Huáng Dì (Yellow Emperor) 黃帝, Xuān Yuán 軒轅, 1

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About Huáng Dì (Yellow Emperor) 黃帝, Xuān Yuán 軒轅, 1

Ancestry taken from 大埔縣藍氏族譜 (第一冊)

Following commentaries taken from: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Three_Sovereigns_and_Five_Emperors

Huangdi (Traditional Chinese: 黃帝; Simplified Chinese: 黄帝; pinyin: Huángdì), or the Yellow Emperor, is considered the ancestor of all Han Chinese in Chinese mythology. According to the historian Sima Qian (145 B.C.E.-90 B.C.E.), the Yellow Emperor reigned from 2697 B.C.E. to 2598 B.C.E. During the Han Dynasty (202 B.C.E.-220 C.E.), he emerged as a chief deity of Taoism. His legendary victory in the war against Emperor Chi You at the Battle of Zhuolu is seen as the establishment of the Han Chinese nationality. Among his other accomplishments, the Yellow Emperor has been credited with the invention of the principles of Traditional Chinese medicine. The Huangdi Neijing (黄帝内經 Inner Canon of Huangdi) was supposedly composed in collaboration with his physician, Qibo. However, modern historiographers generally consider it to have been compiled from ancient sources by a scholar living between the Zhou and Han dynasties, more than 2,000 years later. He is said to have lived to the age of 100, and to have attained immortality after his physical death.

His wife, Lúo Zǔ, is said to to have taught the Chinese how to weave the silk from silkworms, and his historian, Cāng Jié, to have created the first Chinese characters. Legend also says that the Yellow Emperor invented a magical compass, played a part in the creation of the Guqin (seven-stringed musical instrument), together with Fuxi and Shennong, and to have invented the earliest form of the Chinese calendar, whose current sexagenary cycles are counted based on his reign. Atop Mount Dongwang, Huang Di captured the beast, Bai Ze, who described to him all the 11,520 types of monsters, shape-shifters, demons, and spirits in the world. Huang Di's retainer recorded this in pictures, which later became the book, Bai Ze Tu, which no longer exists.[6] Ling Lun is supposed to have given the emperor flutes tuned to the sounds of birds, which is said to be the foundation of Chinese traditional music.

Taken from:http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Yellow_Emperor&oldid=154772223

Huangdi (traditional Chinese: 黃帝; simplified Chinese: 黄帝; pinyin: Huángdì), or the Yellow Emperor, is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is considered in Chinese mythology to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. One of the legendary Five Emperors, it was written in the Shiji by historian Sima Qian (145 BC-90 BC) that the Yellow Emperor reigned from 2697 BC to 2598 BC. He emerged as a chief deity of Taoism during the Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD). The legend of his victory in the war against Emperor Chi You at the Battle of Zhuolu is seen as the establishment of the Han Chinese nationality.

Among his other accomplishments, the Yellow Emperor has been credited with the invention of the principles of Traditional Chinese medicine. The Huangdi Neijing (黄帝内經 Inner Canon of Huangdi) was supposedly composed in collaboration with his physician Qibo. However, modern historiographers generally consider it to have been compiled from ancient sources by a scholar living between the Zhou and Han dynasties, more than 2,000 years later. His interest in natural health and preventing and treating diseases meant he is said to have lived to the age of 100, and to have attained immortality after his physical death.

It is said that the basic principles of TCM were formed by Huangdi (The Yellow Emperor) in 2686 B.C.

In the legend, his wife Lúo Zǔ taught the Chinese how to weave the silk from silkworms, and his historian Cāng Jié created the first Chinese characters.

Legend says that the Yellow Emperor invented a magical compass during a battle against Chi You who used a great fog to obscure his enemy's sight. Thanks to the compass, the Yellow Emperor found out where Chi You was and defeated him. The compass was actually a chariot with a pointer which always pointed south. He is also said to have played a part in the creation of the Guqin, together with Fuxi and Shennong, and to have invented the earliest form of the Chinese calendar, and its current sexagenary cycles are counted based on his reign.

Huang Di captured Bai Ze atop Mount Dongwang. The beast described to him all the 11,520 types of monsters, shapeshifters, demons, and spirits in the world. Huang Di's retainer recorded this in pictures, which later became the book "Bai Ze Tu", which no longer exists.[1]

In legend, Ling Lun gave the emperor flutes tuned to the sounds of birds, which is said to be the foundation of Chinese traditional music.

Taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellow_Emperor

Huang-di, (黃帝/黄帝 huángdì) or the Yellow Emperor, is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero presented in Chinese mythology. He is said to be the ancestor of all Huaxia Chinese.[2] According to many sources he was one of the legendary Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.[3] Tradition holds that he reigned from 2697 BC to 2597 BC.[4]

Among his many accomplishments, Huangdi has been credited with the invention of the principles of traditional Chinese medicine. The Inner Canon of Huangdi (黄帝内經) was supposedly composed in collaboration with his physician Qibo. However, modern historiographers generally consider it to have been compiled from ancient sources by a scholar living between the Zhou and Han dynasties, more than 2,000 years later.

His interest in natural health and the prevention and treatment of diseases, according to historical sources,[citation needed] allowed him to live until the age of 100, and attain immortality after his physical death.

Name of Yellow emperor

In the Records of the Grand Historian, the first annal, first sentence, first few words began with the identity of the Yellow emperor.[1] Sima Qian, author of the records, gave considerable weight to the historicity of the emperor. For example, the Three Sovereigns has Fu Xi, Nüwa, and Shennong, but he carefully chose to begin with the Yellow Emperor.[5] He refrained from beginning the records with any of the other legendary figures of greater claimed antiquity.[5]

The Yellow emperor's surname is Gōngsūn (公孫), while his first name is Xuānyuán (軒轅).[6] His full name was Gōngsūn Xuānyuán (公孫軒轅).

Early years

Yellow emperor and Yan emperor were each leaders of a tribe benefited by the Yellow river.[7] At the earliest, he lived with his tribe in the northwest near Ji river (姬水) and later ended up at Zhuolu (涿鹿).[7] He then became a farmer taming 6 different special beasts, the bear (熊), brown bear (羆), pi (貔), xiu (貅), chu (貙) and tiger (虎).[7] Yan emperor was from a different area.

Epic battles

Main articles: Battle of Zhuolu and Battle of Banquan

When Yan emperor was leading his tribe, he met a frightening force called Chi You who led the nine Li barbarian tribes (九黎).[7] Immediately they became an enemy of one another. According to legend Chi You had a bronze head with metal foreheads.[7] He is said to be unbelievably fierce having 81 brothers.[2] Each having 4 eyes and 6 arms wielding terrible sharp weapons in every hand.[2] Their head is also that of a bull with two horns, but the body is that of a human.[2]

Yan emperor stood no chance and lost the fight. He escaped and later ended up in Zhuolu begging for help from the Yellow emperor.[7] At this point the epic Battle of Zhuolu between Chi You and the Yellow emperor forces began. Yellow emperor rallied his army along with the 6 types of special beasts that he tamed.[7] Along with the legend is that Chi You breathed out a thick fog and obscured the sunlight.[8] The battle dragged on for days while the emperor's side was in danger.[2]

Yellow emperor's army fell into disarray and could not find their way out of the battlefield. At this critical moment the emperor invented the South Pointing Chariot, and ordered its construction on the battlefield.[8][2] With the device he was able to lead his army out of the fog. Chi You then conjured up a heavy storm. Yellow emperor then called upon the gods, who blew away the storm clouds and cleared the battlefield.[8] Chi You and his army could not hold up and was later killed off by the Yellow emperor.[7] While this battle was a victory, the Yellow and Yan emperor had a conflict with each other. Thus began the Battle of Banquan at a place called Banquan (阪泉).[7] Yan emperor would eventually lose. The ancient place is then renamed to "Huangdiquan" (黃帝泉).[9]

Legends

In legend, his wife Léi Zǔ taught the Chinese how to weave silk from silkworms, and his historian Cāng Jié created the first Chinese characters.

His conception was supposed to have been signaled by a thunderclap on a clear day by the Heavens.

Huangdi is said to have ruled for a hundred years. He was said to have had 25 children, 14 of whom were sons. Of these 14 sons, 12 chose last names for themselves. It is also said that all the noble families of the first 3 dynasties of China - Xia, Shang, and Zhou - were direct descendants of Huangdi.

When Huangdi had lived for over a hundred years, he arranged his worldly affairs with his ministers, and prepared for his journey to the Heavens. One version said a Dragon came down from the Heaven and took Huangdi away. Another version said Huangdi himself turned into half-man and half Dragon and flew away.

The South-Pointing Chariot was said to have been invented in the time of Huangdi. This was a two-wheeled war chariot that had a pole in the center of the carriage. A small figurine stood on top of the pole. A set of gears connected the two wheels to the pole, so that no matter which way the chariot turned, the figurine on the pole always pointed in a pre-set direction, usually South. The South-Pointing Chariot did not require magnetism to work, and in models was depicted as the earliest form of the differential gearing system found in modern automobile transmission systems.

Huangdi is also said to have played a part in the creation of the Guqin, together with Fuxi and Shennong, and to have invented the earliest form of the Chinese calendar, and its current sexagenary cycles are counted based on his reign.

Huangdi captured Bai Ze atop Mount Dongwang. The beast described to him all the 11,520 types of monsters, shapeshifters, demons, and spirits in the world. Huang Ti's retainer recorded this in pictures, which later became the book "Bai Ze Tu", which no longer exists.[10]

In legend, Ling Lun gave the emperor flutes tuned to the sounds of birds, which is said to be the foundation of Chinese traditional music.

Louis Crompton says:

The eminent bibliographer Ji Yun, in his popular Notes from the "Yue-wei" Hermitage, (1800) provides us with another intriguing detail: the Yellow Emperor was also the first, he tells us, to take male bedmates.[11]

Religious views

Huangdi is an important figure in Chinese religions, particularly Taoism and Confucianism. He introduced the earliest form of martial arts into China, because he was also good in medicine, and he knew that the art was beneficial both for good health and for self-defense. Ye Shuxian (葉舒憲) associated the Yellow Emperor with the bear legends among northeast Asia people and the Dangun legend.[12]

History

One explanation sees Huangdi as euhemerized from a mythical god during the early Zhou Dynasty into a legendary emperor during the late Zhou dynasty—his legendary deeds embellished along the way. Indeed, the mixture of mythical and historical elements must be considered, especially in the case of the Yellow Emperor. However, Huangdi's reign thus can be seen to provide a useful and validated reference point, whence a consistent historical narrative has been developed: through Yao and Shun, the Xia and Shang dynasties, and so historically onwards. Thus, the Yellow Emperor can be seen as a figure centrally grounded, in a purely historical position, as well as being similarly important from the perspectives of religion, legend, and popular culture.

http://www.asiawind.com/forums/read.php?f=2&i=6243&t=6243

Author: CHUNG Yoon Ngan

Date: 11-13-08 01:38

The Yellow Emperor 黃帝

The Chinese always refer themselves as:

"我們是黃帝的子孫 We are the descendants of the Yellow Emperor".

http://yn.chung.id.au/HuangDi.jpg

According to the book Shi Ji (史記) by Sima Qian (司馬遷 145BC to 86BC)

Huang Di (黃帝) or the Yellow Emperor was born in Shouqiu (壽丘 a place

in the present day area about six kilometers northeast of the county of

Qufu county 東北曲阜縣 in Shandong province 山東省). Huang Di's father was

called Shao Dian (少典) and his mother Jiao Shi (蟜氏). Shao Dian and Jiao

Shi were members of a clan called Xia (夏族). Huang Di grew up near a river

called Ji (姬). So Huang Di changed his surname from Gongsun (公-孫) to

Ji (姬). Huang Di lived in a place called Xuanyuan (軒轅) and he called

himself Xuanyuan. Therefore Huang Di's full name was Ji Xuanyuan (姬軒轅

).

The place where Ji Xuanyuan lived was the northern plain along the Huanghe

(黃河) or the Yellow River and it was believed that this was the region

of the cradle of Chinese civilization. This place was particularly suited

to agriculture because of the light rainfall and there was no forest cover

to be removed before crops could be planted.

Legend has it that in about 4700 years ago there were four clan-like societies

living in this region. They were the Xia (夏), Jiang (姜), Li (黎) and the

Yi (夷). The leader of the Xia clan was Ji Xuanyuan who defeated the Jiang

clan and later formed an alliance with the clans of Jiang and Yi. Their

main enemies were the Li which was a clan consisting of nine tribes headed

by a paramount leader, the belligerent Chi You (蚩尤). The leader of each

tribe had many brothers. Together they formed a very powerful group. The

weapons used in wars during the ancient time were merely by throwing stones.

Ji Xuanyuan had twenty five sons. His fifth son, Ji Hui (姬揮), invented

a weapon by tying a vine to the two ends of a bamboo stick. Hui called it

Gong (弓 bow). Later he invented the arrows made of bamboo strips. According

to legend, Hui was the first man in China to use bow and arrows to shoot

and kill animals. Ji Xuanyuan invented spears made of wood.

It was believed that in about 2700BC Ji Xuanyuan, with the helps from the

clans of Jiang and Yi, fought a decisive battle with the united forces of

Li at Zhuolu (涿鹿 present day Huailai county 懷來縣 in Hebei province 河

北省). During the battle the weapons used by the Li were just merely by

throwing stones. Whereas Ji Xuanyuan's troops were using wooden spears and

bows and arrows. The battle waged on for three days and three nights. With

better weapons the troops under the command of Ji Xuanyuan defeated the

Li even though the Li were stronger and more numerous. Chi You, the leader

of the Li alliance, was killed in the battle.

After the victory over the Li clan, the people elected Ji Xuanyuan the leader

of the united clans. People gave Ji Xuanyuan a title called Huang Di (or

Yellow Emperor) named after the yellow colour of the earth. The Yellow Emperor

encouraged exogamy as he wanted to create a melting pot of mixed blood people

in his domain. This vision made him highly respected throughout the course

of Chinese history. The Yellow Emperor was and still is regarded as the

person who united the tribes during ancient time. He established his capital

in Youxiong (有熊 present day Xin Zheng 新鄭 in Henan province 河南省) and

was the leader of the united clans for many years.

The importance of the Yellow Emperor throughout the history of China extended

beyond nation-making. He was credited with numerous inventions, from social

reform and formation of a government to such minor things as cooking utensils,

tea, chopsticks and many other articles. The most important inventions

of all were the compass, clothing, weapons (ancient time weapons were throwing

stones), using mud bricks to build houses, wooden dingy and music. His wife

Lei Zu (嫘祖) developed sericulture.

Legend had it that there was an occasion when Hui went hunting with his

father, the Yellow Emperor and his entourage. After the hunt at the end

of the day they were tired and were resting under a tree. Some of the attendants

were boiling water for him to drink.

Along flew a big bird and it perched on the tree top. Hui used his bow and

arrow and shot it down. At the same time he shot down some leaves from the

tree. Coincidentally the leaves fell into the boiling hot water. Immediately

the boiling hot water turned into brownish colour. The attendants wanted

to throw away the brownish boiled water. But one of them took a sip of it.

He screamed out in excitement,

"It tastes very good".

The attendant went and informed Yellow Emperor who had a sip of the brownish

boiled water. Yellow Emperor liked the taste too. He ordered his followers

to pluck a large quantity of the leaves from that particular tree and took

them back to the palace. The tree was a tea tree. The leaves were the tea

leaves.

From then on every day Yellow Emperor ordered hot water with the leaves

to be served as his drink instead of wine. Later the officials in his palace

followed him drinking hot water with leaves. It was called drinking tea.

This habit of drinking tea soon after spread far and wide in China and later

to the whole world.

Legend has it that, Chinese surnames were originated from the twenty five

sons of The Yellow Emperor who established fourteen settlements in different

regions of the land he ruled. He appointed 14 of his capable sons to rule

the 14 settlements. The 14 new feudal lords took on twelve new surnames

after the geographical locations which were delegated by their father to

rule on his behalf. The two sons named, You Yang (有陽) and Cang Lin (蒼

林) used their father's surname Ji (姬) as their surname. Another two sons

called Qing Yang (青陽) and Yi Gu (夷鼓) adopted Ji (己) as their surname.

The twelve surnames of Yellow Emperor's fourteen sons were Ji (姬), You

(酉), Qi (祁), Ji (己), Teng (滕), Zhen (箴), Ren (任), Xun (荀), Xi (僖

), Ji (姞), Huan (嬛) and (依). Generations later it became a tradition to

adopt the names of locations as surnames. It is estimated that 60 per cent

of the Chinese surnames were named after some geographical localities. [see

my book "The Origin of (550) Chinese Surnames" published in 2000].

It was believed that in 2600BC, The Yellow Emperor left his capital and

went on a tour-cum-inspection of his empire. He arrived at the foot of a

mountain called Qiao (橋山 present day Huangling county 黃陵縣 in Shaanxi

province 陜西省). The Yellow Emperor ordered to make a huge tripod cauldron

to cook food as he had invited the leaders of all the tribes for a great

feast.

The ancient Chinese believed that a yellow dragon came down from the sky

and took The Yellow Emperor and his entourage, seventy people in all, to

heaven. Legend has it that The Yellow Emperor did not die but ascended to

Heaven. (Over two thousand years later the bible said that Jesus also ascended

to Heaven) Those who missed the heavenly chariot gathered the yellow robes

previously wore by The Yellow Emperor and buried them in the spot where

he had ascended to heaven. That is the present day graveyard of The Yellow

Emperor in the city of Huangling (黃陵市) in Huangling county in Shaanxi

province (陝西省).

Sources:

Chapter one from Shi Ji by Sima Qian

史記卷一 五帝本紀第一

司馬遷 (145BC to 86BC)

(2) Zhong Guo Ren Shi Gang chapter three by Bo Yang

柏楊的中國人史綱第三卷

Federation of Chen Association Book:

中华民族鼻祖原姓公孙, 名轩辕, 有熊国君少典之子, 其母有蟜氏, 曰附宝在祁野见大电绕北斗枢星, 感而怀孕而生帝于轩辕之丘, 故名轩辕, 国于有熊氏. 友明高轮车及黄帝内经, 在位百年寿一百十一岁葬桥山. ?妃西?民曰?租, 生昌意及玄嚣.

黄帝(Yellow emperor;The huangdi;Mauslleum)同炎帝并称为中华民族的始祖,目前学术界公认黄帝出生建都于有熊,葬于陕西桥山(黄陵县),国际领导人多次到两地访问!

黄帝,中华民族的始祖,传说中远古时代华夏民族的共主,五帝之首。相传黄帝姓公孙,出生于轩辕之丘,故号轩辕氏,在姬水生长成人,所以又以姬为姓,后来在有熊建立国家,故又称有熊氏。他以土德为王,土是黄色,所以叫黄帝。黄帝是古史传说中的人物,关于他的传说中最精彩的就要数黄帝与炎帝、蚩尤的战争了。最终黄帝取得了胜利,被各部落拥戴为部落联盟领袖。在黄帝时期,养蚕、舟车、文字、音律、医学、算数都先行发明,并得到发展,他的功劳为后世所称赞,被誉为华夏的“人文初祖”。关于黄帝的历史资料十分稀少。

诞生之地

《史记·五帝本记》记载:“黄帝者,少典之子,姓公孙,名轩辕,黄帝居于轩辕之丘”。至于具体出生地点,史学界并没有统一的观点。古为有熊国都城,其父少典为有熊国国君,但也有个别人认为在其它地方。
传说一、黄帝出生于中国西北黄土高原的沮源关降龙峡,农历二月初二。在传说中黄帝的母亲是黄土高原上的一名少女,一天傍晚(也有说是夜晚)突然看见北极光,然后就怀孕、生下了黄帝。
传说二、在公元前4856年前,在今河南新郑的轩辕丘有个龙图腾的国家,君主名曰少典氏。他是伏羲帝和女娲帝直系的第七十七帝,他的夫人有二,一是任姒(女登),二是附宝,她们是姐妹,是有硚氏之女。在今新郑市区北关的轩辕丘的有熊国的宫殿里,传来了婴儿出生时呼吸大自然之气时的“哇哇”哭啼声。这一说法得到包括中国古都学会在内的部分民间机构的认可。
传说三、黄帝生于山东省曲阜市周围,如果黄帝本人存在的话,这一说法无论在学理上还是遗址上,毫无疑问都是目前为止证据最充分的一个。据古史记载“黄帝生于寿丘”“寿丘在鲁东门之北”,而寿丘位于曲阜城东四公里的旧县村东,宋真宗赵恒尊黄帝为赵姓始祖,诏令改曲阜县为仙源县,并于曲阜寿丘起建景灵宫、太极观进行祭祀。景灵宫建筑群规模宏大,有殿、堂、亭、庑等1320间,占地1800亩,是今天曲阜孔庙的三倍还多,是当时礼制最高的庙宇,元代忽必烈入主中原后,推崇黄帝,下令重修景灵宫,准许汉人祭祀黄帝,后景灵宫毁于元末战乱。其北即是著名的被称为中国金字塔的少昊陵。而目前,曲阜市正在重建景灵宫,重建黄帝城,为黄帝正名,曾邀请陕西黄陵政府来祭奠黄帝,并向社会宣布一代文化宗师孔子的故里同样也是中华民族始祖黄帝的故里。这一附近地区也是中华文明沉积最深厚的地区,号称“邹鲁”,既有号称“孔孟桑梓之乡,文化礼仪之邦”、国家第三批历史文化名城、古为有穷国的邹城市,也有号称“东方圣城”“东方耶路撒冷”、第一批国家历史文化名城、古为奄国、鲁国的曲阜市;既有号称“江北小苏州”“运河之都”的济宁市,又有古九州之一,曹操势力根基所在的兖州市。这一地区在建的有由胡温指示、国务院批准的九龙山中华文化标志城,坐落于曲阜和邹城之间,就是以黄帝出生地为中心标志,其东面是孔子出生地,西面是孟子出生地,北面是黄帝出生地,南为女娲出生地,既是太昊、少昊之虚,又是炎帝、黄帝、舜帝之域;既有伏羲-女娲,又有蚩尤、后羿;既有孔子、孟子双圣,又有(至圣、亚圣、复圣、宗圣、述圣,即孔子、孟子、颜子、曾子、子思)为首的儒家五圣七十二贤;既有墨子之地,又有鲁班故里;既有水泊梁山聚义,又有梁祝化蝶生情;......地融合儒家文化,运河文化,水浒文化于一体,也就是所谓的“东文(孔孟)、西武(水浒)、北岳(泰山)、南湖(微山湖,)”,是感召华夏文明的圣地,即所谓的“海内皆邹鲁”“天下尽邹鲁”矣...

黄帝的诞辰农历二月初二,是中和节(又称龙抬头、龙头节),也是传说中黄帝诞辰的日子,是炎黄子孙共同的节日。中和节是唐德宗李适在贞元五年(789)所制定的,又名二月二日“龙抬头”。

神话传说

关于黄帝的传说:据传他出生几十天就会说话,少年时思维敏捷,青年时敦厚能干,成年后聪明坚毅。建国于有熊(今河南新郑),亦称为有熊氏。当时的天下共主发明农耕和医药的炎帝已经衰落,酋长们互相攻击,战乱不已,黄帝族崛起,先是与炎帝决战于涿鹿(阪泉),并将其流放南方,接着与炎帝的部属蚩尤战于涿鹿(阪泉),擒杀蚩尤而诛之,后又平定邢天和夸父等部落的反抗,又经过随后数次战争,终于重新统一天下,取代炎帝,成为天下的共主。后来将炎帝从南方召回辅政,炎黄两个部落开始融合。
不久,天下又出现骚乱。黄帝知道蚩尤的声威还在,于是画了蚩尤的相到处悬挂。天下的人都以为蚩尤未死,只是被黄帝降服,更多的部落都来归附。后来,蚩尤被尊为战神。

其他传说

黄帝,姓公孙,名叫轩辕(周),出生于母系氏族社会。母亲名叫附宝,据史书上载;农历二月初二,一说在沮水河畔(今黄陵县沮水河)沮源关的降龙峡生下黄帝,二说在曲阜寿丘(今山东曲阜城东四公里的旧县村东),从此就有了二月二龙抬头”吉祥之说。司马迁在《史记》里对黄帝是这样描写的: “生而神灵,弱而能言,幼而徇齐,长而敦敏,成而聪明。可见,黄帝从出生到成长就不是一般人物。他15岁就被群民拥戴当上轩辕闻落酋长,37岁登上天子位,黄帝一生重大贡献就在于历经五十三战,打败了榆罔,降服了炎帝,诛了榆罔,降服了炎帝,诛杀蚩,结束了战争,统一了三大部落,告别了野蛮时代,建立起世界上第一个有共主的国家,当选为中华民族第一帝。人类文明从此开始了。所以后世人都尊称轩辕黄帝是“人文初祖”、“文明之祖”。姓公孙。为上古时帝王。是有熊国君少典之子。
相传轩辕黄帝的母亲叫附宝。传说有一天晚上,附宝见一道电光环绕着北斗枢星。随即,那颗枢星就掉落了下来,附宝由此感应而孕。怀胎24个月后,生下一个小儿,这小儿就是后来的黄帝。黄帝一生下来,就显得异常的神灵。生下没多久,便能说话。到了15岁,已经无所不通了。后来他继承了有熊国君的王位。因他发明了轩冕,故称之为轩辕。又因他以土德称王,土色为黄,故称作黄帝。
相传黄帝即位的时候,有蚩尤兄弟18人,号称是神带的后裔。这18人全都是兽身人面,铜头铁额,不含五谷,只吃河石。他们不服从黄帝的命令,残害黎庶,诛杀无辜。又制造兵杖刀载大弩,与黄帝为敌。黄帝遂顺民意,征召各路诸侯兵马讨伐蚩尤。历经15旬后,也未能打败蚩尤,只好退兵。为此,黄帝忧心仲仲,日夜盼望能有贤哲辅佐他,以灭蚩尤。有一天晚上,他梦见大风吹走了天下的尘垢。接着又梦见一个人手执千钧之弩驱羊数万群。醒来后,心觉奇怪。暗想,风,号令而为主;垢,是土解化清,天下难道有姓风名后的人吗?千钧之弩,是希望为能致远,驱羊数万群,是牧人为善,难道有姓力名牧的人不成?于是便派部下在天下到处访寻这两个人。结果在海隅找到了风后,在泽边找到了力牧。黄帝以风后为相,力牧为将,开始大举进攻蚩尤。在涿鹿郊野,两军摆开阵势大战。蚩尤布下百里大雾,三日三夜不散,至使兵士辨不清方向。黄帝便令风后造指南车。与此同时,西王母也派玄女前来,教他三宫秘略五音权谋之本。风后据之又演化出遁甲之法。夕口此,在冀州又重新开战。蚩尤率领魑魅魍魍,请风伯,雨师纵风下雨,命应龙蓄水以攻黄帝。黄帝请来天下女魃于东荒止雨,而北隅诸山黎士羌兵驱应龙至南极。最后,杀死了蚩尤,分尸葬于四处,使之不得完尸。
后来,又有神农之后榆冈与黄帝争天下。黄帝用周鸟鹗、鹰颤为旗帜,以熊黑虎豹为前驱,与榆冈战于版泉之野。历经三战,打败了榆冈。后来,又亲率兵马征伐各方不肯巨服的诸侯。前后共经52战,天下始归一统。于是黄帝划分州野,制礼兴乐,教化百姓。同时还发明各种器具用物,方便日用。其中,大臣曹胡发明了上衣,伯余造了下衣,於则做了鞋子。百姓们从此不再穿兽皮树皮。黄帝还依浮叶飘于水上的道理作了舟船,共鼓又配上舟揖行于水上。又根据转蓬的道理发明了车辅,便利了交通。黄雍父发明了春,黄帝接着又令人制作了釜甑,使得百姓可以蒸饭烹粥。以后又造屋室,筑城邑,使百姓不再巢居穴处。黄帝又与歧伯作内外经,使百姓疾患得以治愈。他还确定了天下万物的名称,划分星度为28宿。以甲乙十天干纪日,以子丑十二辰来纪月,而六旬为一甲子。如此又有时空观念。史称当时的百姓"甘其食,美其服,乐其俗,安其居。"一派太平景象。
有一天,黄帝正在洛水上,与大臣们观赏风景;忽然见到一只大鸟衔着卞图,放到他面前,黄帝连忙拜受下来。再看那鸟,形状似鹤,鸡头,燕嘴,龟颈,龙形,骈翼,鱼尾,五色俱备。图中之字是慎德,仁义,仁智六个字。黄帝从来不曾见过这鸟,便去问天老。天老告诉他说,这种鸟雄的叫凤,雌的叫凰。早晨叫是登晨,白天叫是上祥,傍晚鸣叫是归昌,夜里鸣叫是保长。凤凰一出,表明天下安宁。是大祥的征兆。后来,黄帝又梦见有两条龙持一幅白图从黄河中出来,献给他。黄帝不解,又来询问天老。天老回答说,这是河图洛书要出的前兆。于是黄帝便与天老等游于河洛之间,沉璧于河中,杀三牲斋戒。最初是一连三日大雾。之后,又是七日七夜大雨。接着就有黄龙捧图自河而出,黄帝跪接过来。只见图上五色毕具,白图蓝叶朱文,正是河图洛书。于是黄帝开始巡游天下,封禅泰山。他听说有个叫广成子的仙人在腔峒山,就前去向他请教。广成子说:"自你治理天下后,云气不聚而雨,草木不枯则凋。日月光辉,越发的缺荒了。而佞人之心得以成道,你哪里值得我和你谈论至道呢?"黄帝回来后,就不再理问政事。自建了一个小屋,里边置上一张席子,一个人在那里反省了3个月。而后又到广成子那里去问道。当时广成子头朝南躺着,黄帝跪着膝行到他跟前,问他如何才得长生。广成子蹶然而起说;"此间甚好!"接着就告诉他至道之精要:"至道之精,窃窃冥冥,至道之极,昏昏默默。无视无听,抱神以静。形将自正,必静必清;无劳妆形,无摇妆精,方可长生。目无所见,耳无所闻,心无所知,如此,神形合一,方可长生。"说完,广成子给了他一卷《自然经》。
黄帝向广成子问道后,又登过王屋山,得取丹经。并向玄女、素女询问修道养生之法。而后,回到缙云堂修炼,他采来首山铜,在荆山下铸九鼎,鼎刚刚铸成,就有一条龙,长须飘垂来迎黄帝进入仙境。黄帝当即骑上龙身,飞升而去。有几个小臣,也想随他升仙,便匆忙间抓住了龙须。结果龙须断了,这些小臣又坠落到地上。据说龙须草便是那些龙须变的。"

历史意义

黄帝在位时间很久,国势强盛,政治安定,文化进步,有许多发明和制作,如文字、音乐、历数、宫室、舟车、衣裳和指南车等。相传尧、舜、禹、汤等均是他的后裔,因此黄帝被奉为中华民族的共同始祖。
黄帝与炎帝都被看作是华夏民族的始祖,故中国人有时自称“炎黄子孙”。

宗教中的黄帝

黄帝是传说中的远古帝王,道教尊奉的古仙。其原型大概是华夏族一个酋长国首领,因其对本民族的发展有很大贡献,为后世长期传颂。但因其年代太久远,留下来的传闻,大多扑朔迷离,难详究竟。可是至战国百家言黄帝时,许多人对那些传闻进行编联增纂,终于造就出一代帝王形象。据称,黄帝有熊国君少典之子。曾败炎帝于陂泉,诛蚩尤于涿鹿,诸侯遂尊之为天子,代神农氏而为黄帝。接着,又立百官,制典章,命群臣造宫室,作衣裳,制舟车,定律历,文字、算数、音乐等皆相继发明,于是形成“田者不侵畔,渔者不争隈,道不拾遗,市不豫贾”的盛世局面。与百家塑造黄帝帝王形象同时,一些典籍又在塑造黄帝的仙人形象。《山海经·西山经》云:“又西北四百二十里,曰峚山。……其中多白玉,是有玉膏,其原沸沸汤汤,黄帝是食是飨。”《庄子》多记黄帝访道、论道事,《在宥》篇记黄帝去崆峒山问道于广成子,广成子教以“无视无听,抱神以静,形将自正。必静必清,无劳女形,无摇女精,乃可以长生。目无所见,耳无所闻,心无所知,女神将守形,形乃长生。”《徐无鬼》篇记黄帝去具茨之山访大隗君,路遇牧马童子教以治天下之道,曰:“夫为天下者,亦奚以异乎牧马者哉,亦去其害马者而已矣!”《知北游》记黄帝讲道的话,曰:“无思无虑始知道,无处无服始安道,无从无道始得道。”又称:“为道者日损,损之又损之,以至于无为,无为而无不为也。”《大宗师》篇说:“夫道,有情有性,无为无形,……黄帝得之,以登云天。”秦汉方士更以黄帝为帝王成仙的样板,鼓动秦皇、汉武以之为楷模修炼长生。李少君对汉武帝说:“祠灶则致物,致物而丹沙可化为黄金,黄金成以为饮食器则益寿,益寿而海中蓬莱仙者乃可见,见之以封禅则不死,黄帝是也。”公孙卿更编造了一个有名的黄帝鼎湖升天的神话,曰:“黄帝且战且学仙,……百余岁然后得与神通。”“黄帝采首山铜,铸鼎于荆山下。鼎既成,有龙垂胡髯下迎黄帝。黄帝上骑,群臣后宫从上者七十余人,龙乃上去。余小臣不得上,乃悉持龙髯,龙髯拔,堕,堕黄帝之弓。百姓仰望黄帝既上天,乃抱其弓与胡髯号,故后世因名其处曰鼎湖,其弓曰乌号。”可以说,历战国至汉初,黄帝基本上已具有帝王兼仙人的形象。
道教在形成初期,人们称其前身为黄老道,视黄帝与老子同为道教的祖师。张陵创立五斗米道,独尊老子为教祖,而尊黄帝为古仙人。由此遂被沿袭。所以此后道书仍然以黄帝为古仙人继续进行增饰。葛洪《抱朴子内篇·微旨》云:“黄老玄圣,深识独见,开秘文于名山,受仙经于神人,蹶埃尘以遣累,凌大遐以高跻,金石不能与之齐坚,龟鹤不足与之等寿。”同书《辩问》篇夸说黄帝是自古以来唯一的治世而兼得道的圣人,曰:“俗所谓圣人者,皆治世之圣人,非得道之圣人,得道之圣人,则黄老是也。治世之圣人,则周孔是也。

黄帝先治世而后登仙,此是偶有能兼之才者也。”《极言》篇则历叙黄帝遍历名山、访真问道、以至最后得道升天的故事。

略云:“昔黄帝生而能言,役使百灵,可谓天授自然之体也,犹复不能端坐而得道。故陟王屋而受丹经,到鼎湖而飞流珠,登崆峒而问广成,之具茨而事大隗,适东岱而奉中黄,入金谷而咨涓子,论道养则资玄、素二女,精推步而访山稽、力牧,讲占候则询风后,著体诊则受雷岐,审攻战则纳五音之策,穷神奸则记白泽之辞,相地理则书青乌之说,救伤残则缀金冶之术。故能毕该秘要,穷道尽真,遂升龙以高跻,与天地乎罔极也。”南北朝至隋唐间,续有史籍增益黄帝成仙事迹。《泰一杂子》曰:“黄帝诣峨眉见天真皇人,拜之玉堂,曰:敢问何为三一之道?皇人曰:而既己君统矣,又咨三一,无乃朗抗乎?……圣人欲治天下,必先身之立权以聚财,葵财以施智,因智以制义,由义以出信,仗信以著众,用众以行仁,安仁以辅道,迪道以保教,善教以政俗,……制礼以定情,原情以道性,复性以一德,成德以叙命,和命以安生,而天下自尔治,万物自尔得,神志不劳,而真一定矣。”《黄帝内传》又模仿《穆天子传》《汉武帝内传》,编造西王母向黄帝讲道、授图像的故事,曰:“王母授帝七昧之术。帝曰:何谓七昧?王母曰:目昧即不明,耳昧即不聪,口昧即不爽,鼻昧即不通,手昧即不固,足昧即不正,心昧即不真。但心不乱即真矣,目不昧即明矣,耳不昧即聪矣,……是知七昧其要在一,一之稍昧,六昧俱塞,则一身不治,近于死也。”又曰:“王母饮帝以碧霞之浆,赤精之果,因授帝白玉像五躯,曰:此则元始天尊之真容也。又授帝二仪本形图,还丹十九首。帝乃作礼,置于高观之上,亲自供养,后妃臣妾莫得睹之。其观上常有异色云气,奇香闻数百步,时人谓之道观,道观之号自此始也。”《云笈七签》卷三《道教所起》又称黄帝是灵宝经的传人,曰:“今传灵宝经者,则是天真皇人于峨眉山授于轩辕黄帝。”唐僖宗广明二年(881),王瓘对诸书所记黄帝修道事进行整理,成《广黄帝本行记》,是黄帝修道成仙的系统总结,称:“黄帝以天下既理,乃寻真访隐,问道求仙,”于是历访诸山问道,最后道成,“有黄龙垂胡髯迎帝,帝乘龙天。”道教奉黄帝为古仙人,陶弘景《真灵位业图》称之为“玄圃真人轩辕黄帝”,列于第三中位太极金阙帝君之下的左位。道士多托黄帝之名以著书,现《道藏》除收医书古籍《黄帝内经》外,托名黄帝之《阴符经》是其最著名者。托名黄帝的方术书则更多,如述外丹术的有《黄帝九鼎神丹经诀》;论占卜的有《黄帝龙首经》《黄帝金匮玉衡经》《黄帝宅经》;论选择嫁娶吉日的有《黄帝授三子玄女经》;论杂法仙术的有《黄帝太乙八门入式诀》《黄帝太一八门入式秘诀》《黄帝太一八门逆顺生死诀》等。

旧时一些地区尝建黄帝庙或轩辕庙,多以之为古仙而奉祀之。《山西通志》载有多处黄帝庙,其“一在曲沃县城中,明正统间里人掘地得古碑,……其阴赞文曰:‘道德巍巍,声教溶溶,与天地久,亿万无穷。’因立庙。”河南、陕西等地亦有黄帝庙,《河南通志》云:“黄帝庙有二,一在宜阳县西,一在阌乡县东南,世传轩辕黄帝铸鼎于此,故立庙焉。”AK道教宫观中尝有黄帝殿、轩辕祠。如四川青城山常道观既有三皇殿祀伏羲、神农、黄帝,又有轩辕祠专祀黄帝。

   黄帝三百年的传说。宰我从荣伊听到, 问孔子, 孔子也不信, 他回答是黄帝生而民得其利百年,死而民得其利百年,亡而民用其教百年,所以说300年。(大戴礼记.卷七.五帝德)其实黄帝也是一个部落联盟,据《春秋命历序》说一共传10世,1520年(《易纬稽览图》年数同),周武王时封黄帝后代于祝。

道教所述黄帝

道教所指称的黄帝大致有五种情况:一是中央央元灵元君;二是中央黄帝;二是日中黄帝;四是中岳黄帝;五是历史传说人物黄帝。这里所说的便是历史传说人物黄帝。

  

黄帝,一说姓姬,号轩辕氏。《帝王世纪》:“黄帝,有熊氏少典之子,姬姓也。母日附宝。”“附宝见大电光绕北斗枢,星照都野,感而有孕,孕二十五月,生黄帝于寿丘。”二说姓公孙。《云笈七羲·轩辕黄帝》:“轩辕黄帝姓公孙,有熊国少典之次子也。”称西王母遣女传《阴符经》三百言及兵符、图策等而战胜蚩尤,“黄帝以天下既理,物用俱备,乃寻真访隐,冀获长生久视。”  

  

其实黄帝是中华民族古代领袖中最杰出的一位。相传古代帝王,如尧、舜、禹及夏、商、周三代首领均为黄帝的后裔。黄帝曾居住在涿鹿,曾联台炎帝族打败了九黎族。其后黄帝与炎帝发生冲突,黄帝战胜炎帝而定居中原,奠定了中华民族的基础,故黄帝被公认为中华民族的始祖。据《史记·封禅书》和《云笈七签·轩辕黄帝》记载:黄帝且战且学仙,常游天下名山与神相会,修五城十二楼以候神人,百余岁得;神通,于荆山铸宝鼎成功即有龙垂胡髯以迎之,“黄帝上骑,群臣后宫从上者七十余人”,他还“登崆峒山见广成子问至道”,“东到青丘山见紫府先生受《三皇内文》”,“南至青城山谒中黄丈人”,“登云台山见宁先生受《龙跷经》”,问正一之道”,又“练石于缙云台”,“合符瑞于釜山,得不死之道”。黄帝飞升后,为“太一君”,后来“享之列为五帝之中方君也”,台之为中国历史传说之“五帝”。

  

黄帝最初的神职盖为雷神。《春秋·台诚图》称黄帝起于雷电,并说:“轩辕,主雷雨之神。”然黄帝以雷神崛起后又为中央天帝,位为最尊。《淮南子·天文训》:“东方木也,其帝太嗥,其佐句芒,执归而治春;……南方火也,其帝炎帝,其佐朱明(祝融),执衡而牿夏;……中央土也,其帝黄帝;……西方金也,其帝少昊,其佐蓐收,执矩而治秋;……北方水也,其帝颛顼,其佐玄冥(禺疆),执权而治冬。”这和苗族古歌说他们祖先“格蚩耶老”(可能是蚩尤)的对手是雷公是一致。大概黄帝最初和风伯等都是神农氏诸侯, 担任雷的巫帅。

  

目前:道教有许多经书传于黄帝,如《黄帝九鼎神丹经》、《黄帝内经》、《龙虎经》、《阴符经》等。《真灵位业图》中,排列神仙位次,称他为“星圃真人轩辕呈帝”,列在第三神阶的左位。

陵寝

在陕西省的桥山、河南灵宝均有黄帝陵,相传黄帝年老时铸鼎乘龙升天,臣子放箭阻拦,龙被射伤,飞过桥国时降下休息,黄帝被桥国人拉下一只靴子,埋葬于此。
黄帝陵相传是中华民族的始祖玄远黄帝的陵园,它位于黄陵县城北的桥山顶上。
黄帝陵区约4平方公里,山水环抱,林木葱郁。参观者到达桥山山顶,首先看见路立的一块石碑,上刻“文武百官到此下马”。陵前有一座祭亭,亭中央立一高大石碑,碑上刻有“黄帝陵”3个大字。祭亭后面又有一块石碑,上书“桥山龙驭”4字。再后面便是黄帝陵,黄帝陵位于山顶正中,面向南,陵冢高约4米,周长约50米,陵前40米处有一约20米高台,其旁一石碑上书有“汉武仙台”四字,系公元前110年,汉武帝刘彻巡游朔方归来时,祭奠黄帝,祈仙求神时所筑。
黄陵下的轩辕庙里面尚有一些建筑、古柏和石碑等文物,跨进庙门,左边有一棵巨大的柏树。相传此柏为黄帝亲手所植,故称“黄帝手植柏”,距今已有4000多年的历史了。大殿雄伟壮丽,门额上悬挂有“人文初祖”四字大匾。大殿中间有富丽堂皇的黄帝牌位,其周围殿墙下还有一些陈列品。
在全国许多地方,都有据说与黄帝有关的遗迹,黄皇陵也有多处,但今陕西省陵县的黄帝陵和黄帝庙已逐渐成为人们拜祭黄帝的中心。《史记》上说"黄帝崩,葬桥山。"黄帝陵掩映在参天古柏之中,肃穆幽深。“桥山龙驭”四字碑立于陵前。这里还有一个故事,《史记·封禅书》上说,黄帝从首山采了铜,在荆山湖边铸了一口大鼎,这时有天龙下界,垂下胡须迎请黄帝上天。黄帝跨上龙背后,许多大臣和宫女也爬了上去,没有爬上去的便死抓住龙须,结果龙须被拔掉了,而且还把黄帝的一只弓也晃落下来。这样,此处被称作鼎湖,上了天的黄帝被叫作鼎湖龙,落下的弓叫乌号。有诗云“当年龙髯攀无计,此日桥山景更清”说的就是这回事。

虽然黄帝是传说中的人物,但从古至今所有华夏子孙都把他当作华夏文明的始祖来对待。

黄帝陵坐落在陕西省延安南部的黄陵县,是中华民族始祖轩辕黄帝陵墓的所在地。这里山清水秀,景色宜人,是著名的游览地。传说黄帝生于河南新郑,逝世于河南荆山,葬在陕西桥山。桥山位于黄陵县城北1公里。 陵冢在桥山之巅桥山有沮水环绕,群山环抱,古柏参天,有大路可通山顶直至陵前。山顶立一石碑,名为下马石,上“文武百官到 此下马”字样。古代凡祭陵者,均须在此下马,步行至陵前,陵前有一祭亭,亭中立一高大石碑,上有郭沫若题“黄帝陵”在三个大字。祭亭后面又有一块石碑,上书“桥山龙双”四字。黄帝陵冢在山顶平台的中央,陵冢高3.6米,周长48米,有砖砌花护围。四周古柏成林,幽静深邃。历代政府对保护黄陵古柏都很重视。宋、元、明、清都有保护黄陵的指示或通令。据黄陵县志记载,桥山柏林约4平方公里,共63000余株。 轩辕庙里的柏树之王在桥山脚下,有轩辕庙一座。轩辕庙院面积约10亩。院内有古柏14棵,右侧有一株古柏特别粗树枝像虬龙在空中盘绕,一部分树根露在地面上,叶子四季不衰,层层密密,像个巨大的绿伞,相传为轩辕氏所手植,距今5000多年。树旁有一碑楼,内嵌石碑一块,上写:“此柏高五十八市尺,下围三十一市尺,中围十九市尺,上围六市尺,为群柏之冠。相伟是轩辕黄帝手,距今约有五拮余年。谚云:‘七楼八擤半,圪里圪瘩不上算,’即指此柏。”据说,不久前对此树重测了一次,下围已达到三十市尺,有人下,此柏是目前全国最大的株,称为“柏树之王”。庙院里有历代重修轩辕庙的碑记和祭文石,共46通。庙院最后边是大殿,上悬“人文初祖”金字匾额,殿内正中置牌位,上书“轩辕黄帝之位” 6字。据说全国共有黄帝陵七处,甘肃、河南、山东、河北等地都有黄帝陵,但只有桥山的黄陵被列为国家重点文物保护单位。建国后,人民政府对保坊黄帝陵十分重视,多次进行整修,并扩展道路,增建文物陈列室及服务设施。每年来此参观游览,上山拜谒黄帝陵的人越来越多。

妃室子孙

传说中黄帝的正妃是嫘祖,次妃为方雷氏,彤鱼氏和嫫母。黄帝有四妃十嫔。正妃为西陵氏,名嫘祖,她亲自栽桑养蚕,教民纺织,人称她为「先蚕」。次妃为方雷氏,名女节。又次妃为彤鱼氏。最次妃名嫫母,长相丑陋,但德行高尚,深受黄帝的敬重。黄帝有二十五个儿子,其中十四人被分封得姓。这十四人共得到十二个姓,它们是:姬、酉、祁、己、滕、蒧(草花头下面咸,音「真」)、任、荀、僖、佶、儇、衣。
据《史记》记载:“黄帝二十五子,得其姓者十四人。”颛顼、帝喾、唐尧、虞舜,以及夏朝、商朝、周朝的君主都是黄帝的子孙。
后世对黄帝的神化是逐渐进行的。《庄子》中提到黄帝得道成仙;《列仙传》中的黄帝还能够驱使群仙。

From:

http://www.guoxue.com/shibu/24shi/shiji/sj_001.htm

五帝本纪第一

          

澹◇集解凡是徐氏义,称徐姓名以别之。馀者悉是骃注解,并集众家义。○索隐纪者,记也。本其事而记之,故曰本纪。又纪,理也,丝缕有纪。而帝王书称纪者,言为後代纲纪也。□正义郑玄注中候敕省图云:“德合五帝坐星者,称帝。”又坤灵图云:“德配天地,在正不在私,曰帝。”案:太史公依世本、大戴礼,以黄帝、颛顼、帝喾、唐尧、虞舜为五帝。谯周、应劭、宋均皆同。而孔安国尚书序,皇甫谧帝王世纪,孙氏注世本,并以伏牺、神农、黄帝为三皇,少昊、颛顼、高辛、唐、虞为五帝。裴松之史目云“天子称本纪,诸侯曰世家”。本者,系其本系,故曰本;纪者,理也,统理众事,系之年月,名之曰纪;第者,次序之目;一者,举数之由:故曰五帝本纪第一。礼云:“动则左史书之,言则右史书之。”正义云:“左阳,故记动。右阴,故记言。言为尚书,事为春秋。”案:春秋时置左右史,故云史记也。古

薄鹚黄帝者,◇集解徐广曰:“号有熊。”○索隐案:有土德之瑞,土色黄,故称黄帝,犹神农火德王而称炎帝然也。此以黄帝为五帝之首,盖依大戴礼五帝德。又谯周、宋均亦以为然。而孔安国、皇甫谧帝王代纪及孙氏注系本并以伏牺、神农、黄帝为三皇,少昊、高阳、高辛、唐、虞为五帝。注“号有熊”者,以其本是有熊国君之子故也。亦号轩辕氏。皇甫谧云:“居轩辕之丘,因以为名,又以为号。”又据左传,亦号帝鸿氏也。□正义舆地志云:“涿鹿本名彭城,黄帝初都,迁有熊也。”案:黄帝有熊国君,乃少典国君之次子,号曰有熊氏,又曰缙云氏,又曰帝鸿氏,亦曰帝轩氏。母曰附宝,之祁野,见大电绕北斗枢星,感而怀孕,二十四月而生黄帝於寿丘。寿丘在鲁东门之北,今在兗州曲阜县东北六里。生日角龙颜,有景云之瑞,以土德王,故曰黄帝。封泰山,禅亭亭。亭亭在牟阴。少典之子,◇集解谯周曰:“有熊国君,少典之子也。”皇甫谧曰:“有熊,今河南新郑是也。”○索隐少典者,诸侯国号,非人名也。又案:国语云“少典娶有蟜氏女,生黄帝、炎帝”。然则炎帝亦少典之子。炎黄二帝虽则相承,如帝王代纪中间凡隔八帝,五百馀年。若以少典是其父名,岂黄帝经五百馀年而始代炎帝後为天子乎?何其年之长也!又案:秦本纪云“颛顼氏之裔孙曰女脩,吞鸟之卵而生大业,大业娶少典氏而生柏翳”。明少典是国号,非人名也。黄帝即少典氏後代之子孙,贾逵亦谓然,故左传“高阳氏有才子八人”,亦谓其後代子孙而称为子是也。谯周字允南,蜀人,魏散骑常侍徵,不拜。此注所引者,是其人所著古史考之说也。皇甫谧字士安,晋人,号玄晏先生。今所引者,是其所作帝王代纪也。姓公孙,名曰轩辕。○索隐案:皇甫谧云“黄帝生於寿丘,长於姬水,因以为姓。居轩辕之丘,因以为名,又以为号”。是本姓公孙,长居姬水,因改姓姬。生而神灵,弱而能言,○索隐弱谓幼弱时也。盖未合能言之时而黄帝即言,所以为神异也。潘岳有哀弱子篇,其子未七旬曰弱。正义言神异也。易曰“阴阳不测之谓神”,书云“人惟万物之灵”,故谓之神灵也。幼而徇齐,◇集解徐广曰:“墨子‘年逾十五,则聪明心虑无不徇通矣’。”骃案:徇,疾;齐,速也。言圣德幼而疾速也。索隐斯文未是。今案:徇,齐,皆德也。书曰“聪明齐圣”,左传曰“子虽齐圣”,谓圣德齐肃也。又案:孔子家语及大戴礼并作“叡齐”,一本作“慧齐”。叡,慧,皆智也。太史公采大戴礼而为此纪,今彼文无作“徇”者。史记旧本亦有作“濬齐”。盖古字假借“徇”为“濬”,濬,深也,义亦并通。尔雅“齐”“速”俱训为疾。尚书大传曰“多闻而齐给”。郑注云“齐,疾也”。今裴氏注云徇亦训疾,未见所出。或当读“徇”为“迅”,迅於尔雅与齐俱训疾,则迅濬虽异字,而音同也。又尔雅曰“宣,徇,遍也。濬,通也”。是“遍”之与“通”义亦相近。言黄帝幼而才智周遍,且辩给也。故墨子亦云“年逾五十,则聪明心虑不徇通矣”。俗本作“十五”,非是。案:谓年老逾五十不聪明,何得云“十五”?长而敦敏,成而聪明。□正义成谓二十冠,成人也。聪明,闻见明辩也。此以上至“轩辕”,皆大戴礼文。轩辕之时,神农氏世衰。◇集解皇甫谧曰:“易称庖牺氏没,神农氏作,是为炎帝。”班固曰:“教民耕农,故号曰神农。”○索隐世衰,谓神农氏後代子孙道德衰薄,非指炎帝之身,即班固所谓“参卢”,皇甫谧所云“帝榆罔”是也。□正义帝王世纪云:“神农氏,姜姓也。母曰任姒,有蟜氏女,登为少典妃,游华阳,有神龙首,感生炎帝。人身牛首,长於姜水。有圣德,以火德王,故号炎帝。初都陈,又徙鲁。又曰魁隗氏,又曰连山氏,又曰列山氏。”括地志云:“厉山在随州随县北百里,山东有石穴。神农生於厉乡,所谓列山氏也。春秋时为厉国。”诸侯相侵伐,暴虐百姓,而神农氏弗能征。於是轩辕乃习用干戈,以征不享,○索隐谓用干戈以征诸侯之不朝享者。本或作“亭”,亭训直,以征诸侯之不直者。诸侯咸来宾从。而蚩尤最为暴,莫能伐。◇集解应劭曰:“蚩尤,古天子。”瓚曰:“孔子三朝纪曰‘蚩尤,庶人之贪者’。”○索隐案:此纪云“诸侯相侵伐,蚩尤最为暴”,则蚩尤非为天子也。又管子曰“蚩尤受卢山之金而作五兵”,明非庶人,盖诸侯号也。刘向别录云“孔子见鲁哀公问政,比三朝,退而为此记,故曰三朝。凡七篇,并入大戴记”。今此注见用兵篇也。□正义龙鱼河图云:“黄帝摄政,有蚩尤兄弟八十一人,并兽身人语,铜头铁额,食沙石子,造立兵仗刀戟大弩,威振天下,诛杀无道,不慈仁。万民欲令黄帝行天子事,黄帝以仁义不能禁止蚩尤,乃仰天而叹。天遣玄女下授黄帝兵信神符,制伏蚩尤,帝因使之主兵,以制八方。蚩尤没後,天下复扰乱,黄帝遂画蚩尤形像以威天下,天下咸谓蚩尤,不死,八方万邦皆为弭服。”山海经云:“黄帝令应龙攻蚩尤。蚩尤请风伯、雨师以从,大风雨。黄帝乃下天女曰‘魃’,以止雨。雨止,遂杀蚩尤。”孔安国曰“九黎君号蚩尤”是也。炎帝欲侵陵诸侯,诸侯咸归轩辕。轩辕乃修德振兵,□正义振,整也。治五气,◇集解王肃曰:“五行之气。”○索隐谓春甲乙木气,夏丙丁火气之属,是五气也。五种,集解骃案:,树也。诗云“之荏菽”。周礼曰“谷宜五种”。郑玄曰“五黍、稷、菽、麦、稻也”。○索隐艺,种也,树也。五种即五穀也,音硃用反。此注所引见诗大雅生民之篇。尔雅云“荏菽,戎菽”也,郭璞曰“今之胡豆”,郑氏曰“豆之大者”是也。□正义音鱼曳反。种音肿。抚万民,度四方,集解王肃曰:“度四方而安抚之。”□正义度音徒洛反。教熊罴貔貅貙虎,索隐书云“如虎如貔”,尔雅云“貔,白狐”,礼曰“前有挚兽,则载貔貅”是也。尔雅又曰“貙獌似貍”。此六者猛兽,可以教战。周礼有服不氏,掌教扰猛兽。即古服牛乘马,亦其类也。□正义熊音雄。罴音碑。貔音毗。貅音休。貙音丑于反。罴如熊,黄白色。郭璞云:“貔,执夷,虎属也。”案:言教士卒习战,以猛兽之名名之,用威敌也。以与炎帝战於阪泉之野。◇集解服虔曰:“阪泉,地名。”皇甫谧曰:“在上谷。”□正义阪音白板反。括地志云:“阪泉,今名黄帝泉,在妫州怀戎县东五十六里。出五里至涿鹿东北,与涿水合。又有涿鹿故城,在妫州东南五十里,本黄帝所都也。晋太康地里志云‘涿鹿城东一里有阪泉,上有黄帝祠’。”案:阪泉之野则平野之地也。三战,然後得其志。□正义谓黄帝克炎帝之後。蚩尤作乱,不用帝命。□正义言蚩尤不用黄帝之命也。於是黄帝乃徵师诸侯,与蚩尤战於涿鹿之野,◇集解服虔曰:“涿鹿,山名,在涿郡。”张晏曰:“涿鹿在上谷。”○索隐或作“浊鹿”,古今字异耳。案:地理志上谷有涿鹿县,然则服虔云“在涿郡”者,误也。遂禽杀蚩尤。◇集解皇览曰:“蚩尤冢在东平郡寿张县阚乡城中,高七丈,民常十月祀之。有赤气出,如匹绛帛,民名为蚩尤旗。肩髀冢在山阳郡钜野县重聚,大小与阚冢等。传言黄帝与蚩尤战於涿鹿之野,黄帝杀之,身体异处,故别葬之。”索隐案:皇甫谧云“黄帝使应龙杀蚩尤于凶黎之谷”。或曰,黄帝斩蚩尤于中冀,因名其地曰“绝辔之野。”注“皇览”,书名也。记先代冢墓之处,宜皇王之省览,故日皇览。是魏人王象、缪袭等所撰也。而诸侯咸尊轩辕为天子,代神农氏,是为黄帝。天下有不顺者,黄帝从而征之,平者去之,□正义平服者即去之。披山通道,集解徐广曰:“披,他本亦作‘陂’。字盖当音诐,陂者旁其边之谓也。披语诚合今世,然古今不必同也。”索隐披音如字,谓披山林草木而行以通道也。徐广音诐,恐稍纡也。未尝宁居。知

“丸东至于海,登丸山,◇集解徐广曰:“丸,一作‘凡’。”骃案:地理志曰丸山在郎邪硃虚县。○索隐注“丸,一作‘凡’”,凡音扶严反。□正义丸音桓。括地志云:“丸山即丹山,在青州临朐县界硃虚故县西北二十里,丹水出焉。”丸音纨。守节案:地志唯有凡山,盖凡山丸山是一山耳。诸处字误,或“丸”或“凡”也。汉书郊祀志云“禅丸山”,颜师古云“在硃虚”,亦与括地志相合,明丸山是也。及岱宗。□正义泰山,东岳也。在兗州博城县西北三十里也。西至于空桐,◇集解应劭曰:“山名。”韦昭曰:“在陇右。”登鸡头。索隐山名也。後汉王孟塞鸡头道,在陇西。一曰崆峒山之别名。□正义括地志云:“空桐山在肃州福禄县东南六十里。抱朴子内篇云‘黄帝西见中黄子,受九品之方,过空桐,从广成子受自然之经’,即此山。”括地志又云:“笄头山一名崆峒山,在原州平高县西百里,禹贡泾水所出。舆地志云或即鸡头山也。郦元云盖大陇山异名也。庄子云广成子学道崆峒山,黄帝问道於广成子,盖在此。”案:二处崆峒皆云黄帝登之,未详孰是。南至于江,登熊、湘。◇集解封禅书曰:“南伐至于召陵,登熊山。”地理志曰湘山在长沙益阳县。□正义括地志云:“熊耳山在商州上洛县西十里,齐桓公登之以望江汉也。湘山一名艑山,在岳州巴陵南十八里也。”北逐荤粥,◇集解匈奴传曰:“唐虞以上有山戎、猃狁、荤粥,居于北蛮。”○索隐匈奴别名也。唐虞已上曰山戎,亦曰熏粥,夏曰淳维,殷曰鬼方,周曰玁狁,汉曰匈奴。□正义荤音薰。粥音育。合符釜山,○索隐合诸侯符契圭瑞,而朝之於釜山,犹禹会诸侯於涂山然也。又案:郭子横洞冥记称东方朔云“东海大明之墟有釜山,山出瑞云,应王者之符命”,如尧时有赤云之祥之类。盖黄帝黄云之瑞,故曰“合符应於釜山”也。正义括地志云:“釜山在妫州怀戎县北三里,山上有舜庙。”而邑于涿鹿之阿。□正义广平曰阿。涿鹿,山名,已见上。涿鹿故城在山下,即黄帝所都之邑於山下平地。迁徙往来无常处,以师兵为营卫。□正义环绕军兵为营以自卫,若辕门即其遗象。官名皆以云命,为云师。◇集解应劭曰:“黄帝受命,有云瑞,故以云纪事也。春官为青云,夏官为缙云,秋官为白云,冬官为黑云,中官为黄云。”张晏曰:“黄帝有景云之应,因以名师与官。”置左右大监,监于万国。□正义监,上监去声,下监平声。若周邵分陕也。万国和,而鬼神山川封禅与为多焉。◇集解徐广曰:“多,一作‘朋’。”○索隐与音羊汝反。与犹许也。言万国和同,而鬼神山川封禅祭祀之事,自古以来帝皇之中,推许黄帝以为多。多犹大也。获宝鼎,迎日推筴。◇集解晋灼曰:“策,数也,迎数之也。”瓚曰:“日月朔望未来而推之,故曰迎日。”○索隐封禅书曰“黄帝得宝鼎神策”,下云“於是推策迎日”,则神策者,神蓍也。黄帝得蓍以推算历数,於是逆知节气日辰之将来,故曰推策迎日也。□正义筴音策。迎,逆也。黄帝受神筴,命大挠造甲子,容成造历是也。举风后、力牧、常先、大鸿◇集解郑玄曰:“风后,黄帝三公也。”班固曰:“力牧,黄帝相也。”大鸿,见封禅书。□正义举,任用。四人皆帝臣也。帝王世纪云:“黄帝梦大风吹天下之尘垢皆去,又梦人执千钧之弩,驱羊万群。帝寤而叹曰:‘风为号令,执政者也。垢去土,后在也。天下岂有姓风名后者哉?夫千钧之弩,异力者也。驱羊数万群,能牧民为善者也,天下岂有姓力名牧者哉?’於是依二占而求之,得风后於海隅,登以为相。得力牧於大泽,进以为将。黄帝因著占梦经十一卷。”艺文志云:“风后兵法十三篇,图二卷,孤虚二十卷,力牧兵法十五篇。”郑玄云:“风后,黄帝之三公也。”案:黄帝仰天地置列侯众官,以风后配上台,天老配中台,五圣配下台,谓之三公也。封禅书云“鬼臾区号大鸿,黄帝大臣也。死葬雍,故鸿冢是”。艺文志云“鬼容区兵法三篇”也。以治民。顺天地之纪,□正义言黄帝顺天地阴阳四时之纪也。幽明之占,□正义幽,阴;明,阳也。占,数也。言阴阳五行,黄帝占数而知之。此文见大戴礼。死生之说,◇集解徐广曰:“一云‘幽明之数,合死生之说’。”□正义说谓仪制也。民之生死。此谓作仪制礼则之说。存亡之难。○索隐存亡犹安危也。易曰“危者安其位,亡者保其存”是也。难犹说也。凡事是非未尽,假以往来之词,则曰难。又上文有“死生之说”,故此云“存亡之难”,所以韩非著书有说林、说难也。□正义难音乃惮反。存亡犹生死也。黄帝之前,未有衣裳屋宇。及黄帝造屋宇,制衣服,营殡葬,万民故免存亡之难。时播百穀草木,◇集解王肃曰:“时,是也。”○索隐为一句。□正义言顺四时之所宜而布种百穀草木也。淳化鸟兽蟲蛾,○索隐为一句。蛾音牛绮反。一作“豸”。言淳化广被及之。□正义蛾音鱼起反。又音豸,豸音直氏反。蚁,蚍蜉也。尔雅曰:“有足曰蟲,无足曰豸。”旁罗日月星辰水波◇集解徐广曰:“一作‘沃’。”土石金玉,○索隐旁,非一方。罗,广布也。今案:大戴礼作“历离”。离即罗也。言帝德旁罗日月星辰水波,及至土石金玉。谓日月扬光,海水不波,山不藏珍,皆是帝德广被也。□正义旁罗犹遍布也。日月,阴阳时节也。星,二十八宿也。辰,日月所会也。水波,澜漪也。言天不异灾,土无别害,水少波浪,山出珍宝。劳勤心力耳目,节用水火材物。□正义节,时节也。水,陂障决洩也。火,山野禁放也。材,木也。物,事也。言黄帝教民,江湖陂泽山林原隰皆收采禁捕以时,用之有节,令得其利也。大戴礼云“宰我问於孔子曰:‘予闻荣伊曰黄帝三百年。请问黄帝者人耶?何以至三百年?。’”孔子曰:‘劳勤心力耳目,节用水火材物,生而民得其利百年,死而民畏其神百年,亡而民用其教百年,故曰三百年也。’”有土德之瑞,故号黄帝。○索隐炎帝火,黄帝土代之,即“黄龙地螾见”是也。螾,土精,大五六围,长十馀丈。螾音引。□正义螾音以刃反。知

馄扑黄帝二十五子,其得姓者十四人。○索隐旧解破四为三,言得姓十三人耳。今案:国语胥臣云“黄帝之子二十五宗,其得姓者十四人,为十二姓,姬、酉、祁、己、滕、葴、任、荀、僖、姞、儇、衣是也。唯青阳与夷鼓同己姓”。又云“青阳与苍林为姬姓”。是则十四人为十二姓,其文甚明。唯姬姓再称青阳与苍林,盖国语文误,所以致令前儒共疑。其姬姓青阳当为玄嚣,是帝喾祖本与黄帝同姬姓。其国语上文青阳,即是少昊金天氏为己姓者耳。既理在不疑,无烦破四为三。主

劬有黄帝居轩辕之丘,◇集解皇甫谧曰:“受国於有熊,居轩辕之丘,故因以为名,又以为号。山海经曰‘在穷山之际,西射之南’。”张晏曰:“作轩冕之服,故谓之轩辕。”而娶於西陵之女,□正义西陵,国名也。是为嫘祖。◇集解徐广曰:“祖,一作‘俎’。嫘,力追反。”○索隐一曰雷祖,音力堆反。□正义一作“劚”。嫘祖为黄帝正妃,○索隐案:黄帝立四妃,象后妃四星。皇甫谧云:“元妃西陵氏女,曰累祖,生昌意。次妃方雷氏女,曰女节,生青阳。次妃彤鱼氏女,生夷鼓,一名苍林。次妃嫫母,班在三人之下。”案:国语夷鼓、苍林是二人。又案:汉书古今人表彤鱼氏生夷鼓,嫫母生苍林,不得如谧所说。太史公乃据大戴礼,以累祖生昌意及玄嚣,玄嚣即青阳也。皇甫谧以青阳为少昊,乃方雷氏所生,是其所见异也。生二子,其後皆有天下:其一曰玄嚣,是为青阳,○索隐玄嚣,帝喾之祖。案:皇甫谧及宋衷皆云玄嚣青阳即少昊也。今此纪下云“玄嚣不得在帝位”,则太史公意青阳非少昊明矣。而此又云“玄嚣是为青阳”,当是误也。谓二人皆黄帝子,并列其名,所以前史因误以玄嚣青阳为一人耳。宋衷又云:“玄嚣青阳是为少昊,继黄帝立者,而史不叙,盖少昊金德王,非五运之次,故叙五帝不数之也。”青阳降居江水;□正义括地志云:“安阳故城在豫州新息县西南八十里。应劭云古江国也。地理志亦云安阳古江国也。”其二曰昌意,降居若水。○索隐降,下也。言帝子为诸侯,降居江水、。江水、若水皆在蜀,即所封国也。水经曰“水出旄牛徼外,东南至故关为若水,南过邛都,又东北至硃提县为卢江水”,是蜀有此二水也。昌意娶蜀山氏女,曰昌仆,生高阳,高阳有圣德焉。□正义华阳国志及十三州志云:“蜀之先肇於人皇之际。黄帝为子昌意娶蜀山氏,後子孙因封焉。帝颛顼高阳氏,黄帝之孙,昌意之子,母曰昌仆,亦谓之女枢。”河图云:“瑶光如蜺贯月,正白,感女枢於幽房之宫,生颛顼,首戴干戈,有德文也。”黄帝崩,◇集解皇甫谧曰:“在位百年而崩,年百一十一岁。”○索隐案:大戴礼“宰我问孔子曰:‘荣伊言黄帝三百年,请问黄帝何人也?抑非人也?何以至三百年乎?’对曰:‘生而人得其利百年,死而人畏其神百年,亡而人用其教百年。’”则士安之说略可凭矣。□正义列仙传云:“轩辕自择亡日与群臣辞。还葬桥山,山崩,棺空,唯有剑舄在棺焉。”葬桥山。◇集解皇览曰:“黄帝冢在上郡桥山。”○索隐地理志桥山在上郡阳周县,山有黄帝冢也。□正义括地志云:“黄帝陵在宁州罗川县东八十里子午山。地理志云上郡阳周县桥山南有黄帝冢。”案:阳周,隋改为罗川。尔雅云山锐而高曰桥也。”其孙昌意之子高阳立,是为帝颛顼也。斋

解皇帝颛顼高阳者,◇集解皇甫谧曰:“都帝丘,今东郡濮阳是也。”○索隐宋衷云:“颛顼,名;高阳,有天下号也。”张晏云:“高阳者,所兴地名也。”黄帝之孙而昌意之子也。静渊以有谋,疏通而知事;养材以任地,○索隐言能养材物以任地。大戴礼作“养财”。载时○索隐载,行也。言行四时以象天。大戴礼作“履时以象天”。履亦践而行也。以象天,依鬼神以制义,○索隐鬼神聪明正直,当尽心敬事,因制尊卑之义,故礼曰“降于祖庙之谓仁义”是也。□正义鬼之灵者曰神也。鬼神谓山川之神也。能兴云致雨,润养万物也,故己依冯之剬义也。剬,古制字。治气○索隐谓理四时五行之气以教化万人也。以教化,絜诚以祭祀。北至于幽陵,□正义幽州也。南至于交阯,□正义阯音止,交州也。西至于流沙,◇集解地理志曰流沙在张掖居延县。□正义济,渡也。括地志云:“居延海南,甘州张掖县东北千六十四里是。”东至于蟠木。集解海外经曰:“东海中有山焉,名曰度索。上有大桃树,屈蟠三千里。东北有门,名曰鬼门,万鬼所聚也。天帝使神人守之,一名神荼,一名郁垒,主阅领万鬼。若害人之鬼,以苇索缚之,射以桃弧,投虎食也。”动静之物,□正义动物谓鸟兽之类,静物谓草木之类。大小之神,□正义大谓五岳、四渎,小谓丘陵坟衍。日月所照,莫不砥属。◇集解王肃曰:“砥,平也。四远皆平而来服属。”○索隐依王肃音止蜀,据大戴礼作“砥砺”也。主

当帝颛顼生子曰穷蝉。○索隐系本作“穷系”。宋衷云:“一云穷系,谥也。”□正义帝舜之高祖也。颛顼崩,◇集解皇甫谧曰:“在位七十八年,年九十八。”皇览曰:“颛顼冢在东郡濮阳顿丘城门外广阳里中。顿丘者城门,名顿丘道。”○索隐皇甫谧云:“据左氏,岁在鹑火而崩,葬东郡。”又山海经曰:“颛顼葬鲋鱼山之阳,九嫔葬其阴。”而玄嚣之孙高辛立,是为帝喾。知

昊以帝喾高辛者,◇集解张晏曰:“少昊以前,天下之号象其德。颛顼以来,天下之号因其名。高阳、高辛皆所兴之地名;颛顼与喾皆以字为号:上古质故也。”○索隐宋衷曰:“高辛地名,因以为号。喾,名也。”皇甫谧云:“帝喾名夋也。”□正义帝王纪云:“幹母无闻焉。”黄帝之曾孙也。高辛父曰蟜极,□正义蟜音居兆反。本作“桥”,音同。又巨遥反。帝尧之祖也。蟜极父曰玄嚣,玄嚣父曰黄帝。自玄嚣与蟜极皆不得在位,至高辛即帝位。◇集解皇甫谧曰:“都亳,今河南偃师是。”高辛於颛顼为族子。主

蹘指高辛生而神灵,自言其名。□正义帝王纪云:“帝幹高辛,姬姓也。其母生见其神异,自言其名曰岌。龆龀有圣德,年十五而佐颛顼,三十登位,都亳,以人事纪官也。”普施利物,不於其身。聪以知远,明以察微。顺天之义,知民之急。仁而威,惠而信,脩身而天下服。取地之财而节用之,抚教万民而利诲之,历日月而迎送之,□正义言作历弦、望、晦、朔,日月未至而迎之,过而送之,上“迎日推策”是也。明鬼神而敬事之。□正义天神曰神,人神曰鬼。又云圣人之精气谓之神,贤人之精气谓之鬼。言明识鬼而敬事也。其色郁郁,其德嶷嶷。○索隐郁郁犹穆穆也。嶷嶷,德高也。今案:大戴礼“郁”作“神”,“嶷”作“俟”。其动也时,其服也士。○索隐举动应天时,衣服服士服,言其公且廉也。帝喾溉执中而遍天下,◇集解徐广曰:“古‘既’字作水旁。‘遍’字一作‘尹’。”○索隐即尚书“允执厥中”是也。□正义溉音既。言帝幹治民,若水之溉灌,平等而执中正,遍於天下也。日月所照,风雨所至,莫不从服。□正义以上大戴文也。知

云“帝喾娶陈锋氏女,○索隐锋音峰。案:系本作“陈酆氏”。皇甫谧云“陈锋氏女曰庆都”。庆都,名也。□正义锋音峰。又作“丰”。帝王纪云“帝幹有四妃,卜其子皆有天下。元妃有邰氏女,曰姜嫄,生后稷。次妃有娀氏女,曰简狄,生卨,次妃陈丰氏女,曰庆都,生放勋。次妃娵訾氏女,曰常仪,生帝挚”也。生放勋。□正义放音方往反。勋亦作“勋”,音许云反。言尧能放上代之功,故曰放勋。谥尧。姓伊祁氏。帝王纪云:“帝尧陶唐氏,祁姓也。母庆都,十四月生尧。”娶娵訾氏女,生挚。○索隐案:皇甫谧云“女名常宜”也。□正义娵,足须反。訾,紫移反。帝喾崩,◇集解皇甫谧曰:“在位七十年,年百五岁。”皇览曰:“帝喾冢在东郡濮阳顿丘城南台阴野中。”而挚代立。帝挚立,不善,○索隐古本作“不著”,音张虑反。俗本作“不善”。不善谓微弱,不著犹不著明。卫宏云:“挚立九年而唐侯德盛,因禅位焉。”□正义帝王纪云:“帝挚之母於四人中班最在下,而挚於兄弟最长,得登帝位。封异母弟放勋为唐侯。挚在位九年,政微弱,而唐侯德盛,诸侯归之,挚服其义,乃率群臣造唐而致禅。唐侯自知有天命,乃受帝禅,乃封挚於高辛。”今定州唐县也。而弟放勋立,是为帝尧。主

廒帝尧者,◇集解谥法曰:“翼善传圣曰尧。”○索隐尧,谥也。放勋,名。帝喾之子,姓伊祁氏。案:皇甫谧云“尧初生时,其母在三阿之南,寄於伊长孺之家,故从母所居为姓也”。□正义徐广云:“号陶唐。”帝王纪云:“尧都平阳,於诗为唐国。”徐才宗国都城记云:“唐国,帝尧之裔子所封。其北,帝夏禹都,汉曰太原郡,在古冀州太行恆山之西。其南有晋水。”括地志云:“今晋州所理平阳故城是也。平阳河水一名晋水也。”放勋。◇集解徐广曰:“号陶唐。”皇甫谧曰:“尧以甲申岁生,甲辰即帝位,甲午徵舜,甲寅舜代行天子事,辛巳崩,年百一十八,在位九十八年。”其仁如天,○索隐如天之函养也。其知如神。○索隐如神之微妙也。就之如日,○索隐如日之照临,人咸依就之,若葵藿倾心以向日也。望之如云。○索隐如云之覆渥,言德化广大而浸润生人,人咸仰望之,故曰如百穀之仰膏雨也。富而不骄,贵而不舒。○索隐舒犹慢也。大戴礼作“不豫”。黄收纯衣,◇集解徐广曰:“纯,一作‘纟才’。”骃案:太古冠冕图云“夏名冕曰收”。礼记曰“野夫黄冠”。郑玄曰“纯衣,士之祭服”。○索隐收,冕名。其色黄,故曰黄收,象古质素也。纯,读曰缁。彤车乘白马。能明驯德,◇集解徐广曰:“驯,古训字。”○索隐史记“驯”字徐广皆读曰训。训,顺也。言圣德能顺人也。案:尚书作“俊德”,孔安国云“能明用俊德之士”,与此文意别也。以亲九族。九族既睦,便章百姓。◇集解徐广曰:“下云‘便程东作’,然则训平为便也。”骃案:尚书并作“平”字。孔安国曰“百姓,百官”。郑玄曰“百姓,群臣之父子兄弟”。○索隐古文尚书作“平”,此文盖读“平”为浦耕反。平既训便,因作“便章”。其今文作“辩章”。古“平”字亦作“便”,音婢缘反。便则训辩,遂为辩章。邹诞生本亦同也。百姓昭明,合和万国。古

停乃命羲、和,◇集解孔安国曰:“重黎之後,羲氏、和氏世掌天地之官。”正义吕刑传云:“重即羲,黎即和,虽别为氏族,而出自重黎也。”案:圣人不独治,必须贤辅,乃命相天地之官,若周礼天官卿、地官卿也。敬顺昊天,正义敬犹恭勤也。元气昊然广大,故云昊天。释天云:“春为苍天,夏为昊天,秋为旻天,冬为上天。”而独言昊天者,以尧能敬天,大,故以昊大言之。数法○索隐尚书作“历象日月”,则此言“数法”,是训“历象”二字,谓命羲和以历数之法观察日月星辰之早晚,以敬授人时也。日月星辰,□正义历数之法,日之甲乙,月之大小,昏明递中之星,日月所会之辰,定其天数,以为一岁之历。敬授民时。□正义尚书考灵耀云:“主春者,张昏中,可以种稷。主夏者,火昏中,可以种黍菽。主秋者,虚昏中,可以种麦。主冬者,昴昏中,可以收敛也。”天子视四星之中,知民缓急,故云敬授民时也。分命羲仲,居郁夷,曰旸谷。◇集解尚书作“嵎夷”。孔安国曰:“东表之地称嵎夷。日出於旸谷。羲仲,治东方之官。”○索隐旧本作“汤谷”,今并依尚书字。案:淮南子曰“日出汤谷,浴於咸池”,则汤谷亦有他证明矣。又下曰“昧谷”,徐广云“一作‘柳’”,柳亦日入处地名。太史公博采经记而为此史,广记异闻,不必皆依尚书。盖郁夷亦地之别名也。正义郁音隅。阳或作“旸”。禹贡青州云:“嵎夷既略。”案:嵎夷,青州也。尧命羲仲理东方青州嵎夷之地,日所出处,名曰阳明之谷。羲仲主东方之官,若周礼春官卿。敬道日出,便程东作。◇集解孔安国曰:“敬道出日,平均次序东作之事,以务农也。”○索隐刘伯庄传皆依古史作平秩音。然尚书大传曰“辩秩东作”,则是训秩为程,言便课其作程者也。□正义道音导。便,程,并如字,後同。导,训也。三春主东,故言日出。耕作在春,故言东作。命羲仲恭勤道训万民东作之事,使有程期。日中,星鸟,以殷中春。◇集解孔安国曰:“日中谓春分之日也。鸟,南方硃鸟七宿也。殷,正也。春分之昏,鸟星毕见,以正仲春之气节。转以推孟、季,则可知也。”□正义下“中”音仲,夏、秋、冬并同。其民析,鸟兽字微。◇集解孔安国曰:“春事既起,丁壮就功,言其民老壮分析也。”乳化曰字。尚书“微”作“尾”字。说云“尾,交接也”。申命羲叔,居南交。◇集解孔安国曰:“夏与春交,此治南方之官也。”○索隐孔注未是。然则冬与秋交,何故下无其文?且东嵎夷,西昧谷,北幽都,三方皆言地,而夏独不言地,乃云与春交,斯不例之甚也。然南方地有名交阯者,或古文略举一字名地,南交则是交阯不疑也。□正义羲叔主南方官,若周礼夏官卿也。便程南为,敬致。◇集解孔安国曰:“为,化也。平序分南方化育之事,敬行其教,以致其功也。”○索隐为依字读。春言东作,夏言南为,皆是耕作营为劝农之事。孔安国强读为“讹”字,虽则训化,解释亦甚纡回也。□正义为音于伪反。命羲叔宜恭勤民事。致其种殖,使有程期也。日永,星火,以正中夏。◇集解孔安国曰:“永,长也,谓夏至之日。火,苍龙之中星,举中则七星见可知也,以正中夏之节。”马融、王肃谓日长昼漏六十刻,郑玄曰五十五刻。其民因,鸟兽希革。◇集解孔安国曰:“因,谓老弱因就在田之丁壮以助农也。夏时鸟兽毛羽希少改易也。革,改也。”申命和仲,□正义和仲主西方之官,若周礼秋官卿也。居西土,◇集解徐广曰:“一无‘土’字。以为西者,今天水之西县也。”骃案:郑玄曰“西者,陇西之西,今人谓之兑山”。曰昧谷。◇集解徐广曰:“一作‘柳谷’。”骃案:孔安国曰“日入于谷而天下冥,故曰昧谷。此居治西方之官,掌秋天之政也”。敬道日入,便程西成。集解孔安国曰:“秋,西方,万物成也。”夜中,星虚,○索隐虚,旧依字读,而邹诞生音墟。案:虚星主坟墓,邹氏或得其理。以正中秋。◇集解孔安国曰:“春言日,秋言夜,互相备也。虚,玄武之中星。亦言七星皆以秋分日见,以正三秋也。”其民夷易,鸟兽毛毨。◇集解孔安国曰:“夷,平也。老壮者在田,与夏平也。毨,理也。毛更生整理。”申命和叔;居北方,曰幽都。◇集解孔安国曰:“北称幽都,谓所聚也。”○索隐山海经曰“北海之内有山名幽都”,盖是也。□正义案:北方幽州,阴聚之地,命和叔居理之。北方之官,若周礼冬官卿。便在伏物。○索隐使和叔察北方藏伏之物,谓人畜积聚等冬皆藏伏。尸子亦曰“北方者,伏方也”。尚书作“平在朔易”。今案:大传云“便在伏物”,太史公据之而书。日短,星昴,以正中冬。◇集解孔安国曰:“日短,冬至之日也。昴,白虎之中星。亦以七星并见,以正冬节也。”马融、王肃谓日短昼漏四十刻。郑玄曰四十五刻,失之。其民燠,鸟兽氄毛。◇集解徐广曰:“氄音茸。”骃案:孔安国曰“民入室处,鸟兽皆生氄毳细毛以自温也”。岁三百六十六日,以闰月正四时。○索隐夫周天三百六十五度四分度之一,是天度数也。而日行迟,一岁一周天;月行疾,一月一周天。日一日行一度,月一日行十三度十九分度之七。至二十九日半强,月行天一匝,又逐及日而与会。一年十二会,是为十二月。每月二十九日过半。年分出小月六,是每岁馀六日。又大岁三百六十六日,小岁三百五十五日,举全数云六十六日。其实一岁唯馀十一日弱。未满三岁,已成一月,则置闰。若三年不置闰,则正月为二月。九年差三月,则以春为夏。十七年差六月,则四时皆反。以此四时不正,岁不成矣。故传曰“归馀於终,事则不悖”是也。信饬◇集解徐广曰:“古‘敕’字。”百官,众功皆兴。斋

用之尧曰:“谁可顺此事?”□正义言将登用之嗣位也。放齐曰:“嗣子丹硃开明。”◇集解孔安国曰:“放齐,臣名。”□正义放音方往反。郑玄云:“帝尧胤嗣之子,名曰丹硃,开明也。”案:开,解而达也。帝王纪云:“尧娶散宜氏女,曰女皇,生丹硃。”汲冢纪年云:“后稷放帝子丹硃。”范汪荆州记云:“丹水县在丹川,尧子硃之所封也。”括地志云:“丹水故城在邓州内乡县西南百三十里。丹水故为县。”尧曰:“吁!顽凶,不用。”◇集解孔安国曰:“吁,疑怪之辞。”□正义左传云:“口不道忠信之言为嚚,心不则德义之经为顽。”凶,讼也。言丹硃心既顽嚚,又好争讼,不可用之。尧又曰:“谁可者?”讙兜曰:“共工旁聚布功,可用。”◇集解孔安国曰:“讙兜,臣名。”郑玄曰:“共工,水官名。”□正义兜音斗侯反。尧曰:“共工善言,其用僻,似恭漫天,不可。”□正义漫音莫干反。共工善为言语,用意邪僻也。似於恭敬,罪恶漫天,不可用也。尧又曰:“嗟,四岳,◇集解郑玄曰:“四岳,四时官,主方岳之事。”□正义嗟叹鸿水,问四岳谁能理也。孔安国云:“四岳,即上羲和四子也。分掌四岳之诸侯,故称焉。”汤汤洪水滔天,浩浩怀山襄陵,集解孔安国曰:“怀,包;襄,上也。”□正义汤音商,今读如字。荡荡,广平之貌。言水奔突有所涤除,地上之物为水漂流荡荡然。案:怀,藏,包裹之义,故怀为包。释言以襄为驾,驾乘牛马皆在上也。言水襄上乘陵,浩浩盛大,势若漫天。下民其忧,有能使治者?”皆曰鲧可。◇集解马融曰:“鲧,臣名,禹父。”尧曰:“鲧负命毁族,不可。”□正义负音佩,依字通。负,违也。族,类也。鲧性很戾,违负教命,毁败善类,不可用也。诗云“贪人败类”也。岳曰:“异哉,试不可用而已。”□正义异音异。孔安国云:“异,已;已,退也。言馀人尽已,唯鲧可试,无成乃退。”尧於是听岳用鲧。九岁,功用不成。正义尔雅释天云:“载,岁也。夏曰祀,周曰年,唐、虞曰载。”李巡云:“各自纪事,示不相袭也。”孙炎云:“岁,取岁星行一次也。祀,取四时祭祀一讫也。年,取禾穀一熟也。载,取万物终更始也。载者,年之别名,故以载为年也。”案:功用不成,水害不息,故放退也。至明年得舜,乃殛之羽山,而用其子禹也。古

!四尧曰:“嗟!四岳:朕在位七十载,汝能庸命,践朕位?”◇集解郑玄曰:“言汝诸侯之中有能顺事用天命者,入处我位,统治天子之事者乎?”□正义孔安国云:“尧年十六,以唐侯升为天子,在位七十载,时八十六,老将求代也。”岳应曰:“鄙德忝帝位。”□正义四岳皆云,鄙俚无德,若便行天子事,是辱帝位。言己等不堪也。尧曰:“悉举贵戚及疏远隐匿者。”众皆言於尧曰:“有矜在民间,曰虞舜。”◇集解孔安国曰:“无妻曰矜。”□正义矜,古顽反。尧曰:“然,朕闻之。其何如?”岳曰:“盲者子。父顽,母嚚,弟傲,能和以孝,烝烝治,不至奸。”◇集解孔安国曰:“不至於奸恶。”□正义烝,之升反,进也。言父顽,母嚚,弟傲,舜皆和以孝,进之於善,不至於奸恶也。尧曰:“吾其试哉。”□正义欲以二女试舜,观其理家之道也。於是尧妻之二女,□正义妻音七计反。二女,娥皇、女英也。娥皇无子,女英生商均。舜升天子,娥皇为后,女英为妃。观其德於二女。□正义视其为德行於二女,以理家而观国也。舜饬下二女於妫汭,◇集解孔安国曰:“舜所居妫水之汭。”○索隐列女传云二女长曰娥皇,次曰女英。系本作“女莹”。大戴礼作“女匽”。皇甫谧云:“妫水在河东虞乡县历山西。汭,水涯也,犹洛汭、渭汭然也。”□正义饬音敕。下音胡亚反。汭音芮。舜能整齐二女以义理,下二女之心於妫汭,使行妇道於虞氏也。括地志云:“妫汭水源出蒲州河东南山。许慎云:‘水涯曰汭。’案:地记云‘河东郡青山东山中有二泉,下南流者妫水,北流者汭水。二水异源,合流出谷,西注河。妫水北曰汭也’。又云‘河东县二里故蒲坂城,舜所都也。城中有舜庙,城外有舜宅及二妃坛’。”如妇礼。尧善之,乃使舜慎和五典,◇集解郑玄曰:“五典,五教也。盖试以司徒之职。”五典能从。乃遍入百官,百官时序。宾於四门,四门穆穆,诸侯远方宾客皆敬。◇集解马融曰:“四门,四方之门。诸侯群臣朝者,舜宾迎之,皆有美德也。”尧使舜入山林○索隐尚书云“纳于大麓”,穀梁传云“林属於山曰麓”,是山足曰麓,故此以为入山林不迷。孔氏以麓训录,言令舜大录万几之政,与此不同。川泽,暴风雷雨,舜行不迷。尧以为圣,召舜曰:“女谋事至而言可绩,三年矣。◇集解郑玄曰:“三年者,宾四门之後三年也。”女登帝位。”舜让於德不怿。◇集解徐广曰:“音亦。今文尚书作‘不怡’。怡,怿也。”○索隐古文作“不嗣”,今文作“不怡”,怡即怿也。谓辞让於德不堪,所以心意不悦怿也。俗本作“泽”,误尔,亦当为“怿”。正月上日,◇集解马融曰:“上日,朔日也。”□正义郑玄云:“帝王易代,莫不改正。尧正建丑,舜正建子,此时未改,故依尧正月上日也。”舜受终於文祖。文祖者,尧大祖也。◇集解郑玄曰:“文祖者,五府之大名,犹周之明堂。”○索隐尚书帝命验曰:“五府,五帝之庙。苍曰灵府,赤曰文祖,黄曰神斗,白曰显纪,黑曰玄矩。唐虞谓之五府,夏谓世室,殷谓重屋,周谓明堂,皆祀五帝之所也。”正义舜受尧终帝之事於文祖也。尚书帝命验云:“帝者承天立五府,以尊天重象也。五府者,黄曰神斗。”注云:“唐虞谓之天府,夏谓之世室,殷谓之重屋,周谓之明堂,皆祀五帝之所也。文祖者,赤帝熛怒之府,名曰文祖。火精光明,文章之祖,故谓之文祖。周曰明堂。神斗者,黄帝含枢纽之府,名曰神斗。斗,主也。土精澄静,四行之主,故谓之神斗。周曰太室。显纪者,白帝招拒之府,名显纪。纪,法也。金精断割万物,故谓之显纪。周曰总章。玄矩者,黑帝汁光纪之府,名曰玄矩。矩,法也。水精玄味,能权轻重,故谓之玄矩。周曰玄堂。灵府者,苍帝灵威仰之府,名曰灵府。周曰青阳。”知

怨於是帝尧老,命舜摄行天子之政,以观天命。舜乃在璿玑玉衡,以齐七政。◇集解郑玄曰:“璿玑,玉衡,浑天仪也。七政,日月五星也。”□正义说文云:“璿,赤玉也。”案:舜虽受尧命,犹不自安,更以璿玑玉衡以正天文。玑为运转,衡为横箫,运玑使动於下,以衡望之,是王者正天文器也,观其齐与不齐。今七政齐,则己受禅为是。蔡邕云:“玉衡长八尺,孔径一寸,下端望之,以视星宿,并县玑以象天,而以衡望之,转玑窥衡,以知星宿。玑径八尺,圆周二丈五尺而强也。”郑玄云:“运转者为玑,持正者为衡。”尚书大传云:“政者,齐中也。谓春秋冬夏天文地理人道,所以为政也,道正而万事顺成,故天道政之大也。”遂类于上帝,◇集解郑玄曰:“礼祭上帝于圜丘。”□正义五经异义云:“非时祭天谓之类,言以事类告也。时舜告摄,非常祭也。”王制云:“天子将出,类于上帝。”郑玄云:“昊天上帝谓天皇大帝,北辰之星。”禋于六宗,◇集解郑玄曰:“六宗,星、辰、司中、司命、风师、雨师也。”骃案:六宗义众矣。愚谓郑说为长。□正义周语云“精意以享曰禋”也。孙炎云:“禋,絜敬之祭也。”案:星,五纬星也。辰,日月所会十二次也。司中、司命,文昌第五、第四星也。风师,箕星也。雨师,毕星也。孔安国云:“四时寒暑也,日月星也,水旱也。”礼祭法云:“埋少牢於大昭,祭时也。禳祈於坎坛,祭寒暑也。王宫,祭日也。夜明,祭月也。幽禜,祭星。雩禜,祭水旱也。”司马彪续汉书云:“安帝立六宗,祀於洛阳城西北亥地,礼比大社。魏因之。至晋初,荀顗言新祀,以六宗之神诸家说不同,乃废之也。”望于山川,◇集解徐广曰:“名山大川。”□正义望者,遥望而祭山川也。山川,五岳、四渎也。尔雅云:“梁山,晋望也。”辩于群神。◇集解徐广曰:“辩音班。”骃案:郑玄曰“群神若丘陵坟衍”。□正义辩音遍。谓祭群神也。揖五瑞,择吉月日,见四岳诸牧,班瑞。◇集解马融曰:“揖,敛也。五瑞,公侯伯子男所执,以为瑞信也。尧将禅舜,使群牧敛之,使舜亲往班之。”正义揖音集。周礼典瑞云:“王执镇圭,尺二寸。公执桓圭,九寸。侯执信圭,七寸。伯执躬圭,五寸。子执穀璧,男执蒲璧,皆五寸。言五瑞者,王不在中也。”孔文祥云:“宋末,会稽修禹庙,於庙庭山土中得五等圭璧百馀枚,形与周礼同,皆短小。此即禹会诸侯於会稽,执以礼山神而埋之。其璧今犹有在也。”岁二月,东巡狩,至於岱宗,祡,◇集解马融曰:“舜受终後五年之二月。”郑玄曰:“建卯之月也。祡祭东岳者,考绩。祡,燎也。”□正义案:既班瑞群后即东巡者,守土之诸侯会岱宗之岳,焚柴告至也。王者巡狩,以诸侯自专一国,威福任己,恐其壅遏上命,泽不下流,故巡行问人疾苦也。风俗通云:“太,山之尊者,一曰岱宗,始也,长也,万物之始,阴阳交代,故为五岳之长也。”案:二月,仲月也。仲,中也,言得其中也。望秩於山川。□正义乃以秩望祭东方诸侯境内之名山大川也。言秩者,五岳视三公,四渎视诸侯。遂见东方君长,合时月正日,◇集解郑玄曰:“协正四时之月数及日名,备有失误。”□正义既见东方君长,乃合同四时气节,月之大小,日之甲乙,使齐一也。周礼:“太史掌正岁年以序事,颁正朔於邦国。”则节气晦朔皆天子颁之。犹恐诸侯国异,或不齐同,因巡狩合正之。同律度量衡,◇集解郑玄曰:“律,音律;度,丈尺;量,斗斛;衡,斤两也。”□正义律之十二律,度之丈尺,量之斗斛,衡之斤两,皆使天下相同,无制度长短轻重异也。汉律历志云:“虞书云‘同律度量衡’,所以齐远近,立民信也。律有十二,阳六为律,阴六为吕。律以统气类物,一曰黄锺,二曰太蔟,三曰姑洗,四曰蕤宾,五曰夷则,六曰无射。吕以旅阳宣气,一曰林锺,二曰南吕,三曰应锺,四曰大吕,五曰夹锺,六曰中吕。度者,分、寸、尺、丈、引也,所以度长短也。本起黄锺之管长,以子穀秬黍中者一黍为一分,十分为一寸,十寸为尺,十尺为丈,十丈为引,而五度审矣。量者,龠、合、升、斗、斛也,所以量多少也。本起黄锺之龠,以子穀秬黍中者千有二百实为一龠,合龠为合,十合为升,十升为斗,十斗为斛,而五量嘉矣。衡权者,铢、两、斤、钧、石也,所以称物轻重也。本起於黄锺之重,一龠容千二百黍,重十二铢,二十四铢为两,十六两为斤,三十斤为钧,四钧为石,而五权谨矣。衡,平也。权,重也。”脩五礼◇集解马融曰:“吉、凶、宾、军、嘉也。”□正义周礼“以吉礼事邦国之鬼神祇,以凶礼哀邦国之忧,以宾礼亲邦国,以军礼同邦国,以嘉礼亲万民”也。尚书尧典云“类于上帝”,吉礼也;“如丧考妣”,凶礼也;“群后四朝”,宾礼也;大禹谟云“汝徂征”,军礼也;尧典云“女于时”,嘉礼也。女音女虑反。五玉◇集解郑玄曰:“即五瑞也。执之曰瑞,陈列曰玉。”三帛◇集解马融曰:“三孤所执也。”郑玄曰:“帛,所以荐玉也。必三者,高阳氏後用赤缯,高辛氏後用黑缯,其馀诸侯皆用白缯。”□正义孔安国云:“诸侯世子执纁,公之孤执玄,附庸之君执黄也。”案:三统纪推伏羲为天统,色尚赤。神农为地统,色尚黑。黄帝为人统,色尚白。少昊,黄帝子,亦尚白。故高阳氏又天统,亦尚亦。尧为人统,故用白。二生□正义羔、雁也。郑玄注周礼大宗伯云:“羔,小羊也,取其群不失其类也。雁,取其候时而行也。卿执羔,大夫执雁。”案:羔、雁性驯,可生为贽。一死□正义雉也。马融云:“一死雉,士所执也。”案:不可生为贽,故死。雉,取其守介死不失节也。为挚,◇集解马融曰:“挚:二生,羔、雁,卿大夫所执;一死,雉,士所执。”□正义挚音至。贽,执也。郑玄云:“贽之言至,所以自致也。”韦昭云:“贽,六贽:孤执皮帛,卿执羔,大夫执雁,士执雉,庶人执鹜,工商执鸡也。”如五器,卒乃复。集解马融曰:“五器,上五玉。五玉礼终则还之,三帛已下不还也。”□正义卒音子律反。复音伏。五月,南巡狩;八月,西巡狩;十一月,北巡狩:皆如初。归,至于祖祢庙,□正义祢音乃礼反。何休云:“生曰父,死曰考,庙曰祢。”用特牛礼。五岁一巡狩,群后四朝。◇集解郑玄曰:“巡狩之年,诸侯见於方岳之下。其间四年,四方诸侯分来朝於京师也。”遍告以言,□正义遍音遍。言遍告天子治理之言也。明试以功,车服以庸。□正义孔安国云:“功成则锡车服,以表显其能用也。”肇十有二州,决川。◇集解马融曰:“禹平水土,置九州。舜以冀州之北广大,分置并州。燕、齐辽远,分燕置幽州,分齐为营州。於是为十二州也。”郑玄曰:“更为之定界,濬水害也。”象以典刑,◇集解马融曰:“言咎繇制五常之刑,无犯之者,但有其象,无其人也。”□正义孔安国云:“象,法也。法用常刑,用不越法也。”流宥五刑,◇集解马融曰:“流,放;宥,宽也。一曰幼少,二曰老耄,三曰蠢愚。五刑,墨、劓、剕、宫、大辟。”□正义孔安国云:“以流放之法宽五刑也。”郑玄云:“三宥,一曰弗识,二曰过失,三曰遗忘也。”鞭作官刑,◇集解马融曰:“为辨治官事者为刑。”扑作教刑,◇集解郑玄曰:“扑,槚楚也。扑为教官为刑者。”金作赎刑。◇集解马融曰:“金,黄金也。意善功恶,使出金赎罪,坐不戒慎者。”眚灾过,赦;◇集解郑玄曰:“眚灾,为人作患害者也。过失,虽有害则赦之。”怙终◇集解徐广曰:“一作‘众’。”贼,刑。◇集解郑玄曰:“怙其奸邪,终身以为残贼,则用刑之。”钦哉,钦哉,惟刑之静哉!◇集解徐广曰:“今文云‘惟刑之谧哉’。尔雅曰‘谧,静也’。”○索隐注“惟形之谧哉”,案:古文作“恤哉”,且今文是伏生口诵,恤谧声近,遂作“谧”也。知

杌也讙兜进言共工,□正义讙兜,浑沌也。共工,穷奇也。鲧,檮杌也。三苗,饕餮也。左传云“舜臣尧,流四凶,投诸四裔,以御魑魅”也。尧曰不可而试之工师,□正义工师,若今大匠卿也。共工果淫辟。□正义匹亦反。四岳举鲧治鸿水,尧以为不可,岳彊请试之,试之而无功,故百姓不便。三苗◇集解马融曰:“国名也。”□正义左传云自古诸侯不用王命,虞有三苗,夏有观扈。孔安国云:“缙云氏之後为诸侯,号饕餮也。”吴起云:“三苗之国,左洞庭而右彭蠡。”案:洞庭,湖名,在岳州巴陵西南一里,南与青草湖连。彭蠡,湖名,在江州浔阳县东南五十二里。以天子在北,故洞庭在西为左,彭蠡在东为右。今江州、鄂州、岳州,三苗之地也。在江淮、荆州□正

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Huáng Dì (Yellow Emperor) 黃帝, Xuān Yuán 軒轅, 1's Timeline