Michael III, Byzantine Emperor

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Μιχαήλ

Nicknames: ""Mythistés" The Drunkard", "император Михаил III Пияницата", "Michael III", "Μιχαήλ Γ΄", "Mikhaēl III", "Emperor Michel III of the /East/"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Constantinople
Death: Died in Constantinople
Immediate Family:

Son of Theophilos I Amorian, Byzantine Emperor and Saint Theodora Empress
Husband of Eudoxia Ingerina, Byzantine Empress
Father of Leo VI 'The Wise', Byzantine Emperor and Stephanus I, Patriarch of Constantinople
Brother of Thekla; Anna; Anastasia; Pulcheria and Maria

Occupation: Emperor of Byzantium, император на Византия (842-856-867), Michel II de Constantinople, empereur d'Orient dit l'Ivrogne, Emperor, Keiser, Empereur, de Byzance, 842, Kejsare i Östromerska riket Amoriska eller frygiska dynastin 820-867:
Managed by: Patrick Lee Schoettmer
Last Updated:

About Μιχαήλ

Mördad 24 sept 867 av Basileios I

Michael III

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Life

Michael was the youngest child of Emperor Theophilos and Theodora. Already crowned co-ruler by his father in 840, Michael III had just turned two years old when he succeeded as sole emperor on January 20, 842.

During his minority, the empire was governed by his mother Theodora, her uncle Sergios, and the minister Theoktistos. The empress had iconodule sympathies and deposed Patriarch John VII of Constantinople and replaced him with the iconodule Methodios in 843. This put an end to the second spell of Iconoclasm. The internal stabilization of the state was not matched on the frontiers. The Byzantine forces were defeated in Pamphylia, Crete, and on the border with Syria by the Abbasids, but the Byzantine navy did score a victory over the Arabs in 853. The imperial government undertook the resettlement of Paulicians from the eastern frontier into Thrace (thus cutting them off from their coreligionists and populating another border region) and launched an expedition against the Slavs in the Peloponnese.

As the emperor was growing up, the courtiers around him fought for influence. Increasingly fond of his uncle Bardas, Michael invested him as kaisar (Caesar) and allowed him to murder Theoktistos in November 855. With Bardas' support, Michael III overthrew the regency on March 15, 856, and relegated his mother and sisters to a monastery in 857.

Bardas justified this usurpation by introducing various internal reforms; Michael III took an active part in the wars against the Abbasids and their vassals on the eastern frontier in 856–863. In 859 he personally besieged Samosata, but in 860 he had to abandon his expedition to repel a Rus' attack on Constantinople. Michael was defeated by the Caliph al-Mutawakkil at Dazimon in 860, but in 863 his other uncle Petronas defeated the amir of Melitene and celebrated a triumph in the capital.

Under the influence of Bardas and Photios, Michael presided over the reconstruction of ruined cities and structures, the reopening of closed monasteries, and the reorganization of the imperial university at the Maganaura palace. Photios, originally a layman, had entered holy orders and was promoted to the position of patriarch on the dismissal of the troublesome Ignatios in 858. This created a schism within the Church and, although a Constantinopolitan synod in 861 confirmed Photios as patriarch, Ignarios appealed to Pope Nicholas I, who declared Photios illegitimate in 863. The conflict over the patriarchal throne and supreme authority within the church was exacerbated by the success of the active missionary efforts launched by Photios.

Under the guidance of Patriarch Photios, Michael sponsored the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodios to the Khazar Khagan in an effort to stop the expansion of Judaism among the Khazars. Although this mission was a failure, their next mission in 863 secured the conversion of Great Moravia and devised the Glagolitic alphabet for writing in Slavonic. Fearing the potential conversion of Boris I of Bulgaria to Christianity under Frankish incluence, Michael III and the Caesar Bardas invaded Bulgaria and imposed Boris' conversion according to the Byzantine rite as part of the peace settlement in 864.

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Michael IIIMichael III's marriage with Eudokia Dekapolitissa was childless, but the emperor did not want to risk a scandal by attempting to marry his mistress Eudokia Ingerina. The solution he chose was to marry Eudokia Ingerina to his favorite courtier and chamberlain Basil the Macedonian. While Michael carried out his relationship with Ingerina, Basil was kept satisfied with the emperor's sister Thekla, whom her brother retrieved from a monastery. Basil gained increasing influence over Michael, and in April 866 he convinced the emperor that the Caesar Bardas was conspiring against him and was duly allowed to murder Bardas. Now without serious rivals, Basil was crowned co-emperor in May 867 and was adopted by the much younger Michael III. This curious development may have been intended to legitimize the eventual succession to the throne of Eudokia Ingerina's son Leo, who was widely believed to be Michael's son.

If this had been Michael's plan, it backfired. Ostensibly troubled by the favor Michael was beginning to show to another courtier, Basil had Michael assassinated in his sleep in September 867, and succeeded as sole emperor.

Michael's unflattering reputation in later centuries was largely a result of Basil's propaganda, which sought to justify his usurpation of power.

[edit] Family

Michael III had no children by his wife Eudokia Dekapolitissa, but was believed to have fathered one or two sons by his mistress Eudokia Ingerina:

Leo VI, who succeeded as emperor in 886.

Stephen I, patriarch of Constantinople.

Preceded by

Theophilos Byzantine Emperor

842–867 Succeeded by

Basil I

[edit] References

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.

Cyril Mango, "Eudocia Ingerina, the Normans, and the Macedonian Dynasty," Zbornik radova Vizantoloskog Instituta, XIV-XV, 1973, 17-27.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_III"

Michael III. (* 839 in Konstantinopel; † 867 ebenda), genannt „der Säufer“, war ein Sohn des Theophilos und Enkel Michaels II. Er folgte seinem Vater als byzantinischer Kaiser 842 im Alter von drei Jahren.

Während seiner Minderjährigkeit wurde das Reich von seiner Mutter Theodora regiert, der es gelang, die Grenzen gegen die Araber zu halten, obwohl ihre Generälen mehrere Niederlagen hinnehmen mussten. Die Regentin zeigte ihren religiösen Eifer, indem sie im ersten Jahr die Bilderverehrung wieder zuließ, und die Paulikianer verfolgte. Andererseits vernachlässigte sie die Erziehung ihres Sohnes. Michael wuchs in Ausschweifungen auf und geriet unter den Einfluss seins Onkels Bardas, der ihn 856 veranlasste, Theodora in ein Kloster zu schicken. 857 ergriff Michael selbst die Macht.

Bardas ernannte Photios zum Patriarchen von Konstantinopel und rechtfertigte seine Usurpation, indem er interne Reformen voranbrachte, während Michael selbst aktiven Anteil an den Feldzügen nahm. Während eines Konflikts mit den Arabern am Euphrat (856 - 863) erlitt der Kaiser 860 eine persönliche Niederlage, die durch einen großartigen Sieg seines Onkels bei Petronas in Kleinasien über den Emir von Melitene 863 wieder ausgeglichen wurde. 861 fielen Michael und Bardas in Bulgarien ein und erreichten den Übertritt des Königs zum Christentum.


Michael III.Vom Meer her litt das Reich unter den Verwüstungen der kretischen Piraten. Auf Sizilien kamen die Eroberungen der Araber voran. 860 gefährdete der erste Raubzug der Kiewer Rus den Bosporus, der Raubzug konnte aber abgewehrt werden.

867 wurde Michael von seinem Günstling Basileios ermordet, einem früheren Stallknecht, der 865 Bardas’ Einfluss überwunden hatte und 866 an der Regierung des Reichs beteiligt worden war.

Der Konflikt mit der Katholischen Kirche unter Papst Nikolaus I. wurde unter Michael III. verschärft, als Kyrill und Method von Saloniki die Mission bei den Slawen aufnahmen.

Weblinks  [Bearbeiten] Commons: Michael III. – Bilder, Videos und/oder Audiodateien 

Vorgänger

Theophilos

Kaiser von Byzanz

842–867 Nachfolger

Basileios I.


Personendaten

NAME Michael III.

KURZBESCHREIBUNG byzantinischer Kaiser

GEBURTSDATUM 839

GEBURTSORT Konstantinopel

STERBEDATUM 867

STERBEORT Konstantinopel

Von „http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_III._%28Byzanz%29

Kategorien: Mann | Kaiser (Byzanz) | Geboren 839 | Gestorben 867

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Michael III, Byzantine Emperor's Timeline

839
839
Constantinople
860
860
Age 21
Byzantium (Constantinople), Istanbul, Turkey
866
September 19, 866
Age 27
Constantinople, Eastern Roman Empire
867
September 24, 867
Age 28
Constantinople
869
869
Age 28
Constantinople, Constantinople, Turkey
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