George I, king of Georgia

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Gurgen

Russian: Георгий, Georgian: გიორგი
Also Known As: "გიორგი III ბაგრატიონი"
Birthdate:
Death: August 16, 1027 (24-29)
Immediate Family:

Son of Bagrat III, king of Georgia and Martha, Queen Consort of Georgia
Husband of Queen consort Maria / Mariam of Vaspurakan and Alda of Alania
Father of Bagrat IV, King of Georgia; Guarandukht Monamachos; Marta of Georgia; Kata of Georgia and Demetrius of Anacopia
Half brother of Basil of Khakhuli

Managed by: Ric Dickinson
Last Updated:

About George I, king of Georgia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_I_of_Georgia

Giorgi I (Georgian: გიორგი I) (998 or 1002 – August 16, 1027), of the House of Bagrationi, was the king of Georgia from 1014 until his death in 1027. He spent most of his seven-year-long reign waging a bloody and fruitless territorial war with the Byzantine Empire.

Contents

1 Early reign

2 War and peace with Byzantium

3 His family

4 References

Early reign

Giorgi was born in 998 or, according to a later version of the Georgian chronicles, in 1002, to King Bagrat III. Upon his father’s death on May 7 1014, he inherited the kingdoms of Abkhazia, Kartli and Kakheti united into a single state – Sakartvelo, or all-Georgia. As his predecessor, Giorgi continued to be titled as King of the Abkhazians (Ap'xaz) and Georgians (K'art'velians). Contemporary sources, however, frequently omitted one of the two components of this title when abbreviating it.

The new sovereign’s young age was immediately exploited by the great nobles, who had been suppressed under the heavy hand of Bagrat. Around the same year, the easternmost provinces of Kakheti and Hereti, not easily acquired by Bagrat, staged a revolt and reinstated their own government under Kvirike III (1010/1014-1029), who also incorporated a portion of the neighbouring Arran (Ran), allowing him to claim the title of King of the Kakhetians and Ranians. Giorgi was unable to prevent the move and sought an alliance with this kingdom, rather than attempting to reincorporate it into the Georgian state, thus leaving a long-standing claim to Kakheti and Hereti to his successors.

War and peace with Byzantium

The major political and military event during Giorgi’s reign, a war against the Byzantine Empire, had its roots back to the 990s, when the Georgian prince David III Kuropalates, following his abortive rebellion against Emperor Basil II, had to agree to cede his extensive possessions in Tao and the neighbouring lands to the emperor on his death. All the efforts by David’s stepson and Giorgi’s father, Bagrat III, to prevent these territories from being annexed to the empire went in vain. Young and ambitious, Giorgi launched a campaign to restore the Kuropalates’ succession to Georgia and occupied Tao in 1015-1016. He also entered in an alliance with the Fatimid Caliph of Egypt, Al-Hakim (996-1021), that put Basil in a difficult situation, forcing him to refrain from an acute response to Giorgi’s offensive.

File:Sweticxoveli.jpg

The construction of Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta was initiated, in the 1020s, by Giorgi I. A number of legends surround the history of this magnificent cathedral, and the site in general. It is now, along with other historic monuments in the town, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Beyond that, the Byzantines were at that time involved in a relentless war with the Bulgars, limiting their actions to the west. But as soon as Bulgaria was conquered, and Al-Hakim was no more alive, Basil led his army against Georgia (1021). An exhausting war lasted for two years, and ended in a decisive Byzantine victory, forcing Giorgi to agree to a peace treaty, in which he had not only to abandon his claims to Tao, but to surrender several of his southwestern possessions to Basil, and to give his three-year-old son, Bagrat, as hostage. Following the peace treaty, Constantinople was visited by Catholicos-Patriarch Melkisedek I of Georgia, who gained Byzantine financial aid for the construction of "Svetitskhoveli" (literally, the Living Pillar), a major Orthodox cathedral in the eastern Georgian town of Mtskheta.

Afterwards, Basil kept the peace with Georgia, permitting prince Bagrat to return home two years later (1025): but the new emperor, Constantine VIII, who succeeded upon the death of Basil, decided to bring Bagrat back to Constantinople. However, the imperial courier could not overtake the prince – he was already in the Georgian possessions. The Byzantine-Georgian relations subsequently deteriorated, particularly after a conspiracy, organized by Nikiphoros Comnenus, the archon of Vaspurakan, and allegedly involving Giorgi I, was brought to light.

Giorgi was evidently preparing to take revenge for his defeat, but he died suddenly in Trialeti on August 16, 1027. He was buried in the Bagrati Cathedral in his capital Kutaisi. A recently discovered grave, presumably robbed in the 19th century, is proposed to have belonged to Giorgi I.

His family

Giorgi I was married twice – first to the Armenian princess Mariam of Vaspurakan with whom he had a son called Bagrat and daughters: Guarandukht, Marta, and Kata; and second to Alde of Alania, who gave birth to a son, Demetre.

References

Lordkiphanidze, Mariam (1987), Georgia in the XI-XII centuries, Ganatleba, edited by George B. Hewitt. Also available online at [1]

Rapp, SH (2003), Studies In Medieval Georgian Historiography: Early Texts And Eurasian Contexts, Peeters Bvba ISBN 90-429-1318-5

Suny, RG (1994), The Making of the Georgian Nation (2nd Edition), Bloomington and Indianapolis, ISBN 0-253-35579-6



http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GEORGIA.htm#GiogiIdied1027B

Chapter 2. KINGS of GEORGIA 1014-1476

A. KINGS of GEORGIA 1014-1213

GIORGI I 1014-1027, BAGRAT IV 1027-1072

GIORGI, son of BAGRAT [III] King of Abkhazia & his wife --- ([995/96]-[Mqinwarni or Itaroni 16 Aug] [1025/27], bur Kothathis). The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "his son Georgi" succeeded "Bagrat king of Abkhazia" and ruled for 16 years[324]. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Giorgi I, fils de Bagrat III" was 18 years old when he succeeded his father[325]. He succeeded his father in 1014 as GIORGI I King of Abkhazia. He united Abkhazia and Iberia in 1014, from which time he can be considered as King of Georgia. The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that, in the fifth year of his reign, "Georgi" fought "the emperor Basil…in the Basen district…[but] turned back" after fighting at "Shirimk"[326]. Cedrenus records that "Nicephoro patricio, filio Bardæ Phocæ" commanded the army sent by Emperor Basileios II against "Georgius Abasgiæ dux" but was killed, and that the emperor appointed as his successor "Theophylactum Damiani Dalasseni filium" who defeated Giorgi, who sent "filium…suum Pancratium" as hostage to Byzantium[327]. The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died two years after the return of his son Bagrat, leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters"[328]. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le roi Giorgi" died "dans un lieu du Thrialeth…Mqinwarni ou Itaroni" 16 Aug 1027 and was buried "dans l'église de Kouthathis"[329]. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death of “Kourki roi de Géorgie”, in the same year as Emperor Basileios II, and the succession of “son fils Pakrad”[330].

m MARIAM, daughter of SENEKERIM-YOVHANNES Arcruni King of Vaspurakan & his wife Kouschkousch of Armenia (-[after Nov 1072]). The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Mariam" as the mother of Bagrat, stating in a later passage that she was "the daughter of Senekerim the Armenian king", when recording that she went to Constantinople "and returned with a treaty of peace and the dignity of curopalate for her son"[331]. Zonaras records that "viduam eius" renewed the treaty with Byzantium after the death of "Georgio Albasgiæ principe"[332]. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Bagrat's mother Mariam was present when her son died in Nov 1072[333].

Mistress (1): [ALDA] [of Ossetia], [daughter of --- King of Ossetia]. The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters", a later passage stating that Demetre was born "not of the same mother" as Bagrat[334]. As no record has been found to indicate that King Giorgi repudiated his wife named Mariam, it is assumed that the mother of Demetre was therefore the king's concubine. The question of her identity is less certain. Her possible name and origin are indicated by Cedrenus who records that "Alda, Georgii Abasgorum regali quondam uxor, gente Alana" submitted to Emperor Romanos Argyros and brought "Anacuphen", dated to [1033][335]. However, this must have been at the same time as the alleged visit to Constantinople of Mariam, mother of King Bagrat IV and the other reported wife of King Giorgi, from which she returned with a wife for her son. As noted in the Introduction to this document, references in Byzantine sources to the "Alans" often refer to Georgians (see, for example, the references to the alleged "Alan" origin of Maria, wife of Emperor Mikhael VII, who is assumed to have been the daughter of King Bagrat IV, see below). It seems likely that there was only one visit to Constantinople around this time by one widow of King Giorgi and that the reference in Skylitzes is to Mariam's visit. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "un autre fils du roi Giorgi, né d'une seconde femme, fille du roi des Osses…encore très jeune…Démétré"[336]. It is assumed that this reference can be traced to the indirect allusion to King Giorgi's concubine which can be deduced from the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) quoted above, supplemented by the additional information provided by Skylitzes, so it is doubtful whether this source has any additional historical value on this point.

Giorgi I & his wife had one child:

  • 1. BAGRAT ([1017/18]-24 Nov 1072). The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi…gave his son Bagarat as a hostage for three years" to "the emperor Basil"[337]. Cedrenus records that Giorgi, who sent "filium…suum Pancratium" as a hostage to Byzantium after he was defeated by "Theophylactum Damiani Dalasseni filium" and that the emperor created him "magistrum"[338]. The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters", recording that Bagrat succeeded his father, and naming "his mother Mariam" when recording that she went to Constantinople "and returned with a treaty of peace and the dignity of curopalate for her son"[339]. He succeeded his father in [1025/27] as BAGRAT IV King of Georgia. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death of “Kourki roi de Géorgie”, in the same year as Emperor Basileios II, and the succession of “son fils Pakrad”[340]. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Bagrat succeeded his father at the age of nine[341]. Zonaras records that "Pancratius…Abasgie princeps" terminated the treaty with Byzantium, probably dated to early in the reign of Emperor Mikhael IV[342]. Cedrenus records that "Abasgiæ princeps Georgius…filio suo Pancratio" was invested with "curopalatæ honore" on his [first] marriage, dated to [1032][343]. Cedrenus records that "Pancratius…Iberiæ regulus, homo impudicus" raped "uxorem Liparitæ" clarifying that this was "Liparites Horatii Liparitæ filius" who had been killed in battle fighting "Georgium Abasgorum duce" under Emperor Basileios II, that Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos sent troops to Georgia to exact revenge, and that Bagrat submitted to the emperor and ceded "omnem Iberiam atque Abasgiam" as well as "parti Meschiæ" to "Liparita" for life under the peace treaty which followed, dated to [1047] from the context[344]. The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that he was absent for three years in Constantinople with Emperor Konstantinos IX[345]. He defeated the Byzantines who had invaded Georgia, but was unable to recapture Tbilisi due to the invasion of the Seljuk Turks in 1064. The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Arpaslan" captured "all of Kartli…[and] Ani capital of Armenia" and demanded as a wife from Bagrat IV King of Georgia "his uncle's daughter who was daughter of Kiwrike the Armenian king" whom he abducted (although she was recovered)[346]. The same source records that "after three years [Arpaslan] turned upon Iberia" and captured "Tiflis [and] gave it to the amir of Gandzak, Patlun" which King Bagrat recaptured[347]. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the death 24 Nov 1072 of King Bagrat[348]. m firstly ([1032]%29 HELENA Argyre, daughter of BASILEIOS Argyros & his wife --- (-Kouthathis [1033]). Cedrenus records that "Abasgiæ princeps Georgius…filio suo Pancratio" married "imperator…Helenamque sui fratris filiam", dated to [1029/32][349]. Zonaras records that, after the death of "Georgio Albasgiæ principe", his widow renewed the treaty with Byzantium and that "Helena ex fratre Basilio nepte" was sent "in Abasgiam" and that "Pancratium curopalatem" was chosen as her husband, clarifying in a later passage that she was "Romanus imperator…neptem"[350]. The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Heghine from the line of the Greek kings" was sent to marry Bagrat, presumably at the same time as his mother negotiated the peace treaty in Constantinople[351]. If the latter negotiation is correctly dated to [1031/32], this was during the reign of Emperor Romanos III, which suggests that the first wife of Bagrat must have belonged to the Argyros family. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "la reine Eléné" died "à Kouthathis"[352]. m secondly ([1033/40]) BORENA, daughter of --- King of Ossetia & his wife ---. The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records the marriage of Bagrat and "Borena, daughter of the Ossetian king" after the death of his first wife[353]. Bagrat IV & his second wife had three children:
    • a) GIORGI (-1112). The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that King Bagrat "gave the rule of his monarchy to his son Giorgi" during his three year absence in Constantinople with Emperor Konstantinos IX[354]. Kouropalates. He succeeded his father in 1072 as GIORGI II "Sevatosi" King of Georgia. - see below.
    • b) MARTHA (-after 1090). The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Empress Theodora requested King Bagrat to send "sa fille Martha" to be brought up as her daughter, but that she returned home because by the time she arrived in Constantinople the empress had died (in 1056), and also records her subsequent marriage to "l'empereur de Grèce"[355]. She was known as MARIA in Byzantium. Nikephoros Bryennios records that Emperor Mikhael married Maria, daughter of Bagrat King of Georgia. Zonaras names "Maria Alana" as the wife of Emperor Mikhael[356]. She was repudiated by her first husband when he became a monk. The Alexeiad records that "Botaneiates had established himself on the throne immediately after the deposition of Mikhael Dukas, and…won the hand of the Empress Maria"[357]. She became a nun as MARTHA. m firstly (after 1071, repudiated) Emperor MIKHAEL VII, son of Emperor KONSTANTINOS X & his second wife Evdokia Makrembolitissa (-[1090]). m secondly (bigamously, 1 Apr 1078) as his third wife, Emperor NIKEPHOROS III, son of --- Botaneiates & his wife --- ([1020]-after 1081).
    • c) MARIAM (-after Nov 1072). The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Bagrat's daughter Mariam was present when her father died in Nov 1072[358].

Giorgi I & his [wife] had two children:

  • 2. GORANDUXT . The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters"[359]. The source contains no indication of the name of the mother of the two daughters. The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Emperor Konstantinos IX requested "of Bagrat his sister Goranduxt"[360]. Psellus records that the emperor "fell in love with…one of our hostages from Alania…the daughter of the king there"[361]. Zonaras records that, after the death of Empress Zoe, Emperor Konstantinos fell in love with "adulescentulam quondam Alani principis filiam, obsidem Romanis datam" and installed her as "Augustam"[362]. She became the emperor's mistress and was granted the title Augusta[363]. Mistress: (after 1044) of Emperor KONSTANTINOS IX, son of THEODOSIOS Monomachos & his wife --- (-11 Jan 1055, bur Monastery of Mangana).
  • 3. KATA . The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters"[364]. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Gourandoukht et Cata" as the two surviving daughters of King Giorgi[365]. The sources contain no indication of the name of the mother of the two daughters. The marriage in Armenia of one of these daughters is suggested by Vardan's History which records that "Alp Arslan…came to Armenia" and took "the daughter of the Georgian king Bagarat's sister"[366]. It is likely that this daughter was not Goranduxt, whose fate appears to have been linked to Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos (see above). Kata is the only other known sister of King Bagrat. The identity of her husband is confirmed by the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) which records that "la niece de Bagrat, recherchée par le sultan, était fille du frère de Cwiricé", naming him "Sembat" in a later passage[367]. However, the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, records that “le sulthan…Alp Arslan” married “Goriguê, fils de David Anbogh´in…sa fille”[368]. Although this provides indirect corroboration of the marriage to the Lorhi king, it substitutes Smbat´s supposed brother Kiwrike as father of the sultan´s wife. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) is an unreliable source in many of its details, as discussed more fully in the Introduction to this document. If no other source emerges which corroborates the separate existence of Smbat, the possibility must be considered that he was in fact the same person as Kiwrike, who would then have been the husband of Kata and the father of the daughter who married the sultan. [m SMBAT of Lorhi, son of DAWIT King of Lorhi & his wife Zoracertel of Kakhetia.]
  • 4. MARTHA (-before 1027). The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Martha" as the fifth child of King Giorgi who predeceased her father[369].

Giorgi I had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

  • 5. DEMETRE (-[1052]). The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters", a later passage stating that Demetre was born "not of the same mother" as Bagrat[370]. The order of the names in this passage suggests that Demetre was the younger son. As another passage names Bagrat's mother, the conclusion is that Demetre must have been an illegitimate younger brother. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "un autre fils du roi Giorgi, né d'une seconde femme, fille du roi des Osses…encore très jeune…Démétré", recording that he remained at "Anacophia" after the death of his father[371]. The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Demetre unsuccessfully rebelled against his half-brother, but left for Constantinople "taking with him the Anakopos country which has remained theirs until the present"[372]. Cedrenus records that "Alda, Georgii Abasgorum regali quondam uxor, gente Alana" submitted to Emperor Romanos Argyros and brought "Anacuphen" and that her son "Demetrium" was granted "magistri dignitate" by the emperor, dated to [1033][373]. According to Vakhucht (Georgian historian, son of King Vakhtang VI, writing in the late 18th century, see Introduction), Davit Soslan, second husband of Queen Thamar I, was descended from Demetre, younger son of Giorgi I King of Georgia. Vakhucht refers to a small church in the Casara valley where the portraits of "Dimitri et de son fils David" can be found, with inscriptions from which can be deduced that "David fut père d'Athon, Athon de Djadaron, Djadaron de David-Soslan mari de Thamar"[374]. This is quoted by Brosset without saying whether the church or the inscriptions still existed when she was writing. It is assumed that they did not, otherwise she would presumably have corroborated this reported ancestry. Apart from this, Brosset quotes Vakhucht in his work stating that Davit Soslan was "issu d'Ephrem roi d'Oseth" and descended from "Dimitri fils de Giorgi [roi de Géorgie]", adding that "étant à Anacophia, en Aphkhazeth, Dimitri avait laissé un fils, qui s'enfuit en Oseth avec sa grand'mère; adopté là, il avait épousé une princesse du sang royal, et son fils, qui demeura dans l'Oseth, y fut traité de roi", that "l'arrière-petit-fils de Dimitri, le père de notre David, fut marié à Rousoudan qui conserva sa virginité pendant une vie de 80 ans", that "les deux Rousoudan étaient sœurs, celle qui éleva Thamar avait été marié à un sultan de Khorasan, et l'autre…à un fils du roi des Osses", and that "il avait eu David d'une autre épouse…par sa mère, David était parent de Thamar, puisque celle-ci était née n'une princesse du sang royal d'Oseth"[375]. This narrative seems far-fetched, especially the reference to the two sisters named Rusudan. The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) makes no mention of any such ancestry, apart from the incomplete reconstruction set out in Chapter 1.H of this document, and it has been decided not to present it here, even in square brackets, until other more reliable corroboration emerges.

Георгий I (груз. გიორგი I) (998/1002 — 16 августа 1027) — царь Грузии (1014—1027) из династии Багратионов. Большую часть своего правления он вёл войну с Византийской империей.

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%d0%93%d0%b5%d0%be%d1%80%d0%b3%d0%b8%d0%b9_I_(%d1%86%d0%b0%d1%80%d1%8c_%d0%93%d1%80%d1%83%d0%b7%d0%b8%d0%b8)