This project is to create a Collaborative template to defer to for the Medieval Scots tree on Geni. Please come & help to get it as correct as we can.
I've begun by using Charles Cawley's Medlands as the initial format - mostly because he's the best laid out internet resource to cut & paste from. We can edit in / over further sources, as we go, this being a very long-term project an all :-) Sharon See also the Scratchpad for research in progress ideas.
- Charles Cawley's Medieval Lands: SCOTLAND
- Charles Cawley's Medieval Lands: IRELAND
- Ainmean-Àite na h-Alba / Gaelic Place-Names of Scotland
- Stewart Baldwin & Todd Farmerie's 'Henry Project'
- Cairney, C.Thomas 'Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland -An Ethnography of the Gael A.D. 500 - 1750'
- Annales Cambriae
- Annals of the Four Masters
- The Anglo Saxon Chronicle
- The Annals of Tigernach
- The Annals of Ulster
- Chronicum Scotorum
- Landnámabók The Book of the Settlement of Iceland - English Translation
- Orkneyjar is an easy introduction to the Orkneying Saga & the history of the Vikings in Orkney
- The Orkneyingers Saga
- 'The Story of Earl Magnus' from The Orkneyingers Saga
- Ross, David: ‘Ancient Scotland’, Geddes & Grosset, Scotland 2004.
- Mackie, R.L, & Ross, J: ‘Kings & Queens of Scotland’, Geddes & Grosset, Scotland 2000.
- Hamilton, Judy: ‘Scottish Battles', Geddes & Grosset, Scotland 2004.
- Woolf, Alex: ‘From Pictland to Alba 789-107.’ Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2007.
- Guide to standardized spelling for Irish Gaelic names
- Guide to standardized spelling for Scottish Gaelic names
SCOTLAND's EARLY MIDDLE AGES (The Viking Age & its Aftermath)
The chapters on the Scottish earls and lords which are set out below are arranged in approximately chronological order of creation of the titles. The first group of seven earldoms, Angus, Atholl, Caithness, Fife, Mar, Moray and Strathearn, corresponds to the seven provinces into which Scotland north of the Firths of Forth and Clyde was divided in the 9th century, reputedly ruled by seven brothers. The ruler of each province bore the title "Ri", inferior only to the "Ardri" or Supreme King. In the 10th century, the title changed to "Mormaer" or Great Maer or Steward. During the 10th century the province of Argyll was added, and in the 11th century Buchan separated from Mar, while Caithness was conquered by the Norwegians. The earldom of Dunbar was a further creation of the early 11th century, although it was only called as such from the early 13th century. Six of these local rulers are for the first time called "comes" in the foundation charter of the monastery of Scone dated [1114/15]. According to Skene, the relationship between these rulers and their provinces was not purely territorial but connected with the tribes which occupied the land. After the accession of David I King of Scotland in 1124, the tie to the land was strengthened as the mormaerships were transformed into earldoms, the earls holding the land from the Scottish crown as tenants-in-chief in accordance with the Norman feudal system. Heredity of the mormaerships was originally in the male line only. After the introduction of the feudal system into Scotland in the 12th century, the earldoms were descendible to heirs general. (Cawley's Medlands)
(See Medieval Atholl for Detailed Version of this Summary)
1. DUNCAN, son of --- (-killed 965). Abthane of Dule, lay abbot of Dunkeld. From the house of the Kings of Ireland. Governor of Strathclyde.
2. CRINAN "the Thane", son of --- (-killed in battle 1045). Abthane of Dule. Lay abbot of Dunkeld. Steward of the Western Isles. Mormaer of Atholl. He was killed fighting King Macbeth.
Crinan & Bethoc had two children:
i) DUNCAN King DUNCAN I 1034-1040; [Donnchad], son of CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl & his wife Bethoc of the Scots (-killed in battle either Bothganowan/Pitgaveny, near Elgin, or Burghead 14 Aug 1040, buried Isle of Iona).
m () SUTHEN [SIBYLLA], [cousin of SIWARD Earl of Northumbria, daughter of ---].
King Duncan I & his wife, Sibylla of Northumbria, had:
1. MALCOLM (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, buried Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid). He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland.
[m] [firstly] ([before 1058]) Ingiborg.
King Malcolm III & Ingiborg had two children:
1. DUNCAN ([1060/65]-murdered Monthechim/Mondynes, Kincardineshire 12 Nov 1094, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).
King Duncan II & his wife had one child:
a) WILLIAM FitzDuncan ([1091/94]-[1153/54]).
2. DONALD ([1060/65]-killed in battle 1085).
m ---. The name of Donald's wife is not known.
Donald & his wife had [one possible child]:
a) LADHMANN (-killed in battle 1116).
King Malcolm III & his second wife, Margaret, had eight children:
3. EDWARD (-Edwardsisle, near Jedburgh 16 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth St Albans).
4. EDMUND (-after 1097, bur [Montacute]).
5. EDGAR (-[Dundee or Edinburgh Castle] 6 Jan 1107, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).
6. ALEXANDER ([1077/78]-Stirling Castle 23, 25 or 27 Apr 1124, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).
King Alexander I had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:
a) MALCOLM ([1105/15]-after 1158).
7. ETHELRED (-before , bur [St Andrew´s Church, Kilremont]).
8. EADGYTH (1079-1 Jun 1118).
m (11 Nov 1100) as his first wife, HENRY I "Beauclerc" King of England, son of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre (Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068-Saint-Denis le Ferment, Forêt d’Angers near Rouen 1/2 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire).
9. DAVID (-Carlisle 24 May 1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).
10. MARY (-31 May 1116 or 18 Apr 1118, bur Bermondsey Priory).
m (1102) EUSTACHE III Comte de Boulogne, son of EUSTACHE [II] "Gernobadatus" Comte de Boulogne and Lens & his second wife Ida of Lotharingia (-after 1125).
2. DONALD (- died in prison Rescobie, Forfarshire 1099, buried Dunkeld Abbey, later transferred to Isle of Iona).
King Donald III & his wife had [one child]:
a) BETHOC (-[1150/70]).
ii) MALDRED, son of CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl [Scotland] & his wife Bethoc of Scotland Lady of Atholl (-killed in battle ). m ([before 1040]) EALDGYTH [Ælfgifu], daughter and heiress of UHTRED Earl of Northumbria & his third wife Ælfgifu of England (1016 or before-).
Lord Maldred & his wife had two children:
1. GOSPATRICK ([1040/48]-)
DESCENT OF THE MORMAERS OF CAITHNESS
Caithness, with Sutherland, was one of the original seven provinces of Scotland in the 9th century, but does not appear to have been counted as one of the seven Mormaerships of the kingdom. This is presumably because it fell under the influence of the Norsemen who had colonised Orkney. The descendants of Thorfinn Jarl of Orkney controlled Caithness until . Around that date, Malcolm II King of Scotland granted the title Earl of Caithness to Thorfinn "the Black" Jarl of Orkney and the king invaded and seized Caithness and Sutherland on his behalf. Thorfinn's descendants ruled Caithness until 1231 (when Earl John was murdered) nominally under the suzerainty of the kings of Scotland throughout this period, although it is doubtful whether the king exercised much direct control in Caithness. In 1232, Magnus, related to the earls of Angus, was installed as earl in part of Caithness by Alexander II King of Scotland (see below, Part B). The other part of Caithness was controlled by Freskin of Moray, Lord of Duffus, probably the son-in-law of Earl John who was murdered in 1231 (see Chapter 6.B). After the death of Magnus Earl of Caithness, Malise Earl of Strathearn styled himself Earl of Caithness and Orkney, the Complete Peerage suggesting that he may have inherited the earldom through his mother. After his attainder in 1332, the earldom remained vacant until it was granted in  to David Stewart Earl of Strathearn, son of Robert II King of Scotland. It was held by different members of the Stewart family until 1437. (Cawley's Medlands)
1. DUNGAD [Duncan] . Mormaer of Caithness. m GROA, daughter of [THORSTEIN "the Red"]. Dungad & his wife had one child: (Cawley's Medlands)
a) GRELAD . Snorre names "Grelad, a daughter of Earl Dungad of Caithness…[and of] Groa, a daughter of Thorstein Raud" as mother of the five sons of Thorfin "Hausakljufer". m (941) THORFINN "Hausakliffer/Skullcleaver" Jarl of Orkney, son of EINAR "Turf-Einar" Jarl of Orkney & his wife --- (-soon after 977). He appears to have become Jarl of Caithness. (Cawley's Medlands)
DESCENT OF THE MORMAERS OF FIFE
Fife, with Forthreve, was one of the original seven provinces of Scotland in the 9th century. Its early rulers were styled "Mormaer" and in [1114/15] the ruler of Fife was one of the six signatories of the charter of Scone who signed as "comes". The earldom of Fife was held by the family of Gillemichel Macduff from  until Isabel Ctss of Fife sold the earldom to Robert Stewart Earl of Menteith, son of Robert II King of Scotland, in 1371 after which the earldom remained in the Stewart family until 1425. (Cawley's Medlands)
1. BETH, son of --- (-after 1124). Possibly Mormaer of Fife or Moray. "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna" witnessed the charter dated to [1114/15] under which "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey. "…Beth comes…" subscribed the possibly spurious charter dated to  of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…". "Beth comite…" witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone. same person as…? HETH (-1130 or after). "Ed comes…" witnessed a charter dated to  by which "David…Rex Scottorum" made grants to the church of Dunfermline. "Madeth comite, Malis comite, Head comite…" witnessed a charter dated 1130 by which "David…Rex Scottorum" confirmed the shire of Kirkcaldy to the church of Dunfermline. The Complete Peerage suggests that he may have been Ethelred, son of King Malcolm III, who was abbot of Dunkeld. However, if this is correct, it is unclear why his relationship with King David was not specified in the two charters referred to above, close family members being identified as such in other charters of the king. In any case, the death of Ethelred is estimated to before 1107. David King of Scotland instructed "Constantinus comes" to respect the rights of the church of Dunfermline by undated charter witnessed by "…Madeth comit, Malis comit, Head comit, Hug de Morevill, Herbt cancell, Rob Corbet…". m ---. The name of Heth´s wife is not known. Heth & his wife had [two children]: (Cawley's Medlands)
a) [MALCOLM MacHeth (-23 Oct 1168). John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Malcolmus filius Macheth" lied to claim he was "filium Angusii comitis Moraviæ" who was killed "tempore…regis David…apud Strucathroth a Scotis" and, after his alleged father´s death, rebelled against King David who imprisoned him "in turre castri de Marchemond, quond nunc Roxburgh nuncupator". Duncan suggests that Malcolm MacHeth was the son of "Heth" who witnessed two charters in the early years of the reign of King David I. The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records that "Malcolm Macheth" made peace with the king the year after his son was captured. John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that Malcolm MacHeth made peace with King Malcolm the year after his son was captured. He was created Earl of Ross in 1162 or before.] (Cawley's Medlands)
- EARLS of ROSS.
b) [GILLCOMDED Macheth . David I King of Scotland granted protection to the clerics of Deer by undated charter, witnessed by "Donchado comite de Fib et Malmori d´Athotla et Ggillebrite comite d´Engus et Ghgillcomded Mac Aed…".] (Cawley's Medlands)
(See Medieval Moray for Detailed Version of this Summary)
RUAIDHRI. Mormaer of Moray.
m ---. The name of Ruaidhri´s wife is not known.
Ruadhri & his wife had two children:
1. FINDLAECH MacRory (-[1018/20]). Thane of Angus, Mormaer of Moray.
Mormaer Findlaech & [wife] had one child:
a) MACBETH (-killed in battle Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire 15 Aug 1057, bur Isle of Iona).
m ---. The name of Maelbrigte´s wife is not known.
Maelbrigte & his wife had two children:
a) MALCOLM (-1029).
b) GILLACOMGAIN (-burned alive 1032). Mormaer of Moray.
Mormaer Gillacomgain & his [wife] had [one child]:
i) LULACH (-killed in battle Essie, Strathbogie 17 Mar 1058, bur Isle of Iona).
m ---. Finnghuala of Angus?
Lulach & his wife had two children:
(a) MAELSNECHTAI (-1085).
m ---. One child:
(1) ANGUS (-killed in battle Strickathrow 1130). Mormaer of Moray.
(See Medieval Orkney for Detailed Version of this Summary)
A. NORWEGIAN JARLS of ORKNEY - – UNCERTAIN EARLY LINEAGE
a) for other children: see Cawley’s NORWEGIAN NOBILITY.
b) HALLAD . m ---. The name of Hallad´s wife is not known. Hallad & his wife had one child:
(a) THOR-RID .
c) EINAR "Turf-Einar” .
m ---. The name of Einar´s wife is not known.
Einar [& his wife] had [three] children:
1. ARNKEL (-killed Stainmore, Westmoreland 954).
2. ERLEND (-killed Stainmore, Westmoreland 954).
3. THORFINN "Hausakliffer/Skullcleaver" ([910/20]-[soon after 977], bur Hoxa, North Ronaldsway).
Thorfinn & [his wife] had [seven] children:
a) daughter .
i) EINAR "Klining/Buttered-Bread" (-murdered).
i) EINAR "Hardchaft/Hard-Jaw" (-murdered).
c) ARNFINN Torfinnsson (-murdered Murkle, Caithness
d) HAVARD Torfinnsson "Season-prosperous" (-murdered, bur Stennis, Hrossey).
m as her second husband, RAGNHILD Eiriksdatter, widow of ARNFINN Torfinnsson Jarl of Orkney.
e) LJOT Torfinnsson (-killed in battle).
m as her third husband, RAGNHILD Eiriksdatter, widow firstly of ARNFINN Torfinnsson Jarl of Orkney and secondly of HAVARD Torfinnsson Jarl of Orkney
f) HLODVIR Torfinnsson ([945/50]-, bur Hofn, Caithness).
m EITHNE, daughter of KIARVAL King of Ireland & his wife ---.
Hlodve & his wife had [three] children:
i) SIGURD "Digri/the Stout", ([965/70]-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).
m firstly ---. The name of Sigurd´s first wife is not known.
Sigurd & his [first wife] had four children:
1. SOMERLED (-[1015/20]).
2. BRUSI (-[1030/35])
a) RAGNVALD Brusason ([1010/15]-Dec 1046, bur Papa Westray).
3. EINA "Rangmund/Wrymouth" (-murdered Sandwick [1023/25]).
4. HUNDI [Hlodvir] (-[996/1000])
m ([1005 or after]) --- of Scotland, daughter of MALCOLM II King of Scotland & his wife ---.
Sigurd & his second wife had one child:
5. THORFINN "the Black" (-[1060/65], bur Birsay, Christchurch).
ii) SVANLAUG or Nereid.
m (Orkney 990) GILLI Jarl of the Hebrides 988-1014.]
m HAVARD (-winter 988/89). Steward of Caithness for Jarl Sigurd. Killed by Jarls Melsnati and Hundi, who were defeated when Jarl Sigurd attacked them in revenge.]
g) SKULI Torfinnsson (-killed in battle).
Einar had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:
m Thor-gar THORGAR, son of ---.
2. SIGURD "Riki/the Mighty" (-, bur Sydero, Dornoch Firth).
a) GUTHORM (-).
B. NORWEGIAN JARLS of ORKNEY -1156
Thorfinn & his wife had [three or more] children:
Paul & his wife had children:
1. HAKON Paulsson (before -Orkney ).
m ---. The name of Hakon´s wife is not known.
Hakon & his wife had one child:
a) PAUL (II) Hakonsson "the Silent" (-after 1137).
Hakon had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1):
b) HARALD [I] "Slettmali/Smooth-spoken" (before -).
m ---. The name of Harald´s wife is not known.
Harald & his wife had one child:
i) ERLEND Haraldsson (-murdered Damsay Dec 1156).
c) INGIBJÖRG .
m [as his second wife], OLAV Bitling King of Sodor and Man 1097-1098 and 1103-1153, son of ---.
Olav & his wife had one child:
m ---. The name of Godrod´s wife is not known.
Godrod & his wife had one child:
(a) RAGNVALD Godradarson . King of Man and the Isles.
d) MARGARET (before -).
m firstly () as his second wife, MADDAD
m secondly ERLAND "Ungi/the Young" (-killed 1156).
2. ERLEND Thorfinnsson (-in prison Trondheim [Nidaros] 1098, bur Trondheim).
Erlend & his wife had four children:
a) ERLING (-[Ulster [May] 1103]).
b) St MAGNUS Erlendsson (-murdered Egilsay 16 Apr , bur Christchurch at Birsay, transferred to Kirkwall Cathedral).
Kol & his wife had two children:
i) KALI [Rognvald] (-murdered Force, Calder, Caithness 20 Aug 1158, bur St Magnus Cathedral).
m ---. The name of Kali-Rognvald´s wife is not known. Kali-Rognvald & his wife had one child:
Erik & his wife had [seven] children:
(1) HARALD Eriksson "Ungi" (-killed in battle Wick 1198).
(2) MAGNUS Mangi (-killed in battle near Fimreite on Sognefjord 15 Jun 1184).
(7) daughter .
m JON Petersson, lenderman in Sogne.
Erlend had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:
3. son or sons (-young).