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Profiles

  • Eaon (b. - 1015)
    1. DUNWALLON [Donald] . The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of ...
  • Malcolm (b. - 966)
    1. DUNWALLON [Donald] . The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of ...
  • Amdarch 'Radhard' (b. - aft.971)
    1. DUNWALLON [Donald] . The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of ...
  • NN (b. - aft.945)
    1. DUNWALLON [Donald] . The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of ...

This project is to create a Collaborative template to defer to for the Medieval Scots tree on Geni. Please come & help to get it as correct as we can.

I've begun by using Charles Cawley's Medlands as the initial format - mostly because he's the best laid out internet resource to cut & paste from. We can edit in / over further sources, as we go, this being a very long-term project an all :-) Sharon See also the Scratchpad for research in progress ideas.

Resources

Naming Conventions

ORIGINS, KINGS of SCOTLAND 834-1034


1. EOCHAID . m ---. The name of Eochaid’s wife is not known. Eochaid & his wife had [one child]:]

a) ALPIN (-killed in battle against the Picts in Galloway [20 Jul/Aug] 834). The Chronicle of John of Fordun records the accession of "Alpin the son of Achay" in 831, his reign of three years, and his defeat by the Picts "20 July" after which he was beheaded[14]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "Alpin filius Eochal venenosi iii, Kynedus filius Alpini primus rex Scottorum xvi…" as kings, dated to the 9th century[15]. It should be noted that Alpin’s parentage is not stated in the earlier chronicles.]

m ---. The name of Alpin's wife is not known. Alpin & his wife had two children: i) KENNETH [Cinaed] MacAlpin (-Forteviot, Perthshire 13 Feb [858], bur [Isle of Iona]). He succeeded as KENNETH I King of Scotland. ii) DONALD [Domnall] (-Kinn Belachoir palace or killed in battle Scone 13 Apr [863], bur [Isle of Iona]).

i) KENNETH [Cinaed] MacAlpin (-Forteviot, Perthshire 13 Feb [858], bur [Isle of Iona]). His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record the death in 858 of "Cinaed son of Ailpín king of the Picts"[16]. He succeeded as KENNETH I King of Scotland. KENNETH [Cinaed] MacAlpin, son of ALPIN & his wife --- (-Forteviot, Perthshire 13 Feb [858], bur [Isle of Iona]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Kinadius…filius Alpini, primus Scottorum" assumed the "Dalriete regnum" two years before coming to "Pictaviam" which he for 16 years[33]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "Alpin filius Eochal venenosi iii, Kynedus filius Alpini primus rex Scottorum xvi…" as kings, dated to the 9th century[34]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Kenneth son of Alpin" succeeded his father in 834, and became king of the Picts in 839 "when they had been overcome", and reigned "nearly sixteen years as sole monarch of these kingdoms"[35]. Thereafter he is considered to have succeeded as KENNETH I King of Scotland. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries, adding that "Kenneth son of Alpin…was the first king who possessed the kingdom of Scone, of the Gael"[36]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 858 of "Cinaed son of Ailpín king of the Picts"[37]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Kinadius…filius Alpini, primus Scottorum" died "Id Feb" from a tumour "in palacio Fothuirtabaicht"[38]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Kynat mac Alpin" reigned for 16 years, died "in Fethertauethn" and was buried "in Yona insula"[39]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information but records his place of death as "Forteviet", and adds that "tres filii…Fergus, Loern, Tenegus" were also buried at Iona[40].

m ---. The name of Kenneth's wife is not known. Kenneth I & his wife had [four] children:1. CONSTANTINE 2.AEDH 3.daughter 4.MAEL MUIRE

1. CONSTANTINE [Causantin] (-killed in battle Inverdorat, the Black Cove, Angus [876], bur [Isle of Iona]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Constantinus filius Cinadi" ruled for 16 years[41]. He succeeded his uncle as CONSTANTINE I King of Scotland. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[42]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Constantinus filius Kinet xx…" as king, dated to the 9th century[43]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "his nephew Constantine, son of his brother Kenneth the Great" succeeded in 858 on the death of Donald, and reigned for sixteen years[44]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that, in the second year of Constantine’s reign, "Amlaib cum gentibus suis" [Olaf King of Dublin] wasted "Pictaviam" which they occupied from 1 Jan to 17 Mar, and that in the third year "Amlaib" was killed by King Constantine[45]. The Annals of Ulster record that in 872 "Artgal king of the Britons of Strathclyde was killed at the instigation of Constantine son of Cinaed"[46]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that, in the fourteenth year of Constantine’s reign, a battle was fought at "Dolair" between "Danarios et Scottos", after which "Normanni" spent a whole year "in Pictavia"[47]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 876 of "Constantine son of Cinaed king of the Picts"[48]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Constantinus mac Kynat" reigned for 15 years, was killed "a Noruagiensibus in bello de Merdo fatha" and was buried "in Iona insula"[49]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Constantinus mac Kinet" reigned for 16 years, was killed "a Norvagensibus in bello Inuerdofacta" and was buried at Iona[50]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Constantine was killed in battle "at a spot named the Black Den" by the Danes[51]. m ---. The name of Constantine's wife is not known. Constantine I & his wife had one child:

a) DONALD (-killed Dun-fother [900], bur [Isle of Iona]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Donivaldus filius Constantini" reigned for eleven years, after the expulsion of Eochlaid[52]. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[53]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Duneval filius Constantini xi…" as king[54]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Donald…the son of…Constantine, son of Kenneth the Great" succeeded in 892 after the death of Gregory and reigned for eleven years[55]. He succeeded his cousin as DONALD II "Dasachtach" King of Scotland. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the battle "Innisibsolian, inter Danarios et Scottos", won by "Scotti", during King Donald’s reign[56]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that the Scots defeated the Danes during Donald’s reign, and that he was killed "opidum Fother"[57]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 900 of "Domnall son of Constantine king of Scotland"[58]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Donald was killed "opidum Fother…a gentibus"[59]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Donald mac Constantine" reigned for 11 years, died "in Fores" and was buried "in Iona insula"[60]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[61].

m ---. The name of Donald's wife is not known. Donald & his wife had [two] children:

i) [EUGENE . The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Constantine son of Heth the Wing-footed" granted "the lordship of the region of Cumbria" to "Eugenius the son of Donald his expected next heir" in "the sixteenth year of his reign" ([916/20][62]. No reference to him as been found in any other primary source. His name is not typical of the period. His existence should be treated with caution.]

ii) MALCOLM[Maelcoluim] (-killed Vlurn [954], bur [Isle of Iona]). His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record the death in 954 of "Mael Coluim son of Domnall king of Scotland…killed"[63]. He succeeded in 942 as MALCOLM I King of Scotland. MALCOLM [Maelcoluim], son of DONALD II "Dasachtach" King of Scotland & his wife --- (-killed Vlurn [954], bur [Isle of Iona]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Mael filio Domnail" succeeded King Constantine II and reigned eleven years[127]. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin), Custantin mac Aeda, Maelcolaim mac Domnall, Illolb mac Custantin, Dub mac Maelcolaim, Cuillen mac Illiulb…" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th century[128]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Malcolin filius Duneuald ix…" as king[129]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Constantine "made room for Malcolm, son of Donald, to reign" in 943 and that he reigned for nine years[130]. He succeeded in 942 as MALCOLM I King of Scotland. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Malcolm travelled to "Moreb" and killed "Cellach"[131]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 945 Edmund King of England "ravaged all Strathclyde and ceded it to Malcolm king of Scots" in return for an alliance, which was renewed by Edmund's brother and successor King Eadred to whom "the Scots gave oaths and promised to do his will in all things"[132]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Strath Clyde was devastated by the Saxons" in 944[133]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 954 of "Mael Coluim son of Domnall king of Scotland…killed"[134]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Malcolm was killed "in Fodresach id est in Claideom"[135]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Malcom mac Donald" reigned for 9 years, was killed "a Morauiensibus" and was buried "in Yona insula"[136]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Malcolm mack Dovenal" reigned for 9 years, was killed "in Vlurn a Moraviensibus" and was buried at Iona[137]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm "was killed at Ulrim" after reigning for nine years and three months[138].

m ---. The name of Malcolm's wife is not known. Malcolm I & his wife had two children:

1. DUBH [Duff] (-killed in battle Forres [19/20 Jul 966], bur Isle of Iona). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Niger filius Maelcolaim" was king after King Indulf and reigned for five years[139]. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin), Custantin mac Aeda, Maelcolaim mac Domnall, Illolb mac Custantin, Dub mac Maelcolaim, Cuillen mac Illiulb…" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th century[140]. It is assumed that "Niger" and "Dub" in these two sources refer to the same person, although this is not beyond all doubt. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Duf filius Malcolin iv annis et vi mensibus…" as king[141]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Duff the son of King Malcolm" succeeded in 961 after Indulf was killed and reigned for four years and six months[142]. He succeeded in 962 as DUFF King of Scotland. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Niger filius Maelcolaim" defeated "Caniculum super Dorsum Crup", in which battle "Duchad abbas Duncalden et Dubdon satrapas Athochlach" were killed, after which Niger was expelled and "Caniculus" reigned for a short time[143]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 967 of "Dub son of Mael Coluim king of Scotland…killed by the Scots themselves"[144]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Duf mac Malcolm" reigned for 4 years and 6 months, was killed "in Fores…absconditus…sub ponte de Kynloss", when the sun did not shine, and was buried "in Iona insula"[145]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[146]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Duff was killed by robbers who hid his body, that "no ray of sunlight gleamed within the whole kingdom" until it was found, and that he was buried at Iona[147]. According to Duncan, this eclipse of the sun has been dated to 20 Jul 966[148]. Duncan says that, according to other sources, he was killed "by the men of Moray", in 967[149]. m ---. The name of Dubh's wife is not known. Dubh & his wife had one child:

a) KENNETH (-killed in battle Monzievaird [25 Mar 1005]). The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[150]. He succeeded in 997 as KENNETH III King of Scotland. KENNETH, son of DUFF King of Scotland & his wife --- (-killed in battle Monzievaird [25 Mar 1005]). The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[208]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Chinet filius Duf i anno et dimidium…" as king[209]. He succeeded in 997 as KENNETH III King of Scotland. The Annals of Ulster record that "the king of the Albu Cinaed son of Dub" was killed in battle "between the men of Albu themselves" in 1005[210].

m ---. The name of Kenneth's wife is not known. Kenneth III & his wife had [three] children:

1. GREG [Giric] (-killed in battle Monzievaird [25 Mar 1005], bur Isle of Iona). The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Girus mac Kinath mac Duff" reigned for 8 years, was killed "a filio Kinet in Moeghauard" and was buried at Iona[211]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1317 includes the same information[212]. His existence is not recorded in any of the earlier chronicles and should be treated with caution. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Kenneth II decreed a change to the Scottish royal succession to enable "the nearest survivor in blood to the deceased king to succeed", in opposition to "Constantine the Bald, son of King Culen, and Gryme son of Kenneth son of King Duff"[213]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Gryme the son of Kenneth son of Duff" succeeded in 996 after King Constantine III was killed and reigned for eight years and three months[214]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Grime was killed by Malcolm, son of King Kenneth II, adding that the latter arranged his burial at Iona[215].]

2. GILLACOMGAIN (-killed in battle 999). His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Cathal son of Amalgaid, king of Western Laigin, and his wife, the daughter of the son of Gilla Caemgein son of Cinaed, and his hound were killed at the same time by the son of Cellach son of Dúnchad"[216]. m ---. The name of Gillacomgain's wife is not known. Gillacomgain & his wife had one child:

a) son . His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Cathal son of Amalgaid, king of Western Laigin, and his wife, the daughter of the son of Gilla Caemgein son of Cinaed, and his hound were killed at the same time by the son of Cellach son of Dúnchad"[217]. m ---. The name of this son's wife is not known. He & his wife had one child:

i) daughter (-murdered 1035). The Annals of Ulster record that "Cathal son of Amalgaid, king of Western Laigin, and his wife, the daughter of the son of Gilla Caemgein son of Cinaed, and his hound were killed at the same time by the son of Cellach son of Dúnchad"[218]. m CATHAL King of Western Leinster, son of AMALGAID & his wife --- (-murdered 1035).

3. BOITE [Bodhe] (-before 1033). His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "the grandson of Baete son of Cinead was killed by Mael Coluim son of Cinaed" in 1033[219]. m ---. The name of Boite's wife is not known. Boite & his wife had two children:

a) GILLE . Iinquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concerning land owned by the church of Glasgow refer to donations by "…Gille filius Boed…"[220]. same person as…? son. m ---. m ---. The name of this son's wife is not known. He & his wife had one child:

i) son (-murdered in infancy 1033). The Annals of Ulster record that "the grandson of Baete son of Cinead was killed by Mael Coluim son of Cinaed" in 1033[221].

b) GRUOCH ([1015]-). "Machbet filius Finlach…et Gruoch filia Bodhe, rex et regina Scottorum" made grants to the church of St Serf, although the document also names "Malcolmus Rex filius Duncani" which casts doubt on its authenticity[222]. Her possible first marriage appears to be based on the following logic. The Continuation of the Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach records Lulach as son of Macbeth[223]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Lulach son of Gilla Comgain, over-king of Scotland was killed in battle by Mael Coluim son of Donnchad" in 1058[224]. Dunbar, basing his argument on this and the other sources which are quoted in this section, states that "from the above it seems most probable that Lulach was son of Gillacomgan and step-son of Macbeth"[225]. In addition, the 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "Lulac nepos filii Boide" ["nephew of the son of Boite"] as successor of King Macbeth[226]. However, there does not appear to be a surviving source which more specifically confirms that Macbeth’s queen was the widow of Gillacomgain and mother of Lulach. [m firstly GILLACOMGAIN Mormaer of Moray, son of MAELBRIGTE & his wife --- (-burned alive 1032). The Annals of Ulster record that "Gilla Comgán son of Mael Brigte, earl of Moray was burned together with fifty people" in 1032[227].] m [secondly] ([after 1032]) MACBETH, son of FINDLAECH MacRory Thane of Angus, Mormaer of Moray & his wife Donada of Scotland ([1005]-killed in battle Lumphanan 15 Aug 1057, bur Isle of Iona). He succeeded in 1040 as MACBETH King of Scotland. Gruoch & her [first husband] had [one child]:

i) LULACH ([1032]-killed in battle Essie, Strathbogie 17 Mar 1058, bur Isle of Iona). The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Macheth filius Findleg xvii, Lulac nepos filii Boide iv mensibus et dimidium…" as kings[228]. The Continuation of the Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach records Lulach as son of Macbeth[229]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "on the death of Machabeus, some of his kinsfolk" installed "his cousin Lulath…the Simple" as king at Scone but that King Malcolm killed him 3 Apr 1057, adding that he was buried "in the island of Iona"[230]. He succeeded [his stepfather] in 1057 as LULACH "the Simple" King of Scotland, crowned Aug 1057 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire. The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Lulag" was killed "[1058]…in Martio"[231]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Lulach son of Gilla Comgain, over-king of Scotland was killed in battle by Mael Coluim son of Donnchad" in 1058[232], although curiously this entry precedes the record of the death of King Macbeth in the same year. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Lulach rí Alban” was killed by “Mael-Coluimb, son of Donnchad” in 1058[233], also preceding the record in the same source of the death of King Macbeth. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Lulach fatuus" reigned 4 months, was killed "in Esseg in Strathbolgin" and was buried "in Iona insula"[234].] See MORMAERS of MORAY.

2. KENNETH (-maybe murdered Finella's Castle, Fettercairn [995], bur Isle of Iona). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Cinadius filius Maelcolaim" succeeded after the death of Colin, adding that after one year he invaded Saxony and brought back "filium regis Saxonum"[151]. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[152]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Kinet filius Malcolin xxii annis et ii mensibus…" as king[153]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Kenneth the son of Malcolm and brother of King Duff" succeeded as king in 970 after Culen was killed and reigned for twenty-four years and nine months[154]. He succeeded in 971 as KENNETH II King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "subreguli eius octo…Kynath…rex Scottorum, Malcolm rex Cumbrorum, Maccus plurimarum rex insularum et alii quinque Dufnal, Siferth, Huwal, Jacob, Juchil" submitted to King Eadgar at Chester and rowed him on the river Dee, dated to [973] from the context[155]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Kenneth II decreed a change to the Scottish royal succession to enable "the nearest survivor in blood to the deceased king to succeed", in opposition to "Constantine the Bald, son of King Culen, and Gryme son of Kenneth son of King Duff"[156]. The same source adds that the king’s opponents persuaded "the daughter of Cruchne, Earl of Angus…Finele" to murder the king in revenge for the death of her son which he had ordered[157]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Cinaed son of Mael Coluim king of Scotland was deceitfully killed" in 995[158]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Kynnath mac Malcolm" reigned for 24 years and 2 months, was killed "a suis hominibus in Fetherkern" through the treachery of "Finuele filie filie Cunthar comitis de Anguss" whose only son had been killed by the king[159]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[160]. m ---. The name of Kenneth's wife is not known. The Prophecy of Berchán (dated to the early 11th century?[161]) records that the mother of King Malcolm II came from Leinster[162]. If this report is accurate, Kenneth’s status suggests that his wife would have been the daughter of one of the kings of Leinster (see the document IRELAND). Insufficient information is known about the several 10th century Leinster kings to be able to guess which one might have been her father. Kenneth II & his wife had one child:

a) MALCOLM ([954]-Glamis Castle, Angus 25 Nov 1034, bur Isle of Iona). The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[163]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Malcolin filius Kinet xxx…" as king[164]. It is tempting to suggest that either he, or his first cousin with the same name, spent time at the court of Edgar King of England during his youth, as "Malcolm dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar relating to land in Cambridgeshire and Norfolk dated 970[165], but there is no proof of the co-identity of these persons. He succeeded in 1005 as MALCOLM II King of Scotland. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Grime was killed by Malcolm, son of King Kenneth II, who succeeded as king[166]. He attacked northern England in 1006. King of Lothian from [1016], becoming effective ruler of the whole of Scotland. The Historia Regum of Simeon of Durham records a battle between "Huctredum filium Waldef comitem Northymbrorum" and "Malcolmum filium Cyneth regem Scottorum" at "Carrum" in 1018[167]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Malcolm submitted to Canute King of England in 1031, along with "two other kings, Mælbeth and Iehmarc"[168]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun defended Cumbria against King Canute, who agreed that it should be ruled by Malcolm’s grandson Duncan[169]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1034 of "Mael Coluim son of Cinaed, king of Scotland"[170]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1034 of “Mael-Coluímb son of Cinaed king of Scotland”[171]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Malcolm mac Kynnat Rex" reigned for 30 years, died "in Glammes" and was buried "in Yona"[172]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[173]. m ---. The name of Malcolm's wife is not known. King Malcolm III & his wife had [four] children:

i) BETHOC . The "Genealogy of King William the Lyon" dated 1175 names "Betoch filii Malcolmi" as parent of "Malcolmi filii Dunecani"[174]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 names "Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" as parents of King Duncan[175]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm II had "an only daughter…Beatrice who married Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles…in some annals, by a blunder of the writer…abbot of Dul"[176]. Lady of Atholl. m ([1000]) CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl, son of --- (-killed in battle 1045).

ii) DONADA . Many secondary sources name Donada as a younger daughter of King Malcolm II and the mother of King Macbeth. It seems that the proof for this connection is slim. The only source so far identified which refers to Macbeth’s maternal origin is the Chronicle of Huntingdon which names "Maket Regem [=King Macbeth] nepotem dicti Malcolmi" when recording that he was expelled from Scotland after ruling 15 years[177]. The word "nepos" is of course treacherous, and could indicate a variety of relationships in addition to grandson. However, it appears that early historians assumed that "grandson" was the correct translation. For example, Ralph Holinshed’s 1577 Chronicle of Scotland names "Doada" as second daughter of Malcolm II King of Scotland and adds that she married "Sinell the thane of Glammis, by whom she had issue one Makbeth"[178]. Another variation is provided by the Cronykil of Andrew of Wyntoun, which records that "Makbeth-Fynlak, his systyr sowne" murdered King Duncan[179]. From a chronological point of view, it is unlikely that Macbeth could have been a nephew of King Duncan, but it is possible that the passage represents an interpretation of "nepos" from an earlier source and has confused the king with whom Macbeth enjoyed this relationship. No source earlier than Holinshed has been found which names her Donada. m as his second wife, FINDLAECH MacRory Thane of Angus Mormaer of Moray, son of RUAIDHRI Mormaer of Moray & his wife --- (-1020). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1020 of "Finnlaech son of Ruadrí king of Alba…killed by his own people"[180].]

iii) [son . Rodulfus Glaber refers to Canute King of England seeking "the friendship of the king of the Scots, receiving his son at the font of baptism"[181]. This passage follows a description of "the Scots whose king was called Malcolm" resisting King Canute's invasion, undated but from the context apparently occurring at the start of Canute's reign. If it is correct that King Malcolm had a son baptised at this time, he would have been considerably younger than the king's daughters, presumably therefore born to a different mother. No corroborative evidence for the existence of this son has been found in other contemporary sources.]

iv) [daughter . Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Sigurd” married “the daughter of Malcolm King of Scots”[182]. Snorre records the marriage of "Sigurd the Thick" and "a daughter of the Scottish king Malcolm"[183]. It appears unlikely that Sigurd’s wife could have been King Malcolm’s possible daughter Donada (as shown in many secondary sources, including the Complete Peerage[184]) if it is correct that Donada’s recorded husband Findlaech was killed in 1020 and also that their son was born in [1005][185]. m SIGURD "Digri" Hlodverson Jarl of Orkney and Caithness, son of HLODVIR [Lodver] Torfinnsson & his wife Audna --- (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).]

Malcolm I had [one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress]:

3. [KENNETH . The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Constantine the Bald, son of King Culen" succeeded in 994 after King Kenneth II was killed, but that he was "continually harassed by Malcolm [son of King Kenneth] and his illegitimate uncle…Kenneth" and killed in battle "in Laudonia by the banks of the river Almond" after reigning for one and a half years[186]. He is not mentioned in any of the earlier sources so far consulted. His existence should be treated with caution.]

2. AEDH (-killed in battle Strathallan [878], bur [Isle of Iona] or [Maiden Stone, Aberdeenshire]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Edus" succeeded King Constantine I and for 1 year and was killed "in civitate Nrurim", but does not state the family relationship between the two kings[64]. As noted in the Introduction to this document, the relationship between Aedh and his predecessors is only mentioned from the 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach which name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[65]. The suspicion is that his family relationship may have been fabricated by later Scottish chroniclers who were concerned with reinforcing the continuity in the male line of the Scottish succession. He succeeded as AEDH King of Scotland.] AEDH, son of [KENNETH I King of Scotland & his wife ---] (-killed in battle Strathallan [878], bur [Isle of Iona] or [Maiden Stone, Aberdeenshire]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Edus" succeeded King Constantine I and for 1 year and was killed "in civitate Nrurim", but does not state the family relationship between the two kings[72]. As noted in the Introduction to this document, the relationship between Aedh and his predecessors is only mentioned from the 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach which name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[73]. The suspicion is that his family relationship may have been fabricated by later Scottish chroniclers who were concerned with reinforcing the continuity in the male line of the Scottish succession. He succeeded as AEDH King of Scotland. The sources suggest that his succession was challenged by Greg and maybe also by Eochaid. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Hed filius Kinet i anno, Grig filius Dunegal xii…" as king, dated to the 9th century[74]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "his brother Heth the Wing-footed…also a son of Kenneth the Great" succeeded King Constantine and reigned one year, although "according to the rule of the kingship Gregory son of Dungallus should have come before him"[75]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 878 of "Aed son of Cinaed king of the Picts…killed by his own associates"[76]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Edh mac Kynnath" reigned for one year, was killed "in bello de in Strathalun a Girg filio Dungal" and was buried "in Iona insula"[77]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records the same information[78]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that, "the chiefs of the kingdom being divided amongst themselves", Aedh was mortally wounded in battle "at Strathallam", died two months later, and was buried "in the island of Iona beside his father"[79].

m ---. The name of Aedh's wife is not known. Aedh & his wife had [two] children:

1. CONSTANTINE (-St Andrews [947/952], bur [Isle of Iona]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Constantinus filius Edii" reigned for forty years, after King Donald II[80]. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin), Custantin mac Aeda, Maelcolaim mac Domnall, Illolb mac Custantin, Dub mac Maelcolaim, Cuillen mac Illiulb…" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th century[81]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Constantinus filius Hed xxv…" as king[82]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Constantine son of Heth the Wing-footed" succeeded in 903 after the death of Donald and reigned for forty years[83]. He succeeded his cousin in 900 as CONSTANTINE II King of Scotland. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Normanni" (presumably indicating the Danes) ravaged "Dincalden, omnemque Albaniam" in the third and sixth years of Constantine’s reign[84]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Constantine defeated "Regnall" (presumably referring to Rægnald I King of York, see the document ANGLO-SAXON KINGS) in "bellum Tinemore" in the 17th year of his reign[85]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 923 "the king of Scots and the whole Scottish nation accepted [King Edward the Elder] as father and lord", although the name of the king is not specified nor the circumstances of the subjugation[86]. Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum…Reignoldus rex Danorum…rex Streatcledwalorum" submitted to King Eadward and signed a treaty, undated but dateable to [920/22] from the context[87]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle date of 923 is not compatible with the date of the death of Rægnald King of York, recorded in 921 in the Annals of Ulster[88]. This subjection to England evidently did not last as the Chronicle records King Athelstan bringing "into submission all the kings in this island [including] Constantine king of Scots" in 926 and invading Scotland in 934 "both with a land and naval force"[89]. Florence of Worcester records King Constantine's invasion of England and defeat, with his son-in-law Olaf King of York, at Brunanburgh in 937 by Athelstan King of Wessex[90]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Constantine "in senecture decrepitus baculum cepit" ("took the staff") and handed the kingdom to "Mael filio Domnail"[91]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that, according to "William", King Constantine was killed at Brunanburgh, but that "various truthful chronicles" say that he reigned for four more years, "he resigned the crown and, serving God in the monastic garb at St Andrews, was made abbot of the Culdees and lived there five years, where he also died and was buried" but was reburied in Iona "in the chapel of the blessed Oran in 947"[92]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 952 of "Constantine son of Aedh king of Scotland"[93]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Constantinus" in the tenth year of the reign of King Malcolm I[94]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Constantine mak Edha" reigned for 40 years, abdicated to become a monk, was made abbot "in Keldeorum Sancte Andree", where he served five years and was buried[95]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[96]. m ---. The name of Constantine's wife is not known. Constantine II & his wife had [three] children:

a) son (-killed in battle [936/37]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "filius Constantini" was killed in "bellum Duinbrunde" in the 33rd year of Constantine’s reign[97]. This date appears to coincide with the battle of Brunanburh in which Æthelstan King of Wessex defeated the invasion of England in which King Constantine participated (see above), although it is not certain that "Duinbrunde" refers to the same battle.

b) INDULF [Ildulb] (-killed at the battle of the Bauds, Muir of Findochty, Banffshire [962], bur [Isle of Iona]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Indulfus" was king after King Malcolm I and reigned for eight years[98]. As noted in the Introduction to this document, the relationship between Indulf and King Constantine II is only mentioned from the 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach which name (in order) "…Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin), Custantin mac Aeda, Maelcolaim mac Domnall, Illolb mac Custantin, Dub mac Maelcolaim, Cuillen mac Illiulb…" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th century[99]. The suspicion is that his family relationship may have been fabricated by later Scottish chroniclers who were concerned with reinforcing the continuity in the male line of the Scottish succession. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Indolf filius Constantin ix…" as king[100]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Indulf son of Constantine son of Heth the Wing-footed" succeeded in 952 after King Malcolm was killed[101]. He succeeded his second cousin in 954 as INDULF King of Scotland. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Indolf mac Constantin" reigned for 9 years, was killed "a Noruagensibus in Innercolan" and was buried "in Iona insula"[102]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[103]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Indulf was killed by the Danes and was buried in "Columba’s island"[104]. m ---. The name of Indulf's wife is not known. Indulf & his wife had three children:

i) CULEN [Cuilean/Colin] (-killed in battle Amdarch [971]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Culenring" was king after "Caniculus" and reigned for five years[105]. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin), Custantin mac Aeda, Maelcolaim mac Domnall, Illolb mac Custantin, Dub mac Maelcolaim, Cuillen mac Illiulb…" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th century[106]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Culen filius Indulf iv annis et vi mensibus…" as king[107]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Culen the son of King Indulf" succeeded as king in 965 after Dubh was killed and reigned four years and six months[108]. He succeeded in [967] as COLIN King of Scotland. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Marcan filius Breodelaig" was killed during the reign of Colin and that "Leot et Sluagadach" went to Rome[109]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 971 of "Cuilén son of Illulb king of Scotland…killed by the Welsh in a battle-rout"[110]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Cellach filius Ferdalaig" reigned (implying, but not stating directly, that he had deposed Colin) and that "Culen et frater eius Eochodius" were killed "a Britonibus"[111]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Culen mac Indolf" reigned for 4 years and 6 months and was killed "ab Amdarch filio Donvald propter filiam suam in Ybandonia"[112]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[113]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Culen was killed by "a certain chief named Radhard" whose daughter the king had wanted to seduce[114]. m ---. The name of Culen's wife is not known. Culen & his wife had one child:

(a) CONSTANTINE (-killed in battle Rathinveramon [997]). The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[115]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Custantin filius Culen i anno et iv mensibus…" as king[116]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Constantine the Bald, son of King Culen" succeeded in 994 after King Kenneth II was killed, but that he was "continually harassed by Malcolm [son of King Kenneth] and his illegitimate uncle…Kenneth" and killed in battle "in Laudonia by the banks of the river Almond" after reigning for one and a half years[117]. He succeeded in [995] as CONSTANTINE III King of Scotland. He was killed by King Kenneth III. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Constantine son of Culannan king of Scotland” was killed in battle in [995/96][118]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Constantin mac Culen" reigned for 1 year and 6 months, was killed "a Kynnet filio Malcolmi in Rathinueramon" and was buried "in Yona insula"[119]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[120].

ii) EOCHAID (-killed in battle 971). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Culen et frater eius Eochodius" were killed "a Britonibus"[121]. He was killed by the king of Strathclyde.

iii) OLAF [Amlaib] (-killed in battle [977]). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 977 of "Amlaíb son of Ollulb i.e. King of Scotland…killed by Cinaed son of Domnall"[122]. [He succeeded in [971] as OLAF King of Scotland.] It is assumed that "Ollulb" is intended to refer to King Indulf/Ildulb, although the name Olaf/Amlaib is Scandinavian, suggesting that his mother may have been of Viking stock. Olaf is not named in the Scottish sources. It is possible that he challenged the succession of King Kenneth II in 971 but was never generally recognised as king.]

c) daughter. Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Florence of Worcester who states that King Constantine was Olaf's father-in-law[123]. m (937) OLAF King of Dublin, son of GUTHFRITH King of Dublin & his wife --- (-end 940). He installed himself as King of York in 939.

2. DONALD King of Strathclyde. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of Constantine II King of Scotland, and the choice of "Duuenaldus filius Ede" to succeed him, "et Flann filius Maelsethnaill et Niall filius Ede"[124]. Some secondary sources show Donald as the son of Aedh King of Scotland. He is shown above as the possible son of King Aedh’s sister who had possibly married Aedh King of Ireland.]


3. daughter . Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum which records that "Eochodius…filius Run regis Britannorum, nepos Cinadei ex filia" succeeded King Aedh and ruled for 11 years[66]. m RUN Macarthagail King of Strathclyde, son of --- ([878]). Run & his wife had one child:

a) EOCHAID (-[889]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Eochodius…filius Run regis Britannorum, nepos Cinadei ex filia" succeeded King Aedh and ruled for 11 years before being expelled[67]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum does not name Eochlaid in its king-list[68]. He succeeded his maternal uncle as EOCHAID King of Scotland. His succession appears to have been challenged by Greg (see above). Deposed [889].

4. MAEL MUIRE (-913). The mid-12th century Banshenchas records that "Mael Muire daughter of Cinaed son of Alpin" married "Aed Finnliath and then later…Flann Sinna"[69]. The reliability of this information is unknown, although the inclusion of a record of Mael Muire’s death in the Annals of Ulster (see below) indicates that she had some connection with Ireland. If the information is correct, the chronology dictates that Aedh Finnliath must have divorced his known wife Land of Osraige before marrying Mael Muire. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 913 of "Mael Muire daughter of Cinaed son of Ailpin”[70]. [m firstly as his [third] wife, AEDH Finnliath King of Ireland, son of NIALL & his wife --- (-Druimm Inasclainn 20 Nov 879). m secondly [as his --- wife,] FLANN King of Ireland, son of MAELSECHLAINN King of Ireland & his [second] wife Land of Osraige ([847/48]-Tailltin 25 May 916).] [Possible child by her first husband:]

a) [DOMNALL (-after 911). King of Strathclyde. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of Constantine II King of Scotland, and the choice of "Duuenaldus filius Ede" to succeed him, "et Flann filius Maelsethnaill et Niall filius Ede"[71]. Some secondary sources show Donald as the son of Aedh King of Scotland. However, the subsequent references to the two Irish kings in the same passage suggest that the Chronicle is referring to the son of Aedh King of Ireland. If this hypothesis is correct, it is possible that Domnall’s claim to the Strathclyde throne was through Mael Muire, shown above as the possible second wife of his father, which would mean in turn that this Domnall was not the same person as the son of Aedh of the same name who is recorded in 863 (see above).]


ii) DONALD [Domnall] (-Kinn Belachoir palace or killed in battle Scone 13 Apr [863], bur [Isle of Iona]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Kinadius…filius Alpini, primus Scottorum…Dunevaldus frater eius" ruled for four years[17]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "Alpin filius Eochal venenosi iii, Kynedus filius Alpini primus rex Scottorum xvi, Dolfnal filius Alpini iiii…" as kings, dated to the 9th century[18]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Donald also a son of Alpin" succeeded his brother in 854, reigned for four years, died "at Scone" and was buried "in Iona beside his brother"[19]. He succeeded his brother as DONALD I King of Scotland. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[20]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 862 of "Domnall son of Ailpín king of the Picts"[21]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Dunevaldus" died "in palacio Cinn Belachoir idus Aprilis"[22]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Douenald mac Alpin" reigned for 4 years, died "in Rathinueramon" and was buried "in Iona insula"[23].

1. [LICET] or [DONGAL] . m ---. The name of his wife is not known. [Licet/Dongal] had one child:

a) GREG [Grig/Ciricius] (-Donedoure [892], bur [Isle of Iona]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that, when "Eochodius…filius Run regis Britannorum, nepos Cinadei ex filia" succeeded King Aedh, "others say" that "Licet Ciricium filium" reigned[24]. The Cronica de Origine fixes the chronology by adding that "Aed filius Neil" died in the second year of his reign, and that there was a solar eclipse in the ninth year, adding that "Eochodius" was expelled from the kingdom. The Annals of Inisfallen and Annals of Ulster record the death of Aedh son of Niall King of Ireland (see the document IRELAND) in 879 of "Aed son of Niall king of Temuir”[25], which would place the accession of GREG King of Scotland to [877]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Hed filius Kinet i anno, Grig filius Dunegal xii…" as king, dated to the 9th century[26]. No information has yet been found to identify his alleged father "Licet". However, a different indication of Greg’s parentage is provided by the 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, which name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[27] The Chronicle of John of Fordun, presumably echoing the Synchronisms, records that "his brother Heth the Wing-footed…also a son of Kenneth the Great" succeeded King Constantine and reigned one year, although "according to the rule of the kingship Gregory son of Dungallus should have come before him", adding in a later passage that Gregory succeeded as king in 875 after Aedh died, and reigned eighteen years[28]. The chronology suggests that "Ciricius" and "Gregory" refer to the same person. If these sources are being read correctly, Greg and Eochlaid ruled at the same time, presumably as rival kings probably over different parts of the country. If the mid-14th century John of Fordun can be believed, Greg had a better claim to the throne than King Aedh. This would suggest that he was a member of the same family, maybe in the previous generation. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Edh mac Kynnath" reigned for one year, was killed "in bello de in Strathalun a Girg filio Dungal" and that "Girg mac Dungal" reigned for 12 years, died "in Dundurn" and was buried "in Iona insula"[29]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[30]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "King Gregory died after a vigorous reign of eighteen years, all but a few months…at Donedoure" and was buried "in the island of Iona"[31].

1. MACBETH, son of FINDLAECH MacRory Mormaer of Moray & his [second wife] [Donada of Scotland] ([1005]-killed in battle Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire 15 Aug 1057, bur Isle of Iona). The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Macheth filius Findleg xvii…" as king[187]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Machabeus son of Finele" killed King Duncan and succeeded as king in 1040[188]. Mormaer of Moray [1029/32]. He may have been one of the "two other kings, Mælbeth and Iehmarc" recorded by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has having submitted to Canute King of England in 1031 with King Malcolm II[189]. He succeeded in 1040 as MACBETH King of Scotland. The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Donnchal rex Scotiæ" was killed "1040 XIX Kal Sep" by "duce suo Macbethad mac Finnloech" who succeeded as king for 17 years[190]. The Annales Dunelmenses record that "comes Siward" invaded Scotland with a large army in 1046 and briefly expelled "rege Macbeod", the king recovering his realm when Siward withdrew[191]. Florence of Worcester records that "Rex Scottiæ Macbethad" distributed silver in Rome ("Romæ argentum spargendo distribuit"), dated to 1050 by the editor of the edition consulted[192]. The dating of the various reports of King Macbeth’s defeat and death is inconsistent. It is not certain that all the records refer to the final battle in which he was killed. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that he was defeated in battle 27 Jul 1054 by the army of Siward Earl of Northumbria which had invaded Scotland[193]. Florence of Worcester records that "dux Northhymbrorum Siwardus" defeated "rege Scottorum Macbeotha" in battle, dated to 1054, and installed "Malcolmum regis Cumbrorum filium" in his place[194]. The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Siwardus" put "Macbeth" to flight in 1054 and installed "Malcolmum rege" in the following year[195]. The Chronicle of Huntingdon records that "comes Northumbrie Sywardus" invaded Scotland and that "Maket Regem nepotem dicti Malcolmi", who had reigned for 15 years, fled[196]. The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Macfinlaeg" was killed "1057…in Augusto"[197]. The Annals of Ulster record in 1058 that "Mac Bethad son of Finnlaech, over-king of Scotland, was killed by Mael Sechlainn son of Donnchad in battle"[198]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Mac bethadh son of Findlaech overking of Scotland” was killed by “Malcolm, son of Donnchad” in 1058[199]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Maket mac Fyngal" reigned 17 years, was killed "in Lufanan a Malcolm mac Dunkat" and was buried "in Iona insula"[200]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Malcolm recaptured his kingdom with the help of "Siward Earl of Northumberland" and killed "Machabeus" 5 Dec 1056[201]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Machabeus" was buried "in the island of Iona"[202]. m (after 1032) [as her second husband,] GRUOCH, [widow of GILLACOMGAIN Mormaer of Moray,] daughter of BOITE [Bodhe] of Scotland & his wife --- ([1015]-). "Machbet filius Finlach…et Gruoch filia Bodhe, rex et regina Scottorum" made grants to the church of St Serf, although the document also names "Malcolmus Rex filius Duncani" which casts doubt on its authenticity[203]. Her possible first marriage appears to be based on the following logic. The Continuation of the Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach records Lulach as son of Macbeth[204]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Lulach son of Gilla Comgain, over-king of Scotland was killed in battle by Mael Coluim son of Donnchad" in 1058[205]. Dunbar, basing his argument on this and the other sources which are quoted in this section, states that "from the above it seems most probable that Lulach was son of Gillacomgan and step-son of Macbeth"[206]. In addition, the 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "Lulac nepos filii Boide" ["nephew of the son of Boite"] as successor of King Macbeth[207]. However, there does not appear to be a surviving source which more specifically confirms that Macbeth’s queen was the widow of Gillacomgain and mother of Lulach.


The precise relationship between the following family group and the main family of Scottish kings has not been determined, but the names suggest a close relationship.

1. ALPIN . m ---. The name of Alpin’s wife is not known. Alpin & his wife had one child:

a) EOCHAID (-[937/40]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Dubucan filius Indrechtaig mormair Oengusa, Adalstan filius Advar rig Saxan, et Eochaid filius Alpini"[32], dated to [937/40] if the second person named can be identified as Æthelstan King of Wessex.

KINGS of STRATHCLYDE


1. RUN Macarthagail (-[878]). King of Strathclyde. m --- of Scotland, daughter of KENNETH I King of Scotland & his wife ---. Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum which records that "Eochodius…filius Run regis Britannorum, nepos Cinadei ex filia" succeeded King Aedh and ruled for 11 years[235]. Run & his wife had one child:

a) EOCHAID (-[889]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Eochodius…filius Run regis Britannorum, nepos Cinadei ex filia" succeeded King Aedh and ruled for 11 years before being expelled[236]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum does not name Eochlaid in its king-list[237]. He succeeded his maternal uncle as EOCHAID King of Scotland. His succession appears to have been challenged by Greg (see above). Deposed [889]. The Gwentian Chronicle records that "the men of Strath Clyde who would not unite with the Saxons were obliged to leave their country and go to Gwynedd" in 890, adding that "Anarawd gave them leave to inhabit the country taken from him by the Saxons, comprising Maelor, the Vale of Clwyd, Rhyvoniog and Tegeingl, if they could drive the Saxons out which they did bravely"[238].



1. DUNWALLON [Donald] . The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of Constantine II King of Scotland, and the choice of "Duuenaldus filius Ede" to succeed him[239]. m ---. The name of Dunwallon’s wife is not known. Dunwallon & his wife had one child:

a) EOAN (-after 934). The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "rex Constantinus" held "Cumbriam et ceteras terras in Anglia" and that in the 16th year of his reign (916, on the assumption that the passage refers to Constantine II King of Scotland) gave "Eugenio filio Douenaldi…dimidium regni Cumbrie hereditarie possidendum"[240]. King of Strathclyde 916. Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum…Reignoldus rex Danorum…rex Streatcledwalorum" submitted to King Eadward and signed a treaty, undated but dateable to [920/22] from the context[241]. m ---. The name of Eoan’s wife is not known. Eoan & his wife had one child:

i) DUNWALLON [Donald] (-974). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "king Edmund ravaged Strathclyde and ceded it to Malcolm king of Scots, on the condition that he would be his fellow-worker by sea and land" in 945[242]. Roger of Wendover records that King Edmund, with help from "Leolini regis Demetiæ" [this person has not been identified], devastated "Cumbriam totam" and blinded "duobus filiis Dummail eiusdem provinciæ regis" in 946[243]. The Welsh sources do not record Welsh participation in the expedition. The Annales Cambriæ record that "Strat Clut vastata est a Saxonibus" in 946[244]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Strath Clyde was devastated by the Saxons" in 944[245]. The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Strathclyde was devastated by the Saxons who killed all they could find in their way, of the Britons belonging to it" in 943[246]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Dunwallon king of Strath Clyde went to Rome" in 974[247]. The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Dunwallon king of Strath Clyde went to Rome and took the tonsure" in 975[248]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 974 of “Domnall son of Eoan king of Britain…in pilgrimage”[249]. m ---. The name of Donald’s wife is not known. Donald & his wife had [five] children:

(a) son (-after 945). Roger of Wendover records that King Edmund, with help from "Leolini regis Demetiæ", devastated "Cumbriam totam" and blinded "duobus filiis Dummail eiusdem provinciæ regis" in 398[250].

(b) son (-after 945). Roger of Wendover records that King Edmund, with help from "Leolini regis Demetiæ", devastated "Cumbriam totam" and blinded "duobus filiis Dummail eiusdem provinciæ regis" in 398[251].

(c) AMDARCH [Radhard] (-after [971]). The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Culen mac Indolf" reigned for 4 years and 6 months and was killed "ab Amdarch filio Donvald propter filiam suam in Ybandonia"[252]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[253]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Culen was killed by "a certain chief named Radhard" whose daughter the king had wanted to seduce[254].]

(d) MALCOLM (-996). Florence of Worcester records that "subreguli eius octo…Kynath…rex Scottorum, Malcolm rex Cumbrorum, Maccus plurimarum rex insularum et alii quinque Dufnal, Siferth, Huwal, Jacob, Juchil" submitted to King Eadgar at Chester and rowed him on the river Dee, dated to [973] from the context[255]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 996 of “Mael-Coluimb son of Domnall king of the Britons of the North”[256].

(e) EOAN (-killed 1015). The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Owain son of Dyvnwal was killed" in 1015[257].


1. DOMNALL, son of [AEDH Finnliath King of Ireland & his wife Mael Muire of Scotland] (-after 911). King of Strathclyde. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of Constantine II King of Scotland, and the choice of "Duuenaldus filius Ede" to succeed him, "et Flann filius Maelsethnaill et Niall filius Ede"[258]. Some secondary sources show Donald as the son of Aedh King of Scotland. However, the subsequent references to the two Irish kings in the same passage suggest that the Chronicle is referring to the son of Aedh King of Ireland. If this hypothesis is correct, it is possible that Domnall’s claim to the Strathclyde throne was through Mael Muire, shown above as the possible second wife of his father, which would mean in turn that this Domnall was not the same person as the son of Aedh of the same name who is recorded in 863 (see above).


KINGS of SCOTLAND (DUNKELD)

see Medieval Atholl


WORK IN PROGRESS from Cawley

STILL TO Be inserted here:

      
  • Chapter 4. KINGS of SCOTLAND (BALLIOL)
  • Chapter 5. KINGS of SCOTLAND (BRUCE)
  • Chapter 6. KINGS of SCOTLAND (STEWART)

SCOTLAND's EARLY MIDDLE AGES (The Viking Age & its Aftermath)

INTRODUCTION


The chapters on the Scottish earls and lords which are set out below are arranged in approximately chronological order of creation of the titles. The first group of seven earldoms, Angus, Atholl, Caithness, Fife, Mar, Moray and Strathearn, corresponds to the seven provinces into which Scotland north of the Firths of Forth and Clyde was divided in the 9th century, reputedly ruled by seven brothers. The ruler of each province bore the title "Ri", inferior only to the "Ardri" or Supreme King. In the 10th century, the title changed to "Mormaer" or Great Maer or Steward. During the 10th century the province of Argyll was added, and in the 11th century Buchan separated from Mar, while Caithness was conquered by the Norwegians. The earldom of Dunbar was a further creation of the early 11th century, although it was only called as such from the early 13th century. Six of these local rulers are for the first time called "comes" in the foundation charter of the monastery of Scone dated [1114/15][1]. According to Skene, the relationship between these rulers and their provinces was not purely territorial but connected with the tribes which occupied the land. After the accession of David I King of Scotland in 1124, the tie to the land was strengthened as the mormaerships were transformed into earldoms, the earls holding the land from the Scottish crown as tenants-in-chief in accordance with the Norman feudal system. Heredity of the mormaerships was originally in the male line only. After the introduction of the feudal system into Scotland in the 12th century, the earldoms were descendible to heirs general[2]. (Cawley's Medlands)

DESCENT OF THE MORMAERS of ATHOLL

OVERVIEW

(See Medieval Atholl for Detailed Version of this Summary)

1. DUNCAN, son of --- (-killed 965). Abthane of Dule, lay abbot of Dunkeld. From the house of the Kings of Ireland. Governor of Strathclyde.

___

2. CRINAN "the Thane", son of --- (-killed in battle 1045). Abthane of Dule. Lay abbot of Dunkeld. Steward of the Western Isles. Mormaer of Atholl. He was killed fighting King Macbeth.

m ([1000]) BETHOC, daughter of MALCOLM II King of Scotland & his wife ---.

Crinan & Bethoc had two children:

i) DUNCAN King DUNCAN I 1034-1040; [Donnchad], son of CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl & his wife Bethoc of the Scots ([1001]-killed in battle either Bothganowan/Pitgaveny, near Elgin, or Burghead 14 Aug 1040, buried Isle of Iona).

m ([1030]) SUTHEN [SIBYLLA], [cousin of SIWARD Earl of Northumbria, daughter of ---].

King Duncan I & his wife, Sibylla of Northumbria, had:

1. MALCOLM (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, buried Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid). He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland.

[m] [firstly] ([before 1058]) Ingiborg.

King Malcolm III & Ingiborg had two children:

1. DUNCAN ([1060/65]-murdered Monthechim/Mondynes, Kincardineshire 12 Nov 1094, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).

m ([1090]) ETHELREDA of Northumberland, daughter of GOSPATRICK Earl of Northumberland & his wife --- (bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).

King Duncan II & his wife had one child:

a) WILLIAM FitzDuncan ([1091/94]-[1153/54]).

2. DONALD ([1060/65]-killed in battle 1085).

m ---. The name of Donald's wife is not known.

Donald & his wife had [one possible child]:

a) LADHMANN (-killed in battle 1116).

m [secondly] (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) MARGARET of England, daughter of EDWARD Ætheling of England & his wife Agatha --- ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai).

King Malcolm III & his second wife, Margaret, had eight children[350]:

3. EDWARD (-Edwardsisle, near Jedburgh 16 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth St Albans).

4. EDMUND (-after 1097, bur [Montacute]).

5. EDGAR ([1074]-[Dundee or Edinburgh Castle] 6 Jan 1107, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).

6. ALEXANDER ([1077/78]-Stirling Castle 23, 25 or 27 Apr 1124, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).

m (before [1114/15]) SIBYL, illegitimate daughter of HENRY I King of England & his mistress [---/Sibyl Corbet] (-Island of the Women, Loch Tay, Perthshire 12/13 Jul 1122, bur Island of the Women, Loch Tay).

King Alexander I had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

a) MALCOLM ([1105/15]-after 1158).

7. ETHELRED (-before [1107], bur [St Andrew´s Church, Kilremont]).


8. EADGYTH (1079-1 Jun 1118).

m (11 Nov 1100) as his first wife, HENRY I "Beauclerc" King of England, son of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre (Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068-Saint-Denis le Ferment, Forêt d’Angers near Rouen 1/2 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire).

9. DAVID ([1080]-Carlisle 24 May 1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).

10. MARY (-31 May 1116 or 18 Apr 1118, bur Bermondsey Priory).

m (1102) EUSTACHE III Comte de Boulogne, son of EUSTACHE [II] "Gernobadatus" Comte de Boulogne and Lens & his second wife Ida of Lotharingia (-after 1125).

2. DONALD (- died in prison Rescobie, Forfarshire 1099, buried Dunkeld Abbey, later transferred to Isle of Iona).

King Donald III & his wife had [one child]:

a) BETHOC (-[1150/70][288]).

[Bethoc & her first husband] had [one child]:

i) HEXTILDA of Tynedale.

3. MAELMUIRE [Melmare] (-died after [1135]).


ii) MALDRED, son of CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl [Scotland] & his wife Bethoc of Scotland Lady of Atholl (-killed in battle [1045]). m ([before 1040]) EALDGYTH [%C3%86lfgifu], daughter and heiress of UHTRED Earl of Northumbria & his third wife Ælfgifu of England (1016 or before-).

Lord Maldred & his wife had two children:

1. GOSPATRICK ([1040/48]-[1075])

2. MALDRED.

DESCENT OF THE MORMAERS OF CAITHNESS


Caithness, with Sutherland, was one of the original seven provinces of Scotland in the 9th century, but does not appear to have been counted as one of the seven Mormaerships of the kingdom[230]. This is presumably because it fell under the influence of the Norsemen who had colonised Orkney. The descendants of Thorfinn Jarl of Orkney controlled Caithness until [1015]. Around that date, Malcolm II King of Scotland granted the title Earl of Caithness to Thorfinn "the Black" Jarl of Orkney and the king invaded and seized Caithness and Sutherland on his behalf. Thorfinn's descendants ruled Caithness until 1231 (when Earl John was murdered) nominally under the suzerainty of the kings of Scotland throughout this period, although it is doubtful whether the king exercised much direct control in Caithness. In 1232, Magnus, related to the earls of Angus, was installed as earl in part of Caithness by Alexander II King of Scotland (see below, Part B). The other part of Caithness was controlled by Freskin of Moray, Lord of Duffus, probably the son-in-law of Earl John who was murdered in 1231 (see Chapter 6.B). After the death of Magnus Earl of Caithness, Malise Earl of Strathearn styled himself Earl of Caithness and Orkney, the Complete Peerage suggesting that he may have inherited the earldom through his mother[231]. After his attainder in 1332, the earldom remained vacant until it was granted in [1375] to David Stewart Earl of Strathearn, son of Robert II King of Scotland. It was held by different members of the Stewart family until 1437. (Cawley's Medlands)

1. DUNGAD [Duncan] . Mormaer of Caithness. m GROA, daughter of THORSTEIN "the Red". Dungad & his wife had one child: (Cawley's Medlands)

a) GRELAD . Snorre names "Grelad, a daughter of Earl Dungad of Caithness…[and of] Groa, a daughter of Thorstein Raud" as mother of the five sons of Thorfin "Hausakljufer"[232]. m (941) THORFINN "Hausakliffer/Skullcleaver" Jarl of Orkney, son of EINAR "Turf-Einar" Jarl of Orkney & his wife --- (-soon after 977). He appears to have become Jarl of Caithness. (Cawley's Medlands)




DESCENT OF THE MORMAERS OF FIFE



Fife, with Forthreve, was one of the original seven provinces of Scotland in the 9th century. Its early rulers were styled "Mormaer" and in [1114/15] the ruler of Fife was one of the six signatories of the charter of Scone who signed as "comes". The earldom of Fife was held by the family of Gillemichel Macduff from [1129] until Isabel Ctss of Fife sold the earldom to Robert Stewart Earl of Menteith, son of Robert II King of Scotland, in 1371 after which the earldom remained in the Stewart family until 1425. (Cawley's Medlands)


1. BETH, son of --- (-after 1124). Possibly Mormaer of Fife or Moray. "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna" witnessed the charter dated to [1114/15] under which "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey[256]. "…Beth comes…" subscribed the possibly spurious charter dated to [1120] of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…"[257]. "Beth comite…" witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone[258]. same person as…? HETH (-1130 or after). "Ed comes…" witnessed a charter dated to [1128] by which "David…Rex Scottorum" made grants to the church of Dunfermline[259]. "Madeth comite, Malis comite, Head comite…" witnessed a charter dated 1130 by which "David…Rex Scottorum" confirmed the shire of Kirkcaldy to the church of Dunfermline[260]. The Complete Peerage suggests that he may have been Ethelred, son of King Malcolm III, who was abbot of Dunkeld[261]. However, if this is correct, it is unclear why his relationship with King David was not specified in the two charters referred to above, close family members being identified as such in other charters of the king. In any case, the death of Ethelred is estimated to before 1107. David King of Scotland instructed "Constantinus comes" to respect the rights of the church of Dunfermline by undated charter witnessed by "…Madeth comit, Malis comit, Head comit, Hug de Morevill, Herbt cancell, Rob Corbet…"[262]. m ---. The name of Heth´s wife is not known. Heth & his wife had [two children]: (Cawley's Medlands)

a) [MALCOLM MacHeth (-23 Oct 1168[263]). John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Malcolmus filius Macheth" lied to claim he was "filium Angusii comitis Moraviæ" who was killed "tempore…regis David…apud Strucathroth a Scotis" and, after his alleged father´s death, rebelled against King David who imprisoned him "in turre castri de Marchemond, quond nunc Roxburgh nuncupator"[264]. Duncan suggests that Malcolm MacHeth was the son of "Heth" who witnessed two charters in the early years of the reign of King David I[265]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records that "Malcolm Macheth" made peace with the king the year after his son was captured[266]. John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that Malcolm MacHeth made peace with King Malcolm the year after his son was captured[267]. He was created Earl of Ross in 1162 or before[268].] (Cawley's Medlands)

- EARLS of ROSS.

b) [GILLCOMDED Macheth . David I King of Scotland granted protection to the clerics of Deer by undated charter, witnessed by "Donchado comite de Fib et Malmori d´Athotla et Ggillebrite comite d´Engus et Ghgillcomded Mac Aed…"[269].] (Cawley's Medlands)




DESCENT OF THE MORMAERS of MORAY

OVERVIEW

(See Medieval Moray for Detailed Version of this Summary)

RUAIDHRI. Mormaer of Moray.

m ---. The name of Ruaidhri´s wife is not known.

Ruadhri & his wife had two children:

1. FINDLAECH MacRory (-[1018/20]). Thane of Angus, Mormaer of Moray.

m ---Donada?.

Mormaer Findlaech & [wife] had one child:

a) MACBETH ([1005]-killed in battle Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire 15 Aug 1057, bur Isle of Iona).

m ([after 1032]) [as her second husband,] GRUOCH, [widow of GILLACOMGAIN Mormaer of Moray daughter of BOITE[Bodhe] of Scotland & his wife --- ([1015]-).

2. MAELBRIGTE.

m ---. The name of Maelbrigte´s wife is not known.

Maelbrigte & his wife had two children:

a) MALCOLM (-1029).

b) GILLACOMGAIN (-burned alive 1032). Mormaer of Moray.

m[as her first husband, GRUOCH, daughter of BOITE--- ([1015]-)].

Mormaer Gillacomgain & his [wife] had [one child]:

i) LULACH ([1032]-killed in battle Essie, Strathbogie 17 Mar 1058, bur Isle of Iona).

m ---. Finnghuala of Angus?

Lulach & his wife had two children:

(a) MAELSNECHTAI (-1085).

(b) daughter.

m ---. One child:

(1) ANGUS (-killed in battle Strickathrow 1130). Mormaer of Moray.


DESCENT OF THE JARLS OF ORKNEY

OVERVIEW

(See Medieval Orkney for Detailed Version of this Summary)

A. NORWEGIAN JARLS of ORKNEY [893]-[1030] – UNCERTAIN EARLY LINEAGE


1. RAGNVALD "the Wise", son of EYSTEIN "Glumra/Clatterer" Jarl in Norway & his wife ---] (-[894]).

a) for other children: see Cawley’s NORWEGIAN NOBILITY.

b) HALLAD . m ---. The name of Hallad´s wife is not known. Hallad & his wife had one child:

i) THORE.

(a) THOR-RID .

m THORGILS, son of THORBEORN Loke & his wife

c) EINAR "Turf-Einar” .

m ---. The name of Einar´s wife is not known.

Einar [& his wife] had [three] children:

1. ARNKEL (-killed Stainmore, Westmoreland 954).

2. ERLEND (-killed Stainmore, Westmoreland 954).

3. THORFINN "Hausakliffer/Skullcleaver" ([910/20]-[soon after 977], bur Hoxa, North Ronaldsway).

mGRELAD of Caithness, daughter of DUNGAD [Duncan] Mormaer of Caithness & his wife Groa.

Thorfinn & [his wife] had [seven] children:

a) daughter .

i) EINAR "Klining/Buttered-Bread" (-murdered).

b) daughter.

i) EINAR "Hardchaft/Hard-Jaw" (-murdered).

c) ARNFINN Torfinnsson (-murdered Murkle, Caithness


).

m ([954/55]) as her first husband, RAGNHILD Eiriksdatter, daughter of ERIK I "Blodøks/Blood-axe" King of Norway & his wife Queen Gunhild Gormsdatter.

d) HAVARD Torfinnsson "Season-prosperous" (-murdered, bur Stennis, Hrossey).

m as her second husband, RAGNHILD Eiriksdatter, widow of ARNFINN Torfinnsson Jarl of Orkney.

e) LJOT Torfinnsson (-killed in battle).

m as her third husband, RAGNHILD Eiriksdatter, widow firstly of ARNFINN Torfinnsson Jarl of Orkney and secondly of HAVARD Torfinnsson Jarl of Orkney

f) HLODVIR Torfinnsson ([945/50]-[988], bur Hofn, Caithness).

m EITHNE, daughter of KIARVAL King of Ireland & his wife ---.

Hlodve & his wife had [three] children:

i) SIGURD "Digri/the Stout", ([965/70]-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).

m firstly ---. The name of Sigurd´s first wife is not known.

Sigurd & his [first wife] had four children:

1. SOMERLED (-[1015/20]).

2. BRUSI (-[1030/35])

a) RAGNVALD Brusason ([1010/15]-Dec 1046, bur Papa Westray).

3. EINA "Rangmund/Wrymouth" (-murdered Sandwick [1023/25]).

4. HUNDI [Hlodvir] ([990]-[996/1000])

m ([1005 or after]) --- of Scotland, daughter of MALCOLM II King of Scotland & his wife ---.

Sigurd & his second wife had one child:

5. THORFINN "the Black" ([1009]-[1060/65], bur Birsay, Christchurch).

ii) SVANLAUG or Nereid.

m (Orkney 990) GILLI Jarl of the Hebrides 988-1014.]

iii) daughter.

m HAVARD (-winter 988/89). Steward of Caithness for Jarl Sigurd. Killed by Jarls Melsnati and Hundi, who were defeated when Jarl Sigurd attacked them in revenge.]

g) SKULI Torfinnsson (-killed in battle).

Einar had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

4. THOR-DIS.

m Thor-gar THORGAR, son of ---.


2. SIGURD "Riki/the Mighty" (-[892], bur Sydero, Dornoch Firth).

a) GUTHORM (-[893]).





B. NORWEGIAN JARLS of ORKNEY [1030]-1156


THORFINN "the Black", son of SIGURD "Digri" Jarl of Orkney and Caithness & his wife Donada of Scotland ([1009]-[1060/65], bur Birsay, Christchurch).

m ([1045/50]) [as her first husband,] INGIBJÖRG Finnsdatter, daughter of FINN Arnesson [later Jarl of Halland in Denmark] & his wife Bergliot Halfdansdatter ([1030/35]-).

Thorfinn & his wife had [three or more] children:

1. PAUL Thorfinnsson, son of THORFINN II "the Black" Jarl of Orkney & his wife Ingibjörg Finnsdatter (-in prison Bergen 1098, bur Bergen).

m--- Haakonsdatter, daughter of HAAKON Ivarsson & his wife Ragnhild Magnusdatter of Norway.

Paul & his wife had children:

1. HAKON Paulsson (before [1070]-Orkney [1126]).

m ---. The name of Hakon´s wife is not known.

Hakon & his wife had one child:

a) PAUL (II) Hakonsson "the Silent" (-after 1137).

Mistress (1): HELGA, daughter of MODDAN

Hakon had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1):

b) HARALD [I] "Slettmali/Smooth-spoken" (before [1090]-[1131]).

m ---. The name of Harald´s wife is not known.

Harald & his wife had one child:

i) ERLEND Haraldsson (-murdered Damsay Dec 1156).

c) INGIBJÖRG .

m [as his second wife], OLAV Bitling King of Sodor and Man 1097-1098 and 1103-1153, son of ---.

Olav & his wife had one child:

i) GODROD.

m ---. The name of Godrod´s wife is not known.

Godrod & his wife had one child:

(a) RAGNVALD Godradarson . King of Man and the Isles.

d) MARGARET (before [1115]-).

m firstly ([1133]) as his second wife, MADDAD

m secondly ERLAND "Ungi/the Young" (-killed 1156).

2. THORA

m HALLDOR, son of BRYNIOLF Camel & his wife –

3. INGRID

m EINAR

4. HERBJÖRG

5. RAGNHILD

2. ERLEND Thorfinnsson (-in prison Trondheim [Nidaros] 1098, bur Trondheim).

m THORA,

Erlend & his wife had four children:

a) ERLING (-[Ulster [May] 1103]).

b) St MAGNUS Erlendsson (-murdered Egilsay 16 Apr [1117], bur Christchurch at Birsay, transferred to Kirkwall Cathedral).

c) GUNHILD.

m (Spring 1099) KOL Kalisson, son of KALI of Agdir in Norway & his wife ---. Lenderman in Agder.

Kol & his wife had two children:

i) KALI [Rognvald] ([1100]-murdered Force, Calder, Caithness 20 Aug 1158, bur St Magnus Cathedral).

m ---. The name of Kali-Rognvald´s wife is not known. Kali-Rognvald & his wife had one child:

(a) INGIGERD

 

m (Sutherland Spring 1156) ERIK Slagbrellir, son of ERIL Streita & his wife Audhild [daughter of Thorliot].

Erik & his wife had [seven] children:

(1) HARALD Eriksson "Ungi" ([1156]-killed in battle Wick 1198).

(2) MAGNUS Mangi (-killed in battle near Fimreite on Sognefjord 15 Jun 1184).

(3) ROGNVALD.

(4) INGEBIORG.

(5) ELIN.

(6) RAGNHILD.

(7) daughter .

ii) INGIGERD.

m JON Petersson, lenderman in Sogne.

d) CECILIA.

m ISAAC

Erlend had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

e) JADDVOR

3. son or sons (-young).

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