Hugh Richard Arthur Grosvenor (1879 - 1953)

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Birthdate:
Birthplace: Saigton Towers, Cheshire
Death: Died in Lochmore Lodge
Managed by: Michael Rhodes
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About Hugh Richard Arthur Grosvenor

Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster

From Wikipedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Grosvenor,_2nd_Duke_of_Westminster

His Grace The Duke of Westminster GCVO DSO

The Duke in early 1900s Born Hugh Richard Arthur Grosvenor (1879-03-19)19 March 1879 Died 19 July 1953(1953-07-19) (aged 74) Nationality British Spouse(s) Constance Cornwallis-West Violet Nelson Loelia Ponsonby Anne Sullivan Children Lady Ursula Vernon Edward, Earl Grosvenor Lady Mary Grosvenor Parents Victor Grosvenor, Earl Grosvenor Lady Sibell Lumley Hugh Richard Arthur Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster GCVO DSO (familiarly "Bendor") (19 March 1879 – 19 July 1953) was a British landowner and one of the wealthiest men in the world.

He was the son of Victor Grosvenor, Earl Grosvenor, son of the 1st Duke of Westminster, and Lady Sibell Lumley, the daughter of the 9th Earl of Scarborough.[1]


Nickname "Bend'Or"


Azure, a bend or, the ancient Grosvenor arms before the 1389 lawsuit Scrope v GrosvenorFrom his childhood and during his adult life he was known within family circles as "Bendor",[2] which was also the name of the racehorse Bend Or owned by his grandfather the first Duke, which won the Epsom Derby in 1880, the year following his grandson's birth. The name is a jovial reference to the ancient lost and much lamented former armorials of the family Azure, a bend or, which were awarded to the Scrope family in the famous case of 1389 heard before the Court of Chivalry, known as Scrope v Grosvenor. His wife Loelia wrote in her memoirs: "Of course everybody, even his parents and sisters, would normally have addressed the baby as "Belgrave" so they may have thought that any nickname was preferable. At all events it stuck, and my husband's friends never called him anything but Bendor or Benny".[3]

Estate

His ancestral country estate in Cheshire, the 54-bedroom Eaton Hall consisted of 11,000 acres of parkland, gardens and stables. The main residence had its walls hung with master works, paintings by Goya, Rubens, Raphael, Rembrandt, Hals, and Velázquez. An avid participant in the hunting life, the Duke owned lodges reserved for the sport in Scotland and France. For sea excursions, he had his choice of two sailing vessels, “The Cutty Sark”, and a yacht, “Flying Cloud”. For ground transportation he had 17 Rolls Royce automobiles and a private train built to facilitate travel from Eaton Hall directly into London where his townhouse Grosvenor House was located. Grosvenor House was later leased to The United States for use as the American Embassy.[4]

Like many of his social class whose lives were ones of privilege and leisure, the Duke occupied himself in the pursuit of pleasure. He was described as “a pure Victorian who had eyes for his shotgun, his hunters, his dogs—while English women, of his day, had only to give birth to children and please their masters…a man who enjoyed hiding diamonds under the pillow of his mistresses…a man who could brutalize women…” [5]

Military service


The Duke in cca 1900After succeeding his grandfather as Duke of Westminster in 1899, he served in the Second Boer War with the Imperial Yeomanry until 1901, as an ADC to Lord Roberts and Lord Milner. He subsequently invested in land in South Africa and Rhodesia.

In 1908, the Duke competed in the London Olympics as a motorboat racer for Great Britain.

On 1 April 1908, he was named honorary lieutenant-colonel of the 16th Battalion, The London Regiment, a post he held until 1915. The Duke served with the Cheshire Yeomanry during World War I, developing a prototype Rolls-Royce Armoured Car for their use. During their 1916 campaign in Egypt, as part of the Western Frontier Force under General William Peyton, the Duke (then a major) commanded the armoured cars of the regiment and took part in the destruction of a Senussi force at the Battle of Agagia on 26 February 1916. On 14 March 1916, he led the armoured cars on a raid that destroyed the enemy camp at Bir Asiso. Learning that the crews of HMT Moorina and HMS Tara were being held at Bir Hakkim, he led the nine armoured cars - with three armed but unarmoured cars and a further 28 cars and ambulances - on a 120-mile dash to rescue them before returning. The Senussi withdrew rather than engage in a fight.[6] He received the DSO for this exploit. He was subsequently promoted colonel and on 26 May 1917, he was named honorary colonel of the regiment.

Chanel Westminster and ChanelIn 1925, he was introduced to Gabrielle ("Coco") Chanel after a party in Monte Carlo and pursued her. He was as extravagant with her as he was with all of his lovers. He purchased a home for Chanel in London's prestigious Mayfair district, and in 1927 gifted her with a parcel of land on the French Riviera at Roquebrune-Cap-Martin where Chanel built her villa,”La Pausa.” His romantic liaison with Chanel lasted ten years.[7] An illustration of both Westminster’s extravagance and orchestrated technique in the courting of women has endured in the form of various apocryphal stories. He purportedly concealed a huge uncut emerald at the bottom of a crate of vegetables delivered to Chanel. Disguised as a deliveryman, Westminster appeared at Chanel’s apartment with an enormous bouquet of flowers. His ruse was only uncovered after Chanel’s assistant offered “the delivery boy” a tip.

Political ideology

In 1931, the Duke, a Conservative "outed" his brother-in-law, William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp (1872–1938), as a homosexual to the King and Queen. He reportedly hoped to ruin the Liberal Party through Beauchamp. Homosexuality was a criminal offence at the time, and the King was horrified, saying, "I thought men like that shot themselves."

During the run-up to World War II, he supported various right-wing and anti-Semitic causes, including the Right Club. "His anti-Semitic rants were notorious." [8] In her book “The Light of the Common Day,” Diana Cooper reminisces back to the day of September 1, 1939. She and her husband, Duff Cooper were lunching at London’s Savoy Grill with the Duke of Westminster. She recalls:

“‘when he [the Duke of Westminster] added that Hitler knew after all that we were his best friends, he set off the powder-magazine. "I hope". Duff spat, "that by tomorrow he will know that we are his most implacable and remorseless enemies". Next day "Bendor (Duke of Westminster)", telephoning to a friend, said that if there was a war it would be entirely due to the Jews and Duff Cooper'.” [9] Most of the twentieth century was plagued by the fear of global Communist domination. The moneyed elites, and those of The Duke’s aristocratic lineage particularly felt the threat. What caused this group the most anxiety was that Europe would be taken over by the Soviet Union—they perceived Communist domination, not Fascism was the enemy bent on destroying their lives of wealth and status. The Duke, known for his pro-German sympathies, was reportedly, instrumental in influencing his former mistress, Coco Chanel, to use her association with Winston Churchill to broker a bilateral peace agreement between the British and the Nazis.[10] It was in late 1943 or early 1944 that Chanel, and her then current lover, Nazi espionage agent, Baron Hans Gunther Von Dinklage, did undertake such an assignment. Code named “Operation Modellhut,” it was an attempt through the British Embassy in Madrid, via Chanel, to influence Churchill, and thereby persuade the British to negotiate a separate peace with Germany. This mission as planned ultimately met with failure.[11]

[edit] Marriages and issue The Duke's first wife in 1902On 16 February 1901, the Duke married Constance Edwina (Shelagh) Cornwallis-West (1876–1970). They had three children:[1]

Lady Ursula Mary Olivia Grosvenor (21 February 1902[1] – 1978), married, firstly, William Patrick Filmer-Sankey in 1924 and was divorced in 1940. She married, secondly, Major Stephen Vernon in 1940. By her first husband she had two sons, Patrick (who married the film actress Josephine Griffin) and Christopher Filmer-Sankey, the younger dying in her lifetime. Her child by her second husband died young. Lady Ursula's descendants by her first husband are the sole descendants of the 2nd Duke. They reside in the UK, Australia and Sweden. Edward George Hugh Grosvenor, Earl Grosvenor (1904–1909),[1] who died aged 4, after an operation for appendicitis. Lady Mary Constance Grosvenor (27 June 1910–2000).[1] On 26 November 1920, the Duke became the second husband of Violet Mary Nelson (1891–1983). They were divorced in 1926.

Westminster married Loelia Mary Ponsonby (1902–1993) on 20 February 1930. The couple was unable to have children[12] and were divorced in 1947 after several years of separation.[13]

He married Anne (Nancy) Winifred Sullivan (1915–2003) on 7 February 1947. She outlived him by fifty years.[1]

[edit] Death and successionThe Duke died in 1953, aged 74, leaving two daughters. His titles and the entailed Westminster estate passed to his cousin, William Grosvenor, and thence to the two sons of his youngest half-uncle Lord Hugh Grosvenor (killed in action 1914). The title is now held by Gerald Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster, who was born during the 2nd Duke's lifetime.

[edit] Notes^ a b c d e f Lundy, Darryl. "The Peerage.com". The Peerage. http://www.thepeerage.com/p589.htm#i5887.[unreliable source] ^ Loelia, Duchess of Westminster, Memoirs of, London, 1961, pp.172-4 ^ Loelia, Duchess of Westminster, Memoirs of, London, 1961, p.173 ^ Vaughan, Hal, "Sleeping With The Enemy, Coco Chanel's Secret War," Alfred A. Knopf, 2011, p.39-45 ^ Vaughan, Hal, "Sleeping With The Enemy, Coco Chanel's Secret War," Alfred A. Knopf, 2011, p.41 ^ Duncan N W, AFV Profile No. 9 Early Armoured Cars p6 ^ Vaughan, Hal, "Sleeping with the enemy: Coco Chanel's secret war," Knopf, 2011, p. 36-37 ^ Vaughan, Hal, "Sleeping With the Enemy, Coco Chanel's Secret War, " Alfred A. Knopf, 2011, p. 101 ^ www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk, retrieved August 30, 2012 ^ Vaughan, Hal, "Sleeping With the Enemy, Coco Chanel's Secret War, " Alfred A. Knopf, 2011, p. 161 ^ Vaughan, Hal, "Sleeping With the Enemy, Coco Chanel's Secret War, " Alfred A. Knopf, 2011, p. 169-175 ^ Anne Duchess of Westminster ^ Lady Lindsay of Downhill [edit] ReferencesBurke's Peerage & Baronetage (Various editions) Debrett's Peerage & Baronetage (Various editions) Leslie Field: "Bendor – The Golden Duke of Westminster" (1983) [edit] External linksHansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Westminster 2nd Duke of Westminster The 2nd Duke's far-right political reviews. Photograph of the 2nd Duke in the First World War, from the FirstWorldWar.com website. Retrieved 4 May 2008.

-------------------- http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Grosvenor,_2._Duke_of_Westminster

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Hugh Richard Arthur Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster's Timeline

1879
March 19, 1879
Saigton Towers, Cheshire
1901
February 16, 1901
Age 21
1902
February 21, 1902
Age 22
1904
November 16, 1904
Age 25
1910
June 27, 1910
Age 31
1919
1919
Age 39
1920
November 16, 1920
Age 41
1926
1926
Age 46
1930
February 20, 1930
Age 50
1947
February 7, 1947
Age 67