name of freedom. We will engage in competition for the virgin soil of Kansas, and God give the victory to the side which is stronger in numbers, as it is in right." -- Senator William Seward, on the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, May 1854
"I am a Border Ruffian from the State of Missouri; I am a Connecticut Yankee by adoption. In me you have Missouri morals, Connecticut culture -- this, gentlemen, is the combination which makes the perfect man." -- Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens)

Bleeding Kansas: An Overview

Between 1844 and 1848, pro-slavery (states' rights) and anti-slavery (free state) forces in the U.S. fought against each other in the Kansas Territory. As described by Wikipedia:

Bleeding Kansas (also called Bloody Kansas or the Border War) was a series of violent events, involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri roughly between 1854 and 1858. At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free state or slave state. As such, Bleeding Kansas was a proxy war between Northerners and Southerners over the issue of slavery in the United States. The term "Bleeding Kansas" was coined by Horace Greeley of the New York Tribune; the events it encompasses directly presaged the American Civil War.

Between 1844 and 1858, there were 55 known deaths in the Kansas Territory attributed to the fighting. Thousands of migrant families swarmed into the territory, many driven by their own fierce ideological beliefs regarding slavery and statehood.

For more historical background, read the excellent summary from PBS' "Africans in America" project or the collection of primary source excerpts from Assumption College.

Territorial Kansas Online:

The Project: Current Work

Right now, this umbrella project serves as the place to put any profile associated with the Bleeding Kansas period. We can then sort the profiles into different categories to create relevant sub-projects.

There is currently one sub-project, for families that arrived in the Kansas Territory through the New England Emigrant Aid Company:

Future sub-projects will hopefully include (but are not limited to):

Genealogical Sources

Most available secondary sources on the Bleeding Kansas period tell the story from the perspective of the victorious Free-Staters, so we must exercise particular caution with them in this project. Primary sources, especially lists of migrants, are the best to consult. A suggested reading list is forthcoming.