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Doggerland is a name given by archaeologists and geologists to a former landmass in the southern North Sea that connected the island of Great Britain to mainland Europe during and after the last Ice Age, surviving until about 6,500 or 6,200 BCE and then gradually being flooded by rising sea levels. Geological surveys have suggested that Doggerland was a large area of dry land that stretched from Britain's east coast across to the present coast of the Netherlands and the western coasts of Germany and Denmark. Doggerland was a rich habitat with human habitation in the Mesolithic period.

Around 6100 BC, large parts of the now submerged North Sea continental shelf (Doggerland) were catastrophically flooded by the Storegga Slide tsunami, one of the largest tsunamis knownfor the Holocene, which was generated on the Norwegian coastal margin by a submarine landslide.

Although Doggerland was physically submerged through a gradual rise in sea level, it has been suggested that coastal areas of both Britain and mainland Europe, extending over areas which are now submerged, would have been inundated by a tsunami triggered by the Storegga Slide. This event would have had a catastrophic impact on the contemporary Mesolithic population, and separated cultures in Britain from those on the European mainland.

Haplogroup I2a2a (M223)


Haplogroup I2a2a (M223)

I2a2a (formerly I2b1) amounts to over 90% of I2a2.

I2a2a1 (M284+) occurs almost exclusively in Britain, where it seemingly developed about 3,000 years ago.

I2a2a2 (L701+) has a very wide distribution. It is found in all Central Europe from Germany and the former Austrian Empire to Poland, Romania and Ukraine, but also in lower frequencies in Greece, Italy, France, Spain, England, Ireland, and Armenia. It could have been disseminated in part by the Goths. It is conspicuously absent from Scandinavia and Scotland. L701+ matches the I2 Continental 3 clade at Family Tree DNA.

I2a2a3 (Z161+) is commonly known as the I2 Continental clade (except Continental 3). It is the largest of the four subclades of I2a2a and is found predominantly in Germanic countries, with a particularly high concentration in Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, England and in Northwest Sicily (Norman settlement). It is also found at lower densities throughout the rest of Europe, from Portugal to Russia. I2-Z161 is thought to have been propagated around Europe by the Danish Vikings (Britain, Normandy, Sicily), the Swedish Vikings (Baltic, Russia, Ukraine), the Goths (Moldova, Balkans, Italy, south-west France, Spain), the Suebi (Portugal and Galicia), the Lombards (attested by a hotspot in Campobasso, Molise), and the Franks (Rhineland, Belgium).

I2a2a4 (L1229+) is typical of England, Normandy (and other parts of France) as well as central and northern Germany. It is also found among English surnames in Ireland, although not Norman ones (but rather Anglo-Saxon ones). Its much higher density in Germany and England than in Denmark or France, and its absence from Sicily, indicate that it is probably an <b>Anglo-Saxon</b> lineage rather than Norman/Viking.