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  • Nathaniel Beal (bef.1620 - 1708)
    Family of John Beal and Frances Ripley: Nathaniel Beal. Born ca 1620 in Hingham, Norfolk. Nathaniel was baptized in Hingham, Norfolk, 2 Mar 1620/1. Nathaniel died in Hingham, MA on 20 Dec 1708.45 Occ...
  • John Roe (1628 - bef.1714)
    Biography John1 ROE was b. 1628. John d. 1714 at 86 yrs. His body was interred Cedar Hill Cemt. He settled first in Massachusetts. He was in Southold in 1652 or 1653, Southampton, Long Isla nd, NY ...
  • Robert Cade of MD (aft.1660 - c.1721)
    Not the same as Robert Cade, Sr., of New Kent NOT Robert Cade of New Kent County, VA! Robert Cade, planter and cordwinder [cordwainer?] of Somerset Co, MD, who by 16 May 1696 had moved to Lewes Cou...
  • Capt. Henry Eaton (1704 - 1790)
    Captain Henry Eaton Born January 22 1703/1704 and Baptized June 11 1704: Married Mary True, daughter of Ensign Henry True on Aug 10 1727. He was a commissioned Ensign in the local militia, at the ear...
  • John Glover, of Marblehead (aft.1630 - 1695)
    Origins From The parents of John Glover aren't known. Some have supposed that they were Charles Glover, of Southold and Elizabeth , who were in Salem briefly before moving to Gloucester. With his s...

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the shoe trades

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What is a Cordwainer?

from The Honorable Cordwainer's Company

An Ancient Calling

The term "cordwainer" is an Anglicization of the French word cordonnier, which means shoemaker, introduced into the English language after the Norman invasion in 1066. The word was derived from the city of Cordoba in the south of Spain, a stronghold of the mighty Omeyyad Kalifs until its fall in the 12th century. Moorish Cordoba was celebrated in the early Middle Ages for silversmithing and the production of cordouan leather, called "cordwain" in England.

Since the Middle Ages the title of cordwainer has been selected by the shoemakers and used loosely. Generally it refered to a certain class of boot and shoemakers. The first English guild who called themselves cordwainers was founded at Oxford in 1131. "Cordwainers" was also the choice of the London shoemakers, who organized a guild before 1160, and the Worshipful Company of Cordwainers has used this title since receiving its first Ordinances in 1272.

First Cordwainers in America

The first English cordwainers, or shoemakers, landed at Jamestown, Virginia, established in 1607 ... Captain John Smith has been alleged to have been a cordwainer, but this is unlikely. This historic adventure of settlement was in part supported by investments made by the London cordwainers.

Shoemakers, tanners, and other tradesmen arrived in Jamestown by 1610, and the secretary of Virginia recorded flourishing shoe and leather trades there by 1616. The first English shoemaker to arrive in America whose name has been preserved, was Christopher Nelme, who sailed from Bristol, England and reached Virginia in 1619. Nearly one year later, the first Pilgrim settlers landed in Massachusetts. The first shoemakers who followed the trade there arrived in 1629.

"Cordwainer" not "Cobbler"

A distinction preserved by cordwainers since the earliest times is, that a cordwainer works only with new leather, whereas a cobbler works with old. Cobblers have always been repairers, frequently prohibited by law from making shoes.

Whenever shoemakers have organized, they have shown a clear preference for the title cordwainer, conscious of the distinguished history and tradition it conveys. Today's cordwainer is no exception.