William FitzGerald, Baron of Windsor and Pembroke

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William FitzGerald, Baron of Windsor and Pembroke

Birthplace: Carew Castle, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales
Death: 1173 (72-74)
Carew Castle, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales
Immediate Family:

Son of Gerald FitzWalter Constable of Pembroke and Nest verch Rhys
Husband of Maria Fitz Gerald de Carew
Father of Raymond FitzWalter FitzGerald, Constable of Leinster; Odo de Carew; William FitzWilliam Fitzgerald; Isabel de Hastings; Griffyth de Carew and 7 others
Brother of David FitzGerald, Bishop of St. David'S; Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan; Angharad FitzGerald and Gwladys FitzGerald
Half brother of Henry FitzRoy; Robert FitzStephen, de Marisco and Maria de Marisco

Occupation: Owner of Castle Carrio, Lady Diana's 24th gggfather. My 24th gggfather. George Washington's 19th great uncle.Lord of Carru Castle. "William of Windsor"
Managed by: Carol Ann Selis
Last Updated:

About William FitzGerald, Baron of Windsor and Pembroke

Burke's genealogical and heraldic history of the peerage, baronetage and ...Pg.841


Gerald Fitz Walter, constable of Pembroke Castle, temp. Henry I. (see Duke of Leinster), who m. Nesta, dau. of Rhys ap Gruffydd ap Tudor Mawr, prince of South Wales, by whom he had three sons, 1. Maurice, ancestor of the noble house of Fitz-Gerald, Duke of Leinster; 2. William, of whom hereafter; 3. David, bishop of St. David's. The 2nd son,

William Fitz Gerald, went to Ireland with Strongbow 1171, but returned to England 1173. He married Agnes, dau. of Adam de Kingsley, co. Chester and had several sons (see Lansdowne, M.). One of his sons was

William, justice in eyre of the co. Chester. He was the direct ancestor of

William Gerard, who m. the dau. and heir of Peter de Bryn, of Bryn co. Lancaster, and was s. by his son



Lord of Maynooth (see LEINSTER.1 And brother of Maurice FitzGerald.1 (qv).1 D).1 Constable Pembroke Castle temp HENRY I.1 WILLIAM Fitz Gerald lived Carru Castle.1 He was also known as England including an elder son, with other issue, Odo Fitz Wiliam ancestor of Carew Baronet [U.K. Life Peer].1 Eldest s of Gerald FitzWalter.1 Pembs.1 In 1171 went to Ireland with Strongbow in but.1

Child of WILLIAM Fitz Gerald

  • WILLIAM fitz WILLIAM Fitz Gerald+2


  • [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 2, page 1535. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.
  • [S37] Charles Mosley, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.

of Castle of Kerrin, Carmarthenshire Wales

Carew of Carew Castle

Of all the families who held under the Earls of Pembroke this is in many ways the most distinguished. Few in the Kingdom can be traced with so much distinctness during the whole of its long career, and the home of the race, built by its Norman founder, has remained to the present day (with one short interval) in the possession of his descendants. It is also remarkable for the number of noble families which branched off from it. From Carew Castle came (among others) the Fitz Geralds, the foremost among the conquerors of Irelaiad, the elder branch of whom became Earls of Kildare and Dukes of Leinster; the Fitz Maurices, Earls of Kerry and Marquises of Lansdowne; the Graces, Barons of Courtstown, and the Gerrards, Lords Gerrard. All these settled in Ireland, and furnish an interesting example of the origin of family names. From William, the brother of Gerald, founder of the house of Carew, came the Lords Windsor and the Earls of Plymouth.

The representatives of the family who remained in this county soon adopted the territorial title of De Carew, although thej are occasionally called in the records De Windsor, from the earlier home. From an early date they had held lands in the West of England, and their possessions there were, later, much increased by marriages with heiresses when they made their English home their principal residence. From Carew Castle came many of the Carews and Careys who rose to fame and fortune in Devon, Cornwall, and Somerset, and it may be noted that the distinguished General of Pembrokeshire descent, spells his name Vole, Carew, but pronounces it Voole Carey, or rather did so until a regretable incident in 1879 made the name Carey distasteful to him. Another form of the name is Carrow, once familiar in South Pembrokeshire, and still happily represented in the county. Richard Carew, the Elizabethan historian of Cornwall, says :

Carew, of ancient, Carru was. And Carru is a plough; Roman's the trade. Frenchmen the word, I do the name avow."

But however this may be as to some bearers of the name, the historian himself drew his name from our Carew, which is certainly Welsh and not French, and most probably means Caerau, the camps, still presei-ved in the local pronunciation of Carey Castle. "Another learned Carew was also in error as to his origin ; George, Earl of Totness, has left in his handwriting, among the Carew MSS., a pedigree tracing the family from Adam de Montgomery, which is recorded at the Heralds' College, but the charter of King John mentioned below shows that it is as fictitious as those of the bards, or of the late Sir Bernard Burke.

There is a fable that among the numerous foreigners at the Court of Edward the Confessor was a certain Dominus Other, said to have come from Florence, who had a son, Walter Fitz Other, who held the important post of Castellan of Windsor, and who had two sons by a Welsh wife, William, the progenitor of the De Windsors, as above stated, and Gerald, who came to Pembroke with the first Norman invaders under Arnulph de Montgomery, in the reign of William Eufus. Gerald was made Castellan of Pembroke by Ai-nulph, but on the disgrace of the latter in 1102 for his rebellion in favour of the King's brother, Robert, he was replaced by one Saer. However, two years later he was reinstated by Henry I.' This was doubtless owing to his having married the mistress of that King, Nesta, the Welsh princess, who has been styled the "Helen of Wales". Nesta brought him as her dower Carew, and lands in Emlyn, and Henry granted him the lordship of Moulsford, in Berks, which long remained with the family of Carew. Gerald built a castle at Carew, but whether that is the same as the Castle of Little Cenarth, from which Owen ap Cadwgan stole Nesta and her children is not certain. Gerald spent his life in fighting the Welsh; the date of his death is not known. He had three sons : William, who took the name of De Carew; Maurice, who called himself Fitz Gerald, and was the forefather of the great Geraldine race in Ireland ; and David, who became Bishop of St. David's, and died in 1177 ; he had also a daughter, Angharad, who, as stated above,' married William de Barri, of Manorbier. William de Carew married Katherine, a daughter of Sir Adam de Kingsley, in Cheshire, and, notwithstanding his Welsh blood, he spent most of his life in fighting the Welsh, as his father did before him. In 1135 he was defeated by them near Cardigan ;" in 1147 he took from them the Castle of Carmarthen, then held by Meredith ap Griffith, and in the year following that of Wiston, which was a place of great importance in those days, and suffered for it by being repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt. After this it is curious to read that when the Welsh, in 1152, captured Tenby Castle, they handed it over to William so perhaps the Welsh blood counted for something after all. William confirmed the grant by Jordan de Cantinton, a well-known man in North Pembrokeshire, of the church of Castellan in Emlyn to the Preceptory of Slebech," and died in 1173, leaving three sons: Other, who succeeded to Carew; Raymond, "the bravest and wisest of the conquerors of Ireland"; and William, who also settled in Ireland. Another son, Gerald, had been killed at Camrose by the men of Roose, upon whom his family took dire vengeance." Other married Margaret, daughter of Richard Fitz Tancred, Castellan of Haverford.'" Fenton tells us that there were few men of rank among the Flemish settlers," but we find the son of one of these settlers allied by marriage with the two great Norman houses of Carew and Manorbier. Other, soon after his father's death, got into trouble with the Welsh, who took from him his castle of Emlyn, but he obtained from Henry II the manor of Bampton, co. Oxon., so long as the Welsh held Emlyn. He began the long connection of the Carews with Devon, by acquiring Brunton in that county," and he confirmed his father's gift of the vill of Redberth to Slebech. He was a witness to the grant of Trefduauk (St. Edrens) to St. David's by Robert Fitz Elidor." He died about 1204, leaving as his successor his son William, who was engaged in, or accused of, rebellion against King John.

In 1207 William had to pay forty marks of gold for a charter from that king, confirming to him the manor of Moulsford, which charter sets out his descent as above stated ;" and in 1212 he was restored to his house at Carrio (Carew), and the other lands which he held on the day upon which the king embarked for Ireland from Pembroke two years before.'" William died soon afterwards, and after some minorities was succeeded by his son Richard, whose wife's name was Scholastica, and whose brother and son were successively bishops of St. David's {i.e., Thomas Wallensis in 1248 and Richard de Carew in 1256). This is evident from a charter of the last named," although it is not so stated in the history books. Besides the bishop who made his mark on the history of St. David's, Richard had an elder son, William, lord of Carew, who in 1247 held five knight's fees in Pembroke, which in the Mareschal division were assigned, like Manorbier, to Joan de Munchensy." Richard's son, Sir Nicholas de Carew, was a man of mark; of his local influence we have had evidence at p. 5 above. In 1298 he was a witness to the charter of Philip of Angle to William de la Roche. In 1301 he signed the famous letter of the parliament of Lincoln to the Pope, asserting the feudal dependence of Scotland on the English crown, not as lord of Carew, where he was a tenant of the Earl of Pembroke, but as lord of Moulsford, and in the same year was summoned by Edward I to the host against the Scots." He bore as arms the famous black lions passant of the Carews, and he died in 1311, having in his lifetime granted his lands in Carlow, Ireland, to his son John, who in 1317 was ordered by writ of military summons to go to Ireland to defend those lands from Edward Bruce, the brother of the more famous Robert, who, after Bannockburn, had over-run nearly the whole of that country. Beatrice, the sister of John, had, as stated p. 4 above, married Richard de Barri, and brought him Begelly as her dowry. John de Carew died in 1324 and his son Nicholas dying a few months afterwards was succeeded by his brother Thomas, of whom the only fact recorded is that when in 1332 he was indicted for taking away from Manorbier the goods of David de Barri during the great law-suit, he refused to appear on the ground that the writ against him was not sealed with the proper seal. Unhappily, we are not told whether this defence was admitted, apparently it was. It is not quite clear whether Sir John de Carew, the next lord, was the son of Thomas or his nephew, probably the latter. He was lord deputy of Ireland in the reign of Edward III, and had large possessions in Devon which had devolved upon him through the marriages of his ancestors with the heiresses of the Peverels and the Mohuns. He held at Carew in 1348 five knight's fees worth 100 marks, and among his advowsons, that of St. Bride's, taxed at 16 marks. He also held a canonry in the Collegiate Church of Llanddewi Brefi, with the prebend of Dihewid, of the value of 10 marks. Good Bishop Beck had founded this church in 1287, as a place of spiritual joy, with advowsons of Cardigan churches, which Edward I had confiscated and given to him, but the prebends soon got into lay hands, and were treated as sinecures. Sir John died in 1362, leaving a widow Elizabeth (apparently his second wife), who had the manor of Lawrenny as part of her dower.

His son Leonard survived his father seven years, and died in Gascony in the suite of the Earl of Pembroke, leaving a son Thomas, then aged two years. This Thomas lived to what was in those days a ripe old age, and died in 1431. Like his father he was a warrior; in 1416 he was serving in France, and in the next year was ordered by the Privy Council to prosecute the war at sea. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Bonville, a west country family, who held lands in Pembrokeshire and gave their name to Bonville's Court. In 1404 the sum of £200 was ordered by the Council to be paid to him for the wages of men at arms to guard the castles of Carmarthen and Emlyn, and his account for the custody of Narberth castle is extant, shewing that he paid £90 10s. IQd. as wages to ten men at arms and fifty archers, from the 1st November 1402, to the 24th April 1404." Nicholas, the son of Thomas, married Joan, daughter and heiress of Sir Hugh Courtenay, of Haccombe, co. Devon. He died in 1447, leaving four sons: Thomas; Nicholas of Haccombe, the ancestor of the Carew baronets; Alexander of Anthony, from whom came Richard Carew, the antiquary, and the family of Pole-Carew; and William, the ancestor of the present owner of Carew. Notwithstanding their vast possessions and their judicious marriages, the Carews soon after this time fell, through improvidence, upon evil days. Edmund, the grandson of the last mentioned Thomas, mortgaged Carew castle to Sir Rhys ap Thomas," who held there the famous Tornament of St. George in 1607. On the attainder in 1531 of Rhys ap Griffith, the grandson and heir of Sir Rhys, who had foreclosed the mortgage, it was forfeited to the Crown. Edmund Carew went to the wars, and was killed in France. He left two sons : William, the father of Sir Peter Carew (frequently called Carrow in the State Papers), who tried to retrieve the fallen fortunes of the house by recovering the ancient possessions of the Carews in Ireland, which had passed from them for two centuries, and died there in 1575; and George, the father of George, Lord Carew and Earl of Totness, who succeeded to his cousin's unlawful heritage. He was a friend and contemporary of George Owen, and was himself a considerable antiquary, as his collection, which is now at Lambeth Palace, most amply testifies. Carew castle was granted by Queen Mary to Sir John Perrot, and it is to him and to Sir Rhys ap Thomas, the mortgagee of Carew, that we owe much of the beautiful buildings whose ruins are so well-known to us. After Perrot's attainder, Carew was granted to different persons on different tenures until, in the reign of James I, the old family came back. Thomas Carew, the great-grandson of William, the son of Nicholas, had married Elizabeth the daughter and heiress of Hugh Biccombe of Crowcombe, in Somerset, and their son, Sir John, was able to buy up certain outstanding interests and to obtain a grant in fee from the Crown. Sir John Carew died in 1637. During his lifetime he erected a magnificent monument to himself, his wife, and family, in Carew church. He does not seem to have lived at Carew much, for it appears by the churchwardens' accounts of the parish, which date from 1619, that at that date, and during Sir John's life, the castle and demesnes were in the occupation of Sir John Phillipps of Picton, and of his son Sir Richard ; but from 1667 to 1676 they were held by his son George. Sir John Carew held in his own hands Siimmerton, Cotchland, Rickeston and Radford ; he was sheriff of Pembrokeshire in 1623. His son George was sheriff in 1640, and was the last Carew who lived there, for in 1643 the castle, which was held for the king in the Civil Wars, and was even then a place of great strength, was surrendered "upon quarter" and dismantled." John, the son of George, died without issue, and Carew went to the descendants of his (George's) elder brother, Thomas Carew, of Crowcombe, in whom it remained until Mary Carew, in 1794, married George Henry Warrington, who took the name of Carew. His grandson. Colonel Carew, who died in 1874, left a son, who died without issue, and a daughter, Ethel Mary Carew, the present owner, and the lineal descendant of Gerald Fitz Walter ; she married the Hon. R. C. Trollope. Of the extent of the Carew possessions in the county we can form some idea from the list of the places in which they held lands, given in the inquisitions held on the deaths of Sir John Carew in 1362, and of Sir Nicholas Carew in 1447. In each case it is stated that the barony of Carew was held by the service of five knight's fees of the Earl of Pembroke, and that twelve fees were held of the barony by military service. The places mentioned in the first inquisition are Carru (Carew), Knyghteston (Knightston), Begelly, Louelleston (Loveston), Jeffryston, Wydoloc (Wedlock), Coetkellas (Coedcanlas), Martheltewy (Marteltwy), Milton and Oketon (Upton), Churchton and Lantegonet (Llandigwynnet), Pistanernaw (Poyerston), Sageston, Williamston Harvill (West Williamston), Goldsmith's Angle, and Gonnfreiston (Gumfreston) . In the latter inquisition we find possessions at Pembroke, Tenby, Walwyn's Castle, Grove by Pembroke, Williamston Eluard (East Williamston), and Angle, where William de Carew, a younger brother of the last-mentioned Sir John, had held lands of the Shirburnes, which afterwards reverted to the main branch ; we also learn that Sir Nicholas paid twenty-eight shillings yearly for the ward of the tower in the north-east part of the town of Pembroke, called Carew's Tower, and that John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon (afterwards Duke of Exeter), lord of Manorbier, held three fees of him in Loveston, Begelly and Carew.

The arms of the Carews were Or, three lions passant sable. ..............................................

THE ORIGIN OF THE CAREWS It may have been observed by some that in the Fitzgerald pedigree which I gave at the close of my paper on the origin of that family,1 I followed the example set by Mr. Dimock, when editing Giraldus Cambrensis (Rolls Series), in omitting William Fitzgerald's eldest son Odo, who is claimed as the Carews' ancestor. This I did for two reasons. In the first place Giraldus himself, though naming Odo de Kerreu ' as his cousin (consobrinus)2, nowhere states distinctly who his father was, while he somewhat pointedly ignores him in the Expugnatio Hibernite ; in the second the charter of 1212, restoring Moulsford, Berks, 3 on which the origin of the family has long rested in pedigrees, proves that Odo was a grandson of Gerald Fitz Walter (de Windsor), but does not tell us which of Gerald's sons was his father, or indeed prove that he was not merely a maternal grandson. It was safer, therefore, to leave the descent open until it could be absolutely proved.4 Fortunately I have, since then, noted the missing link needed to complete the proof. In the Monasticon (vi. 837), among the endowments of the Hospitallers' Commandery at 'Walinton,' we find this entry : Willelmus filius Geraldi et Odo filius ejus dederunt totam villam de Rubard cum omnibus pertinentiis.5 The place is Redbarth, a parish adjoining that of Carew, and the entry is proof positive that Odo was a son, and indeed the heir, of William son of Gerald Fitz Walter.6

1 The Ancestor, ii. 98. 2 Gerald, who prided himself on his Latinity, may have used the term in a strict sense. 3 See p. 24 below. 4 Sir Harris Nicolas, in his Roll of Carlaverock, speaks of the house of Carew as supposed to have sprung from Otho de Windsor, the common ancestor of the illustrious families of Windsor and Fitz-Gerald '(p. 154), and Mr. G. T. Clark similarly treats the connexion as open to question (Medieval Military Architecture, i. 116). 5 In the confirmation charter by Anselm, Bishop of St. David's (1230-1), the place is given as ' Redeborth.' 6 Walinton,' the site of the Commandery, was East Walton, Pembrokeshire, some twelve miles north of Carew Castle.

With the help of this evidence it will now at length be possible to prove and illustrate the pedigree throughout the twelfth century, the darkest and most difficult period in genealogical research. The pivot on which the story turns is that singular district around Pembroke, that ' little England beyond Wales,' which was destined to form the stepping-stone between England and Ireland. Of this district, with its strange place-names still preserving the memory of Norman or Flemish knights, Pembroke was of course the head; and of Pembroke the constable was Gerald, the patriarch of a spreading race. The neck of the Pembroke peninsula was guarded by Carew on its northern coast and by Manorbier on its southern, and these castles came to be held by grandsons of the lord Gerald.1 A puzzling passage in the work of Giraldus, De rebus a se gestis, relates that, while he was at school (i.e. attending the university) at Paris as a young man, consanguine! ipsius, sc. Willelmus filius Hay,2 Odo de Kerreu,3 et Philippus de Barri,4 frater ejusdem decimas suas . . . longe ante contulerant (i. 28). This would at first sight suggest that Odo ' de Kerreu ' was a brother of Philip de Barri ; but the important genealogical passage two pages earlier clears up the matter. After mentioning that * Ricardus filius Tancardi * was a great man in Pembrokeshire, and that he hated Gerald himself and all his folk, Gerald continues: Odo de Kerreu consobrinus Giraldi et Philippus de Barri frater ejusdem Giraldi,5 qui viri probi et magni fuerunt in finibus illis, licet generi praedicti Ricardi, sc. filias suas habentes uxores, tamen acerbe dixerunt illi quod taceret et a stultiloquio temperaret ; quia non tanta vindicta sumpta fuit de alio Giraldo, fratre sc. Odonis primaevo, pro quo dudum a Rosensibus interempto ducenti vlri et plures de eisdem uno die corruerunt (i. 26-7).

In another of his works, the Itinerary of Wales Gerald recurs to this tragedy on the occasion of his visiting Camrose.6 Kamros, ubi, pro juvenis egregii, Giraldi scilicet filii Guillelmi, nece, multorum caedibus cruentam nimis et gravem, tempore Stephani regis, propinqui

1 The Barrys of Manorbier, descended from Gerald through his daughter, recur in connexion with their neighbours the Carews, both in Pembrokeshire and in Ireland, generations later. 2 Of Hay's Castle (?) 3 Of Carew. Of Manorbier. 5 This supplies the missing word in the previous quotation. 6 To the north-west of Haverfordwest.

et necessarii sui, quanquam minus in hoc necessarii, vindictam in Rosenses exercuerant.1 The death of William Fitz Gerald is placed by his nephew the historian in or about 1174 in a passage which, explaining that it recalled his son Reimund to Wales, would rather suggest, as I hinted at the outset, that Reimund was his heir.2 We now know, however, that this was not the case. Putting together the above evidence, it proves this pedigree

Here I may explain that, having thus satisfied myself of the pedigree, I received from Dr. Owen a copy of his Old Pembrokeshire Families, which he was good enough to send me. This work, which is described on the title-page as compiled in part from the Floyd MSS.,' is a valuable contribution to early genealogy. I glanced at Mr. Floyd's piles of notebooks when they were deposited at the London Library, and saw that they seemed to 'contain,' as Dr. Owen observes, 'a wealth of information as to the families of other counties.' That careful and laborious antiquary' adopted the excellent method of arranging his notes under the names of the families to which they referred. Whether Mr. Floyd was as critical as he was certainly industrious it would not be possible to say without study of his notes; but his collections, now deposited unfortunately for London genealogists in the College Library at Aberystwyth, deserve to be widely known. With regard to Odo de Carreu there are two points, I fear, on which I must differ from Dr. Owen. In the first place he gives as Odo's mother, Katherine, a daughter of Sir

1 Itinerarium Kambriee (Rolls ed.), vi. 99. 2 'Reimundus, ob patris quern audierat obitum, nobilis videlicet viri Guillelmi Giraldidae, remenso pelago in Kambriam recessisset' (v. 310).

Adam de Kingsley, in Cheshire.' This match, I venture to say, is obviously hall-marked as one of those I spoke of in my Studies in Peerage and Family History, where I observed that a Lane, 'under William Rufus, married into one of those "leading families" whose daughters have always been kept in stock at Her Majesty's College of Arms ' (p. xv.). In other words, the marriage must be taken from an old herald's pedigree. The good 'Sir Adam' would have lived about the year 1100, and maybe fitly compared with that Sir Richard Stackpole of whom Dr. Owen writes : There is in the writer's possession a print of one 'Sir Richard Stackpole of Pembrokeshire,' stated (although his looks belie it) to have been 'highly respected in the year 1091.' There is beneath the print a long and entirely inaccurate account of Sir Richard and of his descendants. Sir Richard had no existence. The second point on which I must differ is that Odo de Carreu is always styled 'Odo' (or ( 'Oddo'), and not as Dr. Owen makes it, 'Other,' which was the wholly distinct name of his first known ancestor. A good instance in point is afforded by a charter with which Dr. Owen seems to be unacquainted. This is the confirmation by Peter, Bishop of St. Davids, soon, I think, after 1176, of the dapiferatus of that see to William son of Maurice Fitz Gerald.1 Among the witnesses are : Ricardo de Haerford ; Tanchard filio ejus ; Oddone de Karreu . . .Philippe de Barry.

This is a specially interesting combination, for we here see the three men mentioned together by Giraldus in a passage quoted above, namely Richard (Fitz Tancard, constable) of Ha(v)erford as I should extend the name and his two sonsin- law Odo de Carreu (of Carew) and Philip de Barri (of Manorbier), together with his son 'Tanchard.' As Richard was a military tenant of the see he appears very fittingly among the witnesses to the charter. The above charter may be fittingly followed by that of Robert son of Elidir (of Stackpole) granting Trefduant (St. Edrin's) to St. Davids, for the lay witnesses to that charter are Odone de Carren (i.e. Carreu), Philippe de Barry, Adam de Rupe.'2 According to Dr. Owen's book * Other (sic) soon

1 Fourth Report Historical MSS. App. p. 583. 2 Late transcript in Harl. MS. 1249, fo. 28 (pencil). I am indebted to Dr. Owen's book for this reference. Adam 'de Rupe' was then of Roch Castle.

after his father's death ['1173'], got into trouble with the Welsh, who took from him his castle of Emlyn (sic), but he obtained from Henry II. the manor of Bampton, co. Oxon, so long as the Welsh held Emlyn' (p. 1 3). The reference given for this statement is 'Pipe Rolls, 2 Henry II. [i 156],' but there is not, and could not be, any such entry on the roll of that year. The entry required is on the Pipe Roll of 20 Henry II. (i 174) and refers, not to 'Bampton, co. Oxon,' but to Braunton, co. Devon, under which county it is found. It runs thus : Et Odoni filio Willelmi filii Geroldi (sic) c solidos in Branton' cum pertinentiis de quarta parte anni et amodo xx libras numero per annum in eadem villa in escambio castelli et terra de Emelin quamdiu Resus 1 filius Griffin ea habuerit (p. 89).

Apart from its genealogical value this entry proves that Odo was granted £20 a year from the royal manor of Braunton at Midsummer, 1174, while it implies that he had lost possession of Emlyn. The cantred of Emlyn was a district lying along the left (the south) bank of the Teify above Cardigan. It must have been held by Odo's father, for we find him confirming the gift of a church within it.'2 This leads me to suggest a bold emendation of the printed text of Giraldus, who is made to assert that of the seven cantreds obtained by the children of Nesta, William received Pembroke and 'Ginelin.'3 As there is no cantred of 'Ginelin,' I think we should read ' Emelin.'4 As for 'castellum de Emelin,' it must mean the castle of the district (?Kilgerran). Odo was still drawing from Braunton his £20 a year in 1189,5 but a curious entry on a plea roll of uncertain though later date reads as follows:

Willelmus Peche positus loco Odonis de Karliun (sic) venit in curiam et concessit Sibille de Sumeri c solidatas terre in Chause et faciet ei escambium de feodo i militis in Bramton pro feodo i militis in Emelin unde ipse Odo cepit escambium pro iiij marcis quas ipsa dedit ei.6

1 This was the celebrated Rhys, prince of south Wales, who was at this time on the side of Henry II. 2 In Emlyn ex dono Jordani de Cantitona et confirmatione Willelmi filii Geraldi ecclesiam de Castellan '(Fenton's Pembrokeshire, p. 64). 3 Ed. Rolls Series, i. 59. 4 in ' was easily misread for ' m ' so that only the initial letter requires alteration. 5 Pipe Roll, i Ric. I. 6 Rot. Cur. Reg. i. 374.

We hear again of his land at Braunton in 1201, where he still appears on the Pipe Roll as holding it.1 In this year on 5 January, John had granted to Robert de Secqueville all his rights in Braunton save the 'outhundred' and the land which 'Odo de Karun ' was holding.2 Robert is found, the following Michaelmas, accounting for 100 marcs due for the king's grant.3 Three years later (1204) the sheriff of Devon is ordered to give Robert, further, seisin of that portion of Braunton which Odo had held,4 a concession for which he is subsequently found paying the king 50 marcs and a palfrey.5

Odo was succeeded by his son William, who first appears in conjunction with his father in 1194." When we meet him again in 1207 he has succeeded his father.7 He paid in that year a large sum of money that he might not be impleaded for his land of 'Muleford' (i.e. Moulsford, Berks), which his predecessors, he said, had held since the days ofHenry I. The curtain rises again in 1212, when we find William restored to his 'house' and lands at Carew and to his manor of Moulsford by two documents which have not, I think, been brought together before. They were issued within four days of each

1 Rot. Cane. 3 John, p. 1 5 . It is interesting to observe that on this page he appears, as before, as * Odo filius Willelmi filius Geroldi,' though on p. 24 he is 'Odo de Carrio.' 2 Calendar of Charter Rolls, p. 83b. 3 'Robertas de Secchevilla reddit compotum de c marcis, pro habendo quicquid Rex habet in manerio de Branton' hereditarie excepto uthundredo et excepta terra quam Ode de Carrio tenet in eadem villa q[ue] potest devenire in man[um] Regis' (Rot. Cane. 3 John, p. 24). 4 * Rex . . . vicecomiti Devon' etc. Mandamus tibi quod facias habere Roberto de Sechevilla terram quam Odo de Carro tenuit de nobis in Branton' tenendam quamdiu nobis placuerit reddendo inde nobis annuatim xx libras. . . xix die Jan'(Rot. Lib. p. 77). 5 * Robertus de Sechevilla dat L marcas et I palefridum pro habenda terra que fuit Odonis de Carriou in Branton' reddendo domino Regi per annum xxx (sic) libras sterlingorum' (Fine Ro//[i2o6], p. 349). 6 * Odo de Karrio ponit Willelmum filium suum loco suo versus Gaufridum de Chausi de placito terre de Molesford ' (Berks, Mich. 6 Ric. I. ; Plac. Abbrev. p. I . Compare Rot. Cur. Reg. I. 20). The Chausi family gave name to Mapledurham 'Chausey' some seven miles lower down the Thames on the opposite bank. Emma (de) Chausi had given tithes at Moulsford to Wallingford Priory (Mon. Ang. iii. 280). 7 ' Willelmus de Carrou dat quadraginta uncias auri quod non implacitetur de terra sua de Muleford quam Gillebertus de Cause clamat versus eum per breve de recto, et quia antecessores ipsius Willelmi in pace tenuerunt a tempore Regis Henrici avi patris domini Regis et ipse usque modo, ut dicit' (Fine .&?//[ 1207], p. 414).

other, and are of great importance, for the first proves that William had been in possession of Carew in 1210, and the second establishes his pedigree from the days of Henry I., needing only the slight link which the grant of Redbarth supplies.1 (1). Rex dilecto et fideli suo Falkesio ballivo de Glanmorgan' etc. Sciatis quod reddidimus Willelmo de Carrio domum suum de Carrio cum terris quas habuit die quo venimus ultimo usque Penbroc' ad transfretandum in Hyberniam anno r. n. xij mo . . . xxj die Maii anno xiiij mo2 [21 May, 1212]. (2) Sciatis quod reddidimus et hac carta nostra confirmavimus manerium de Muleford' cum pertinentiis suis quod Henricus Rex avus Regis Henrici patris nostri dedit Geroldo filio Walteri avo Odonis patris predicti Willelmi de Carrio tenendum eidem Willelmo et heredibus suis de nobis et heredibus nostris per servicium I militis . . . xxv die Maii anno r. n. quarto decimo 3 [25 May, 1212].

It would seem that William de Carew obtained this reinstatement by paying a fine to the king, for although the record of it is now lost, it is referred to in that of the heavy fine by which a Somerset baron, William Fitz John de Harptree, seems to have obtained both these estates in the year following (17 Sept. 1213). The same baron is found ten or eleven years later (7 March, 1224) compounding with the king for the fine he had made with King John ( for having the wardship of the land and heir of William de Carew.' 5 Here then at least

1 See p. 19 above. 2 Calendar of Patent Rolls, i. (i) 92. 3 Calendar of Charter Rolls, i. (i) 186. 4 Willelmus films Johannis de Harpetre finem fecit eum domino Rege per quadraginta (sic) marcas et iiij palefridos pro habendis terris Willelmi de Karrio quas h[abe]t citra mare Hiberniae et pro jure quod predictus Willelmus de Karrio clamat de aliis terris citra mare Hiberniae pro quibus idem Willelmus de Karrio finem fecerat cum domino Rege per xl marcas reddendas domino Regi simul cum predictis iiij palefridis infra duos annos . . . et quod scire faciat per literas suas Vicecomiti Bercscir et Falkesio baillivo de Glamorgan in quorum bailliis predictus Willelmus terras suas h[abe]t etc.' (Fine Roll, 1 5 John, p. i, m. 3). The details of the fine prove the amount to have been not 40, but 400 marcs (266, 13s. 4d.). In the first volume of the Calendar of documents relating to Ireland, the reference is wrongly given as 'm. 6,' and 'citra' has been clearly misread as 'ultra,' the whole entry being thus made to relate to lands in Ireland! 5 Willelmus filius Johannis de Harpetre finem fecit cum domino Rege de cc et xx marcis quas domino Regi debet de fine quam fecit cum domino Johanne Rege pro habenda custodia terre et heredis Willelmi de Carrio '(Fine Roll, 8 Hen. III. p. 2, m. 8).

we have definite proof that William de Carew was dead before the close of John's reign. Having brought the pedigree clearly down to this point I might claim to have traced as far as needful of the origin of the Carews, for at this period the genealogist finds himself in smooth water with rolls of many kinds, fines and deeds yearly increasing in bulk. Oddly enough however it is here that difficulty begins, not indeed as to the descent, for of that there can be no question, but as to the details of the pedigree. It has been alleged that William de Carew was succeeded by his son Nicholas, then under age, in 15 Henry III. (I23O-I),1 but William we have seen was dead before Henry's reign, and as early as 1228 (11 July) we read on the Close Rolls: Dominus rex commisit Bertramo de Cryoil manerium de Molesford quod Nicholaus de Carrio de rege tenuit in capite ad se sustendandum in servicio domini regis quamdiu ei placuerit.2

This proves that Nicholas de Carew had before that date succeeded to Moulsford, and subsequent records make it certain that, as indeed the entry suggests, he was actually dead at its date. For the recently published Calendar of Patent Rolls (p. 203) contains the entry (20 Sept. 1228): Dominus rex concessit Bertram de Crioil manerium de Molesford cum pertinenciis quod Nicholaus de Karrio de rege tenuit in capite habendum sibi vel cui assignare voluerit usque ad etatem beredum ipsius Nicholai

And in 1230 (27 December) we read on the Fine Rolls: Johannes Marescallus finem fecit cum Rege per ducentas marcas pro habenda custodia terrarum et heredum (sic) Nicholai de Careho usque ad etatem eorundem heredum (sic) cum maritagio ipsorum heredum (sic). Et Mandatum est Vicecomiti Berk' quod, accepta ab eodem Johanne securitate de predictis cc marcis, de omnibus terris que fuerunt predicti Nicholai in ballia sua, etc.3

Four years later (21 Nov. 1234), John Marshal is excused the balance due from him for the wardship quam quidem custodiam postea reddi fecimus dilecto et fideli nostro Bertrano de Cryoil cui earn prius concesseramus per finem quam inde fecit nobiscum.4

Thus the wardship was restored to Bertram, who had secured Moulsford in right of it, we saw, in 1228. There

1 The Heralds' College Pedigree (C. I, 26), according to Maclean's Sir Peter Carew, App. i. 8 Calendar of Close Rolls, i. 6r. 3 Excerpta e rot. fin. i. 208. 4 Ibid. p. 296.

was clearly a long minority, for a return in the 'Testa de Neville which must be later by several years, contains the entry: Bertram' de Crioill tenet Mallesford ut wardam de ballio regis de hereditate fil' Eudon' (sic) de Karre nee facit scutagium (p. 125).

It is clear therefore that Nicholas de Carew, so far from succeeding his father in 1230/1, being under age at the time, was himself already dead in 1228, leaving, as the records put it, 'heirs,' a word which raises further doubts as to the correctness of the pedigree.1

Indeed, I am bound to point out that it is at present a blank until, some half a century later, we meet with Nicholas de Carew. So far as the Welsh inheritance is concerned, we certainly seem to be on sure ground with the mention of William de Carew's tenure of five fees in the division of the Marshal inheritance (i247),2 but unluckily, on verifying Dr. Owen's reference for the fact Clark, Earls of Pembroke p. 69'I can find nothing there about William or his five fees. Mr. Floyd however may have seen record evidence for the fact. And such evidence for a later date is duly found on the Close Roll of 1325, where we read that the purparty of Laurence de Hastings of Pembroke included 'five knights' fees in Carru, co. Pembroke, which John de Carru holds, of the yearly value of 100 marcs ; five in Maynerbier, in the same county, which John de Barry holds,' etc., etc.3 With Nicholas de Carew living at the close of the thirteenth century we are, in any case, on sure ground for both the English and the Welsh inheritance. This Nicholas, who is found as a witness in 1299 to a Pembrokeshire charter,4 was one of those who, in the parliament of Lincoln, affixed their seal to the letter to the pope, his style being given as 'Nicholas de Carru dominus de Muleford.' Moreover there is plenty of record evidence for his journeys to and from Ireland, where he held the barony of Idrone in the palatinate of Carlow

1 Dr. Owen, I observe, here gives a different pedigree from that which is accepted, and makes William (1212) father of Richard, who ' had an elder son, William Lord of Carew,' in 1 247. But he then proceeds to trace the descent through 'Richard's son, Sir Nicholas de Carew,' who 'died in 1311'(p.14). 2 See The Ancestor, i. 2479, for the value of such evidence. 3 Calendar of Close Rolls, 1323-7. The same record proves that the Stackpole holding was one of five fees. 4 Sloane Charter, xxxii. 14.

(to give it its modern name), 1 as '5 knights' fees, with the appurtenances in Odrone.' 2 Here we have further illustration of that system of the five-knight unit on which, as I have shown, in Ireland as in England, our knight service was based.3 From the kingdom of Jerusalem, indeed, in the east to the lordship of Ireland in the west the two realms which illustrate alike the flow and the ebb of conquest we trace the persistent presence of the five-knight unit. Pembroke and Carlow were both palatinates or at least quasi-palatinates and had both originally formed part of that vast inheritance of the Marshals of which Strongbow had laid the foundations. The Carews held in each of them a 'barony' of five fees, and, in my opinion, 'Baron of Carew,' a style they sometimes bore, was one of those interesting feudal tides which are found in such palatinates as those of Chester and Durham, though it seems to have been held that they were 'barons' also in virtue of their tenure of Idrone.4

At the famous siege of Carlaverock (July, 1300) Nicholas de Carew was present.

Un vaillant home et de grant los O lui Nichole de Kami Dont meintz foiz orent paru Li fait en couvert et en lande Sur la felloune gent dirlande Baniere ot jaune bien passable O trois passans lyons de sable.1

1 The Heralds' pedigree makes him acquire it by marrying the heiress of a mysterious 'Digon, Baron of Odrone,' whom I cannot identify.

2 Inquest of 11 Dec. 1306, in Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, 1302-7, p. 179. Compare p. 173 for inquest of 8 April, 1307, in which he is said to hold 'one barony in Odrone.' After his death it was certified to the king by the escheator of Ireland, 20 May, 1317, that he had, by the king's licence, enfeoffed his son and heir John, in his life, of his lands in co. Carlow, with certain reservations to himself (Irish Close Roll, 10 Edw. II.). 3 Feudal England, p. 259-60. 4 'The country of Odrone, which was a barony, and parcel of the inheritance of the said Sir Peter, and sundry of whose ancestors had been barons of the same ... he was persuaded to have begun his suit against the Kavanaghs for the barony of Odrone, because the same was of his ancient inheritance, a great territory or country, and which carried the title of honour' (Hooker's Life of Sir Peter Carew [Ed. Maclean], pp. 73, 79). In Sir John Maclean's note (p. 2) Idrone itself is described wrongly as * a sort of palatinate formerly belonging to Margaret, Countess of Norfolk.' It was only a barony held of her palatinate or liberty, which was itself Catherlough (Carlow). Forth and St. Mullins were also baronies therein (see p. 48 below).

And half a century later his descendant Sir John de Carew was among the knights who fought in the king's division at Crecy.1 Against Irish felons,' against Scottish rebels, against the foemen of France, the black lions of Carew had gone forth in turn to war.

Difficult as it is to trace, in the thirteenth century, the pedigree of Carew in England and Wales, the difficulty is even greater when we turn to Ireland. We have seen by a record of the year 1213 that William de Carew of Carew and Moulsford was holding at that date lands in Ireland, for these, it implies, were not included in the grant which formed its subject.2 With this clue we search the Cartulary of St. Mary's Dublin, and there we find William 'de Karru' making a grant inter alia 'proanima Domini Reimundi patrui mei.'3 The date of the charter would seem to be about 1210-12. We are thus taken back to the early pedigree of the house.

This pedigree shows at once how Reimund was father's brother (patruus] to William de Carew. The latter's charters are entered in the Cartulary of St. Mary's (i. 106, no, 112, 113, 410, 411), and it is remarkable that one of these 1 (1201/12) grants the vill of 'Balisclothi'in ' Odrone,' and alludes to his own demesne in c Odrone' as well, as if he were already in possession of that barony. The same charter grants a burgage in Tech Moling (or St. Mullins), Carlow, and it is interesting to note that the same cartulary assigns to the gift of his father Odo a messuage in the same place.2 From this last piece of evidence, slender though it is, we may infer that Odo himself received an enfeoffment in Irish lands through the influence of his mighty brother 'the lord Reimund.' Reimund had another brother whom he certainly so enfeoffed. This was 'Griffin,' whose name recalls the Welsh ancestry of the house. Giraldus speaks of him as Reimund's brother,3 and as nephew to Maurice Fitz Gerald,4 and tells us that his dream of a herd of swine attacking his uncle Maurice and Hugh de Laci proved a warning which saved them from a fierce attack by the Irish.5 He appears twice as Griffin filius Willelmi,'6 and although it has been alleged that he died without issue,7 we have two charters of his son Mathew FitzGriffin, to which his cousin William de Carew was a witness.8 That his heirs were legitimate is proved by a document of later date, which is the return of an inquest (6 May, 1290) to the effect that Reimund le Gros had enfeoffed 'Griffin FitzWilliam, his brother, of Fynnore and Kells in Pothered for the service of 2 knights and suit of his court at the castle ot Fothered' 9 (within the liberty of Carlow),10 and that these

1 Vol. i. 113. Compare i. 112. 2 Vol. ii. 98. 3 Erectum est igitur apud Fotheret Onolan primo castrum Reimundo, aliud fratri ejusdem Griffino '(v. 355). For this barony of Forth (in Carlow) compare the inquest in the text. 4 See pedigree. 5 Giraldus Cambrensis, v. 292. 6 Cartulary ofSt. Thomas, Dublin, 113, 114. 7 See the pedigree attributed to Garter Anstis in Maclean's Life of Sir Peter Carew, p. 299. I was myself misled on this point by the pedigree in Mr. Dimock's edition of the Expugnatio, combined with the Harl. Roll, P. 8, which latter is here clearly wrong. 8 Cartulary of St. Mary's, i. 107, 108. 9 Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland, 1285-93, p. 294. 10 See note 3 above and p. 28, note 4.

lands had descended as in the pedigree below. Here then we have yet another branch of the spreading house of FitzGerald, of which the pedigree is this.

The Irish Carews kept alive the name of the lord Reimund, as is seen by the occurrence of Reimund de Carreu and Reimund de Carreu, junior,1 while a 'Tancard de Carreu' owed his name to his descent from the Pembrokeshire Tancards.3 But these early Irish Carews are difficult to place in the pedigree. A Richard for instance had clearly a fief somewhere in Leinster3 and a Robert de Carreu appears among its magnates in 1221 and 1235 in close conjunction with Patrick de Courcy.4 This Robert may have possessed a moiety of the great lordship of Cork, but I cannot assign him a place in the pedigree of the Carews of Carew and Moulsford.5

The origin of the Carews is now certain. They were neither Normans of the house of Montgomery, as alleged in the Heralds' pedigree, nor were they descendants of Italian Gherardini, banished from Florence in the twelfth century4; nor can they 'trace,' as alleged, their descent, ' without interruption, from the Anglo-Saxon period of English history.5' Still less can they claim as patriarch Zuria Lopez of Biscay ; and least of all can we allow them, as the first founder of their race, a comrade of AEneas. But their descent is clear from the Norman Conquest, at the time of

4 The Ancestor, i. 121. 5 See Burke's Peerage, under Carew of Haccombe.

which must have lived Other, their direct ancestor. This Other however has not yet been identified, and had nothing to do, as I have shown, with { a great noble of Aquitaine,'living about 660.'1 I think that I can now even explain the curious but confident belief that the great house of Fitz Gerald was really of Trojan origin. Giraldus, when exalting the glory of his house in Expugnatio Hibernae exclaims: genus ! O gens ! gemina natura a Trojanis animositatem, a Gallis armorum usum originaliter trahens.2

This at first sight might suggest that he believed in their Trojan origin ; and his words probably gave rise to the subsequent assertion thereof. But their real meaning is evident from another passage in his works, in which he writes of Walter of Coutances: Galterius iste ab antiqua et authentica Britonum prosapia Trojanae nobilitatis apicem praeferente.3

Steeped in the legends of Geoffrey of Monmouth, Giraldus traced the Britons to Brut, and Brut himself to Troy. Gerald, founder of the house of Fitz Gerald, having married the daughter of a Welsh prince, his children were 'of Gaul ' on the father's side, but of princely Welsh descent, and therefore of Troy,' on the mother's. Unconscious witness to their 'gemina natura' is borne by Miss Norgate, who writes of Giraldus that 'on both sides he came of a race of fighting men.'4 The Carews are remarkable not merely for possessing a clear pedigree to the Conquest, but for tracing that pedigree through a tenant-in-chier of 1086 and for possessing even under Henry I. so great a territory in south Wales. The preservation of so ancient a house in the male line to the present day is an interesting and very rare phenomenon;5 and it is a fitting object of genealogical inquiry to ascertain whether any bearers of the name beyond the Carews of Haccombe (baronets since 1661) can prove, in the male

1 The Ancestor, ii. 173. 2 Ed. Rolls Series, v. 326. 3 Ibid. iv. 408. 4 England under the Angevin Kings, ii. 453. 5 This assertion is subject, of course, to the uncertainty at present of the pedigree in the thirteenth century spoken of on p. 27 above.

line, their descent from the parent stock.1 Carew of Antony became extinct in the direct male line in 1748, though represented in blood and estate, through heiresses, by Pole-Carew; but the extinction of its whole male stock or even of heirs to its baronetcy (1641) appears to be c not proven.'2 Another branch, the Carews of Crowcombe, which re-acquired the stammhaus, Carew Castle, by grant from Charles I., became similarly extinct in the direct male line in 1766, when their estates passed to an heiress. Carew of Beddington, a well known house, became extinct in the male line as early as 1611 . The family of Lord Carew (in the peerage of Ireland) appears to be allowed by the Heralds the arms, undifferenced, of the ancient house, although no attempt is made to carry its pedigree, even in Burke's Peerage, beyond a Robert Carew living in Ireland under Charles I., who is vaguely described as 'a descendant of the great and ancient family of that name.' This is a claim which would doubtless be made, and prima facie rightly made, by every bearer of the name ; but attention may be called to the fact that an unfortunate gentleman who bears it has been pilloried in a certain notorious work for using the old coat, while Lord Carew's right to it is recognized, although his descent from the ancient house is not, we have seen, vouchsafed. As is well known to experts in genealogy, there is usually great difficulty in connecting the founders of Irish families, in the seventeenth century, with the parent stocks in England. J. HORACE ROUND.

William FitzGerald, Baron of Windsor and Pembroke MP Birth: 	1100 Carru Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales Death: 	1173 (73) Carrucastle in County Pembroke, England Immediate Family: 	

Son of Gerald de Windsor (Constable of Pembroke Castle) and Nest , Princess of Wales Husband of Angh ferch Gruffudd; ? Garrard; Alice FitzGerald and Maria Marrio Fitz Gerald de Carew Father of William FitzWilliam FitzGerald; William Garrard (Garrett); Raymond Fitzwalter FitzGerald, Constable of Leinster; Odo FitzWilliam de Carew; Isabel De Hastings (De Windsor); Griffyth FitzWilliam de Carew; Ida Fitzgerald; Robert Fitzgerald; Silvester Gerard; Ralph Fitzwilliam; Henry Gerard; Richard Fitzwilliam and Mabilia FitzWilliam « less Brother of David FitzGerald, Bishop of St. David's; Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan; Angharad FitzGerald; NN de Windsor; Hadewise de Hastings and 1 other Half brother of Lord Maurice FitzGerald; Henry FitzRoy; Lllewellyn Ab Owain, Prince of Powys and Robert FitzStephen

Please see Darrell Wolcott: Osbwrn Wyddel of Cors Gedol; http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id203.html. (Steven Ferry, August 30, 2020.)

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William FitzGerald, Baron of Windsor and Pembroke's Timeline

Tunbridge, Kent, , England
Carew Castle, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales
Castle, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales, United Kingdom
Eyre, Cheshire, , England
Little Easton, Essex, England, United Kingdom
Age 73
Carew Castle, Carew, Pembrokeshire, Wales