|Birthplace:||Bolsward, Friesland, Niedersachsen, Germany|
|Death:||Died in New York, New York, New York, United States|
|Occupation:||First Lord of Philipsborough (or Philipsburgh) Manor in Yonkers, NY (see Wikipedia)|
|Managed by:||Sarah Burns|
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About Frederick Philipse
White, James Terry, The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 14, Part 1, New York, NY: J. T. White Company, 1910, p. 275:
PHILIPSE (originally Pelypse or Pelypsen), Frederick, landed proprietor, was born at Bolsward, Friesland, Holland, in 1626, son of Frederick and Margaret (Dacres) Philipse. His mother was an Englishwoman. In 1647 he emigrated to New Amsterdam (Now York), where he worked as a carpenter, and aided in the erection of the Old Dutch Church. Later he gave up his trade and engaged in commerce with the East and West Indies and in barter with the Five Nations, as well as the slave trade, while he derived not a little income from piratical expeditions in which he was a silent partner. Eventually he was considered the richest man in the city, and was nicknamed "the Dutch Millionaire." Gov. Stuyvesant granted him city lots; the British government extensive tracts of land; and the Indians sold him other real estate. By 1693 he was in possession of a broad strip extending front Spuyten Duyvil to the Croton river, and formally incorporated a portion of this as the manor of Philipseborough, embracing the present town of Yonkers and 150 acres of land. He also founded Fredericksborough or Sleepy Hollow, covering 240 square miles, where he built castle Philipse for protection from the savages, and opposite it built in 1699 a church, that is now the oldest in New York state. This was the beginning of Tarrytown, although the first squatter settlements in the vicinity were erected by Dutch farmers as early as 1645. It retained the name of its founder until some time after 1754, when it became known as Tarrytown. Philipse possessed other holdings in New Jersey. Tactfully avoiding political controversies, he was the friend of every royal governor from Andros to Bellomont, and for twenty years he was a member of the governor's council, resigning to escape removal for complicity in piratical cruises. Two marriages augmented his fortune. The first was in 1662 to Margaret Hardenbroek, widow of Pietrus Rudolphus de Vries, a rich merchant. This lady, who continued the business of her first husband, made frequent voyages to Holland as supercargo of her own ships. She had one child, Maria de Vries, whom Philipse adopted, naming her Eva Philipse, who became the wife of Jacobus Van Cortlandt. His wife having died, Frederick Philipse was married, Nov. 30, 1692, to Catharine, daughter of Oloff Stevenson Van Cortlandt, and widow of John Derval, merchant. There was no issue of this union. Frederick's children were Philip, Adolphus, Anna and Rombout, the last of whom died in infancy. Anna was married to Philip French, and to her and to Eva he left his New York city and New Jersey property. Philip died about 1692, leaving an infant son, Frederick. To this grandson and to his own son, Adolphus, Philipse left the manor of Philipseborough. Adolphus died before Frederick came of age, willing his share to the latter, who thus became the second lord of the manor. Frederick Philipse, first, died In New York city, Nov. 6. 1702.
(2) See Horne, Field, "The Friesland Ancestry of Frederick Philipse," New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, Vol. 109 (1978), pp. 201-204, which refutes the often-repeated myth that Frederick Philipse had a Bohemian ancestry.
The Manor of Philipsborough
Address Written for The New York Branch of The Order of Colonial Lords of Manors in America by Edward Hagaman Hall, L.H.D. Published 1920
The Manor of Philipsborough, o[r] Philipse Manor, as it is frequently called, extended along the Hudson river from Spuyten Duyvil creek to Croton river, a distance of about twenty-one miles, and embraced about 156,000 acres. It was neither the first nor the largest of the great Colonial Manors in what is now the State of New York, but derived its distinction from its proximity to the Metropolis, the character of its proprietors, and the history enacted within its borders.
It is not a little singular that this rich domain, so eligibly situated for commerce by reason of its location on the Hudson and so attractive on account of its good farm land and mill-streams, should so long have escaped bestowal upon some influential and worthy citizen of the Colony, after tracts more remote had been granted by the Crown to Thomas Pell, Kiliaen Van Rensselaer and Robert Livingston, not to mention less notable characters. It cannot be denied, however, that when Philipsborough Manor was created by Royal Charter on June 12, 1693, it was worthily bestowed.
Frederick Philipse, the grantee, was born in Bolswaert, Friesland, in 1626 ? the year in which Peter Minuit, the first Director-General of New Netherland, arrived at Manhattan Island with a fully equipped government and the year from which the City of New York dates its first permanent settlement. . . . Frederick Philipse came to New Amsterdam probably in 1647 when he and the embryo Metropolis were both turning the twenty-first year of their ages. Within six years from that date he had so firmly established himself in public confidence as a man of sound judgment, that his first appearance in the documentary history of the colony shows him acting as arbitrator in establishing the valuation of some disputed real estate in New Amsterdam. His native ability is also shown by the rapidity with which he rose from the calling of architect and builder, in which official capacity he served the West India Company, to become the leading merchant of his day and the possessor of a large fortune. That his acquisition of wealth was not at the expense of the esteem of his fellow citizens is evident from his promotion to many public positions, including those of City Surveyor (1666) and Alderman (1674); and finally, when the Duke of York issued instructions to the newly appointed Governor Dongan in 1682, Philipse was so well known at court that Dongan was directed, on his arrival at New York, "to call together Fredericke Phillips, Stephen Courtland, and soe many more of the most eminent inhabitants of New Yorke, not exceeding tenn, to be of my Councill."
Philipse's first land-holding was acquired in New Amsterdam in 1658, when Director-General Stuyvesant, by authority of the Council, granted him a lot on the northeast corner of the Markveld (Market-field, now Whitehall street) and Brouwer straat (Brewer street, now Stone street). And to this he added other possessions within the wall which once extended across what is now Wall street. But it was not till 1672 that he acquired his first holding in what was destined to be the lordly Manor of Philipsborough. This purchase, made in partnership with Thomas Lewis and Thomas Delaval, included the region bordering on the Neperhan river which had been granted by the West India Company in 1646 to the learned Adriaen Van der Donck, and which, after his death in 1655, had been sold by his widow and her second husband to Elias Doughty of Flushing, L. I. There was already a thriving business going on at the mill-site near the mouth of the Neperhan, now included in the City of Yonkers; and Philipse found it so profitable that he bought out the interests of his partners and in 1686 became sole owner.
From this nucleus he gradually extended his ownership by purchase until, in 1685, his possessions extended from Croton river on the north (the southern boundary of the future Van Cortlandt Manor), to Lower or Little Yonkers on the south. When, in 1693, Philipse received by his Royal Charter a grant to a neck of land called Paparinemin at Spuyten Duyvil creek, and in January, 1694, bought from Matthias Buckhout the fifty acres called George's Point (now Van Cortlandt Park), his estate stretched continuously from Spuyten Duyvil creek to Croton river.
Philipse's charter erected this region into "a Lordship or Manor of Philipsborough in free and common socage according to the tenure of our Manor in East Greenwich within our County of Kent in our realm of England, yielding, rendering and paying therefor, yearly and every year, on the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, at our fort at New York, unto us, our heirs and successors, the annual rent of £4 12s current money of our said Province."
The reference to the Royal Manor in East Greenwich, in Kent, signified the most liberal manorial tenure that the Crown could grant, and recalls the fact that when the Normans conquered England, the Saxon kingdom of Kent was the first to submit peaceably to the Conqueror, in recognition of which William confirmed the inhabitants in all their ancient laws and liberties. These privileges were so much more liberal than those of the rest of the kingdom that the common law of Kent was different from the common law of other parts of England. One of these privileges was "free socage tenure" as distinguished from feudal tenure by Knight's service, and therefore the customs and practices of the Royal Manor of East Greenwich were particularly adaptable to the conditions in America.
Philipse was also privileged to hold Court Leet and Court Baron within his domain; and, knowing, as we do, his fair-mindedness in the adjudication of public affairs, from the arbitration of real estate disputes to the settlement of inter-colonial boundaries, we may infer that his judgment within the local courts of his Manor were just and equitable.
Owing to the proximity of his demesne to the Island of Manhattan, from which it was separated by Spuyten Duyvil creek, Philipse acquired by his charter a privilege of unique value in his permission to erect a toll-bridge across the creek 'upon condition that it be called the King's Bridge. When it is remembered that this bridge was the chief, and for some years the only, means by which travellers from New York could pass to the mainland, or travellers from the mainland pass to the Island of Manhattan, except by ford or boat, it will be understood that this privilege was a lucrative source of income. Within the past decade, Spuyten Duyvil creek ? that water-way around whose inexplicable name Washington Irving wove such a fanciful legend about the fate of Stuyvesant's trumpeter Corlear ? has ceased to be; its channel has been filled up; and the King's Bridge has lost its identity in a solid roadway; but the name King's Bridge, first written in the charter of Philipse Manor, still applies to the locality and identifies it in the pages of history.
When the first Lord of the Manor died in 1702, he closed a career in which he may well have taken pride. Coming of good family stock and yet without the advantage of inherited wealth, he had won his fortune and estate by force of character and the applications of his talents to industry and commerce. He had served the Colony in positions of responsibility and trust. He had manifested physical courage in time of physical danger and moral courage when principles of liberty were involved even to the point of questioning the Royal power when it went beyond what he believed to be lawful limits. It is a curious contrast of fate that the first Lord of the Manor, who was contumacious of the King's authority, died in possession of his estate, while the third Lord lost his because of loyalty to the King.
Of this first period of the Manor we have three interesting monuments in the Manor Hall at Yonkers, the "Castle" on the Pocantico, and the Sleepy Hollow church. The first of these, through the generosity of the late Mrs. William F. Cochran, is now in possession of the State and the custody of the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. The second is the home of Elsie Janis, the popular actress. And the third, situated in Sleepy Hollow cemetery, is still a place of religious worship. The exact dates of the erection of the Manor Hall and the Castle are not known, but there is reason to believe that the beginning of the house on the Neperhan antedates that of the house on the Pocantico. Frederick Philipse availed himself of the water power of both the Neperhan and the Pocantico to build mills near their confluence with the Hudson, and near each of these mill-sites stands one .of these monumental buildings. The earliest documentary evidence referring to the Yonkers site shows that Van der Donck had erected a saw-mill and laid out a farm and plantation there prior to 1652. A law suit shows that there was a mill there in 1674 and that it had been there some years. And complaints from the Government of Connecticut show that in 1682-84 he was building a mill on the Pocantico in addition to the one on the Neperhan. Now it goes without saying that in those days, where there was a sufficient settlement or centre of activity to have, a mill, there was need for a strong house for protection against the Indians. This is repeatedly attested in the history of the Hudson and Mohawk valleys where even to-day stand houses perforated with loop holes to shoot the Indians. The writer has no doubt but that there was a substantial house at Yonkers as early as 1652, certainly as early as 1674, and beyond the peradventure of a doubt in 1682, but how much of it remains in the present Manor Hall is largely a matter of conjecture, aided by study of the structure itself. Reflections upon the evidence of the building during the seven years which have elapsed since the publication of the writer's book entitled Philipse Manor Hall at Yonkers, N. Y., leads him to the opinion that part of the foundation may antedate 1682; that part of the southern wing dates from about 1682-1694; and that the remainder and larger part dates from about 1725; or 1730, although the date 1745 is also given as that of the enlargement by the second Lord of the Manor. An interesting confirmation of the 1730 date comes to the writer as he is penning these lines from Mr. John Henry Livingston of "Clermont," who says that in the parlor fireplace in his residence is the counterpart of the English fire-back in Philipse Manor Hall, and he dates the erection of his house from 1730. It was probably about this time that the Manor Hall was enlarged.
There is no occasion for doubting that the date of 1683 attributed to Castle Philipse on the Pocantico is substantially correct ? for a part if not all of the house; for documentary evidence shows that Philipse's upper-mill "over against Tappan" was erected at this time, and with it, no doubt, a substantial residence.
Concerning the date of the Sleepy Hollow church we have more certain testimony. Frederick Philipse died in 1702 and Mrs. Philipse in her will, refers to "the Dutch Church erected and built at Philipsburgh by my late husband, Frederick Philipse deceased." The old stone slab on the church which gives the date 1699 cannot be far, if at all, out of the way.
There was probably little luxury in the residences at Philipse's mills during the incumbency of the first Lord of the Manor, for in those pioneer days, surrounded by perils from Indians, there could be little approach to the comfort and ease of the old established English Manors, and the family made its chief residence in the City of New York. But with the advent of the second proprietor, the more settled condition of the country and greater security encouraged social life and gradually led to the Manor Hall becoming the centre of more social activity. But time was required to bring about such a result.
When the first Lord of the Manor died in 1702, he divided up his extensive property in New York City, Westchester County, Rockland County, New Jersey and elsewhere between his widow, his three living children, Eva, Annetje and Adolphus, and his grandson Frederick. The latter's share included the Yonkers plantation and other property. But the grandson Frederick, who became the second Lord of the Manor, was then a minor, having been born in 1695 and being only 7 years of age; so that the grandfather, by his will, entrusted the guardianship of the grandson and his estate to his widow, with the injunction that she give the boy "ye best education and learning these parts of ye world will afford." Mrs. Philipse did more than that. She took the boy to England where he was thoroughly educated in the law and acquired the best tradition of his day, and when he came of age in 1716 and entered upon his full privileges as Lord of the Manor, he began his career with the advantages of both inheritance and culture. Three years later he married Joanna, daughter of Lieut. Gov. Anthony Brockholls. By this distinguished alliance, the high social and political standing of the family was maintained
Baptisms at the Reformed Dutch Church of New Amsterdam (1639-1730) Manually Entered by Theodore Brassard
[Note: The baptisms are laid out in order as follows: The date of the baptism; the parents; the child; and the witnesses. Note the separation of each item by semicolons.]
[Frederick PHILIPSE and Margrieta HARDENBROECK were present at the following baptisms of their four children.]
BAPTISMS OF 1663 . . .
18 Mar; Frederick Philipszen, Margareta Hardenbroeck; Philip; Abel Hardenbroeck and his wife
BAPTISMS OF 1665 . . .
15 Nov; Frederick Philipszen, Margriet Hardenbroeck; Adolphus; Johan Hardenbroeck, Abel Hardenbroeck, Ursel Hardenbroeck
BAPTISMS OF 1667 . . .
27 Nov; Fredrick Philipszen, Margriet Hardenbroeck; Annetie; Johannes Hardenbroeck, Maria Hardenbroeck
BAPTISMS OF 1670 . . .
9 Jan; Fredrick Philipszen, Magariet Hardenbroeck; Rombout; Belitje Hardenbroeck
(5) New York City Wills, 1665-1707 [database online], Orem, UT: Ancestry, Inc., 1998, pp. 109-113:
FREDERICK PHILLIPSE. In the name of God, Amen. I, Frederick Flipse, of ye city of New York, being in health of body and of sound and perfect memory, do make and declare this to be my last will and testament. I order my body to be interred at my burial place at ye upper mill, with such charges and in such decent manner as to my executors shall seem most convenient. I give to Frederick Flipse, my grand son, born in Barbadoes, ye only son of Philip, my eldest son, late deceased, ye following houses and tenements in ye city of New York, to wit: That dwelling house with ye appurtenances I now live in, with ye house called ye Boulting house, as also the house next door to ye said dwelling house, and the ground adjoining so far as ye leanto stands, and so far as ye gable end of ye old kitchen and ye fence of the widow De Kay. And also a ware house called ye middle ware house, and ye land behind it, ye breadth of ye said ware house towards ye New street, and to extend in length to ye Broad street, ye same ground being there in breadth between ye Cooper's house and ye ground of Isaac Kip. And all those two dwelling houses and lots of ground lying and being near ye Old Stadt House, at present in ye tenure of Mr. Caree and Mr. Droillet. And also all those lands, houses, and hereditaments in the County of Westchester, to wit, that land called Papariniman, with the meadows and the bridge and the toll, and all the right and title which I have to the same. And all those lands and meadows called the Jonckers Plantations, with all the houses, mills, orchards, etc., within the Patent. As also a piece of land in the Mile Square, by me lately bought of Michael Howden. And all that tract or piece of land extending from the Jonckers Plantation or Patent to a creek called by ye Indians Wysquaqua, and by the Christians Williams Portuguese Creek, and from thence according to ye course of ye creek into ye woods to the head of the same, and thence on an east line to the creek called the Jonckers Creek, and thence to continue the same course to Broncks River, and as far as my right extends. Also one half of my meadow lying at Tappan with the appurtenances to the same, To him, the said Frederick Flipse, my grand son, and ye heirs male of his body lawfully to be begotten. I also leave to my grand son Frederick, besides the negroes and the Jonckers Plantation, a negro called Harry with his wife and child, and two negroes called Peter and Wan, and the boat called the "Joncker," with all pertaining to it, and one half of all the cotton, etc., at the Plantation at ye upper mills, and one quarter of all ships, plate goods, merchandizes, etc. These lands are given to him with this restriction, that it is in lieu of the tract of land called Cinquesingh, purchased by me and intended to be given to his father, my eldest son.
I give to my son, Adolphus Flypse, ye following houses and tenements in ye city of New York, to wit, that house and ground that Isaac Marquis at present lives in, with all the rights to me belonging. And a house in Stone street next Isaac De Forrests, and so far as my right extends. Also a house and lot of ground over against the house I now live in, stretching in breadth to the house of Antie Goessens, and in length to the house of Mr. Anthony Brockholst. And also a house and lot of ground lying in ye Broad street by ye ground of Jacobus Kip, with a ware house in ye New street and the land between both from one street to the other. Also those lands, tenements, and hereditaments in ye County of Westchester, to wit, all that tract of land lying at ye upper mills, beginning at a creek, called by the Indians Wysquaqua and by the Christians William Portuguese Creek, being the bounds of the land given to my grand son, and so running up Hudson River to ye creek called Wegehandigh, whereon are two grist mills, and from thence along the river to a creek called Kichtawam or Croton River, and so along the river or creek, according to ye Patent, and thence on an east line as far as the Bronx River, thence to the head of Bronx River, and along Bronx River to the lands devised to my grandson Frederick Flipse. Also one half of a saw mill at Mamaroneck, late by me purchased of Dr. Selinus. And one half of the meadow at Tappan, by me purchased of Dr. George Lockhart. And all that piece of meadow on the north side of Tappan creek, as expressed in the Patent, together with all houses, mills, etc., to him and his heirs male. Also certain negroes (14 in all), and one half of the cattle, etc., at the upper mills. And a large boat called ye "Unity," by me bought of Jan Desmorety. I leave to my eld est daughter Eva, wife of Jacobus Van Cortlandt, all that house and ground with the appurtenances in ye city of New York where they at present live, with all rights. Also a lot of ground in ye New street, to the south of the old ware house. And one quarter of all ships, plate goods, etc., to her during her life, and then to her second son. Also a certain mortgage of Dr. Henricus Selinus, upon ye lands of John Richbell, deceased, twenty miles into ye woods, but not to extend over Bronx River into any lands given to my grand son. I give to my daughter Anatje, wife of Phillip French, the house and ground in New York where they at present live. Also the old ware house and ground thereto belonging lying in the New street. And all my estate of land in the County of Berghen in East New Jersey, to wit, a house lot in the village of Bergen, a large garden, a Plantation of 15 acres, with 8 morgen or 16 acres of meadow with the right in the undivided wood land of two farms and the Plantation. And all my lands in the County of Ulster, to wit, a piece of land at Mombachus, containing 290 acres. A piece of land at Roundout creek, mortgaged to me by John Ward, counting 700 acres. I also leave to her, after my wife's decease, that lot of ground and appurtenances in New York extending from ye Broadway to ye New street, lying between the ground lot of Robert White and the ground of William the Clockluyer. Also one quarter of all ships, goods, etc., to her during her life and then to her second son, and for lack of such to her son Philip French. I bequeath to my dear wife, Catharine Flipse, £50 per annum, and she shall continue to remain in the house I now live in, and shall receive the money I have engaged and promised her according to our agreement upon our marriage. And also the use during her life of that lot extending from ye Broadway to New street, lying between the ground lots of Robert White and Willliam the Clockluyer, and she is to have the guardianship of my grand son Frederick Flipse until he is of age.
I make my son Adolphus, my son in law, Jacobus Van Cortlandt, executors.
Dated October 26, 1700.
/s/ Frederick Flipse.
Witnesses, Isaac De Forrest, Olof Van Cortlandt, Philip Van Cortlandt, Wm. Nicoll.
Proved, before Lord Cornbury, December 9, 1702.
[NOTE.?Frederick Flipse (or Phillipse, as his descendants spelled the name) was the wealthiest man in New York in his time. The large tract of land in Westchester County was known as the Manor of Phillipsburgh. The burial ground at the upper mills, where his remains still rest, is at Tarrytown, and the church he built still remains. The houses and lots in New York, "near the Old Stadt House," are now Nos. 65-67 Pearl street. They descended to his great grandson, Frederick Phillipse, and were confiscated after the Revolution. The house where Frederick Flipse lived was on the north corner of Stone street and Whitehall. The "land of the widow De Kay" was on Whitehall street, next north of his lot. The house left to Adolphus Flips, "that Isaac Marquise lives in," is No. 64 Pearl street. The house on Stone street, "next to Isaac De Forest's," was next east of the house of Fredrick Flipse, on the north side of Stone street. The Produce Exchange covers all these lots. The house "over against the house I now live in," left to son Adolphus, is the south corner of Stone street and Whitehall. It was in after years the city residence of Colonel Roger Morris and his wife, Mary Phillipse. Adolphus Flipse died without issue in 1749 and all his lands went to his nephew, Frederick Phillipse. The house and lot left to Eva Van Cortlandt is the west corner of Coenties slip and Pearl street. This lot and house remained in the possession of her descendants to recent years. In the pictures of the Old Stadt House the house of Jacobus Van Cortlandt is distinctly seen. The house and lot left to Anetje, wife of Philip French, is on the south side of Pearl street, and next east of the famous Fraunces Tavern. The lot on Broadway, running through to New street, which was left to his wife for life, and then to Anetje, wife of Phillip French, is a little north of Beaver street. The lots and warehouses on New street and Broad street are about half way between Beaver street and Exchange place.?W. S. P.]
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Frederick Philipse's Timeline
October 28, 1662
Elberfeld, Wuppertal, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
Dutch Church, New York, United States
November 6, 1703
New York, New York, New York, United States
March 8, 1627
Bolsward, Friesland, Niedersachsen, Germany
of, New York
Fishkill, Dutchess, New York, United States
New York, United States
Fishkill, Dutchess, New York, United States
New York, United States