Aelia Galla Placidia Augusta (c.385 - 450) MP

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Birthplace: Istanbul, Turkey
Death: Died in Roma, Tuscia et Umbria (present Regione Latium), Italia Suburbicaria (Present Italy), Roman Empire
Occupation: Empress consort of Constantius III, Western Roman Emperor., impératrice de Rome de 421 à 450, Empress, [Theodosia], Impératrice, Emperess Of Constantinople
Managed by: Jocelynn Oakes
Last Updated:

About Aelia Galla Placidia Augusta

Relationships:

Parents:

  • Father: Theodosius I (b. Cauca, Carthaginensis, Hispaniae, Roman Empire, or present Coca, Provincia de Segovia, Spain, 11 January 347; d. Mediolanum, Liguria, Italia Annonaria, Roman Empire, or present Milan, Region Lombardy, Italy, 17 January 395), Co-Emperor of Rome 19 January 379 to 392, Roman Emperor 392-395.
  • Mother: Galla (youngest child of Emperor Valentinian I, m. 387, d. May 394)

Half-Siblings (according to FMG):

  • 1. Arcadius (377-1 May 408), Co-Emperor of Rome 383-395. Emperor of Rome in the East 395-408. m. Eudoxia (d. 404), Arian converted to Catholicism.
  • 2. Honorius (b. Constantinople 9 September 384, d. 15 August 423), Co-Emperor of Rome 393-395. Emperor of Rome in the West 395-423. m. Maria in 398 and Hermantia in 408, both daughters of Stilicho (Hermantia repudiated before the end of their first year of marriage), and both dying as virgins (marriages unconsummated).

Half-Sibling (according to English Wikipedia):

  • 3. Pulcheria (d. before 385, birth order unknown)

Siblings (according to English Wikipedia):

  • 1. Gratian (died young)
  • 2. John (died with mother during childbirth, according to online encyclopedia "De Imperatoribus Romanis").

Spouses and Children:

  • First husband: Ataulf (or Ataulfo, or Adolphus, d. August/September 416, assassinated under orders by his successor Sigeric - who was murdered a week later by Walia, his successor), King of the Visigoths (410-416). He had 6 children by an earlier wife by the time of his marriage with Galla Placidia in 414 (all of which were killed by orders of King Walia at the start of his reign).
    • 1. Theodosius (b. end of 414, d. before August 415).
  • Second husband: Flavius Constantius (d. 2 September 421), Roman General and eventually Emperor of Rome Constantius III (ruled just over 7 months, starting 8 February 421).
    • 1. Honoria (b. 417/418), her plea to be rescued from marriage with a Roman Senator prompted Attila's invasion of Gaul in 451.
    • 2. Valentinian III (b. Ravenna 2 July 419, d. 16 March 455 after being murdered by Petronius Maximus). Emperor of Rome 423-455.

Basic information:

Birth: Between 388 and May 394.

Baptism: Unknown (but regarded as a devout Christian and patroness/builder of many churches).

Marriages:

  • First Marriage: 414 in Narbo, Nabonensis I, Septem Provinciae, Roman Empire or present Narbonne, Département de l'Aude, Région Languedoc-Roussillon, France. (Roman wedding ceremony was used...)
  • Second Marriage: 1 January 417 in Roma, Tuscia et Umbria, Italia Suburbicaria, Roman Empire or Roma, Provincia Roma, Region Latium, Italy. (Apparently against her will...)

Death: 27 November 450 in Roma.

Burial: Possibly the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna (but this is not certain as her final resting place, despite the name - this was originally to be a Church dedicated to St. Lawrence).

Occupation:

  • Ceremonial title "Nobilissima Puella" or "Most Noble Girl" prior to 408-410.
  • Visigoth hostage, 410-414.
  • Consort of King Ataulf, 414-416.
  • Wife of Flavius Constantius, 417-425
  • Augusta or Empress of Rome, 421-425
  • Regent for Valentian III, 425-437

Alternate Names: Aelia Galla Placidia (Galla Placidia Augusta also used during 421-425, since the name Augusta is actually a title)

Biographical resource (other than Wikipedia or FMG):

http://www.roman-emperors.org/galla.htm

------

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Italy Kings (covering her birth family):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#GallaPlacidiadied450

a) THEODOSIUS (Cauca, near Valladolid 11 Jan 347-Milan 17 Jan 395, bur 8 Nov 395 Constantinople).

  • The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Theodosius was “natione Hispanus, de provincial Gallæciæ, civitate Cauca”[51]. After campaigning with his father, he retired to Cauca after his father was executed.
  • He was named master of cavalry by Emperor Gratian, and led the victory against the Visigoths in Pannonia in end 378[52]. The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ names "Theodosius genitus patre Theodosio matre Thermantia"[53]. Iordanes records the accession of "Theodosius Spanus" as emperor at Sirmium and his reigning for 17 years[54]. He was proclaimed co-Emperor THEODOSIUS I in the East 19 Jan 379 by Emperor Gratian, ruling jointly with the latter and with Emperor Valentinian II until 392. The Chronicon Paschale records that "Theodosius Augustus" was proclaimed emperor "in Sirmio…XIV Kal Feb" by "Gratiano uxoris fratre" and entered Constantinople "VIII Kal Dec"[55]. Ruling first from Thessaloniki, he entered Constantinople 24 Nov 380[56]. The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Valentinianus Gratiani frater et Theodosius imperatores" defeated the rebel "Maximum tyrannum et Victorem filius eius" at Aquileia in 388[57]. Theodosius eliminated the division of the empire, ruling in both east and west after this victory[58]. The Chronicon Paschale records the death "Mediolani…XVI Kal Feb" in 394 (presumably O.S.) of "Theodosius Augustus", and the return of his body to Constantinople and burial "V Id Nov"[59].

m firstly (end 376) PLACILLA, daughter of --- (-Autumn 386).

  • Theophanes names "Placilla" as the first wife of "magnus Theodosius"[60]. Iordanes names "Flacilla" as the first wife of Emperor Theodosius, recording that she died before his second marriage[61]. The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ also names "Flacilla" as the first wife of Emperor Theodosius[62].

m secondly (387) GALLA, daughter of Emperor VALENTINIAN I & his second wife Justina --- (-May 394).

  • Theophanes names "Iustam, Gratam et Gallam" as the three daughters of "Valentinianus senior" and his second wife "Iustinam", adding that "magnus Theodosius" married Galla as his second wife[63]. Iordanes names "Valentinianum…Gratam Iustamque et Gallam" as the four children of "Valentinianus senior" & his second wife, specifying that Galla married Emperor Theodosius after the death of his first wife[64].
  • The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Galla Theodosii regis altera uxor" came to Constantinople in 386[65]. The Chronicle of Marcellinus also records that "Gallia Theodosii uxor" was expelled by "Arcadio privigno suo" in 390[66].
  • She died in childbirth.

Emperor Theodosius & his first wife had three children:

i) ARCADIUS (end 377-1 May 408).

  • Theophanes names "Arcadius…et Honorius" as the sons of "magnus Theodosius" and his first wife[67]. Iordanes names "Archadium Honoriumque" as the children of Emperor Theodosius & his first wife, recording in a later passage that they later divided the empire, Arcadius ruling in Constantinople for 13 years after the death of their father[68].
  • His father proclaimed him co-Emperor ARCADIUS at Constantinople 19 Jan 383. The Chronicon Paschale records that "Arcadius" was proclaimed emperor "Constantinopoli a patre suo Theodosio Augusto in Tribunali Hebdomi…XIV Kal Feb"[69]. The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Theodosius installed “Arcadium filium suum” as emperor in 383[70].
  • He succeeded as Emperor in the East in 395.

ii) HONORIUS (Constantinople 9 Sep 384-15 Aug 423).

  • Theophanes names "Arcadius…et Honorius" as the sons of "magnus Theodosius" and his first wife[71]. The Chronicon Paschale records the birth "V Id Sep" in 384 of "Honorius, Arcadii germanus frater"[72]. The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the birth in 384 of “Honorius filius Theodosii”[73]. Iordanes names "Archadium Honoriumque" as the children of Emperor Theodosius & his first wife, recording in a later passage that they later divided the empire with his brother, Honorius ruling in Rome[74].
  • His father proclaimed him co-Emperor HONORIUS at Constantinople 10 Jan 393, he ruled as Emperor in the West after the death of his father in 395.
  • m firstly (398) MARIA, daughter of STILICO & his wife Serena --- (-[Feb/Mar] 407). Zosimus records that "Honorio principi" married "Stelicho…filiam…ex Serena", naming her "Mariam" in a later passage[75]. Iordanes records that "Stilico…comis…duæ filiæ Maria et Hermantia" were both wives of Emperor Honorius but died as virgins[76].
  • m secondly (408, repudiated end 408) HERMANTIA, daughter of STILICO & his wife Serena --- (-415). Zosimus records that "Imperator…Honorius" married "sororem eius Thermantiam" after the death of "Maria coniuge"[77]. Iordanes records that "Stilico…comis…duæ filiæ Maria et Hermantia" were both wives of Emperor Honorius but died as virgins[78]. The Chronicle of Marcellinus also names the two sisters and records the same information[79].

Emperor Theodosius & his second wife had one child:

iii) GALLA PLACIDIA ([388/early May 394][80]-Rome 27 Nov 450).

  • Theophanes names "Placidia" as the daughter of "magnus Theodosius" and his second wife[81]. Iordanes names "Placidiam" as the daughter of Emperor Theodosius & his second wife, recording in a later passage that she was captured by "Halaricus rex Vesegotharum" and later married his successor "Atauulfo"[82]. The Chronicle of Marcellinus also records that "Placidia Honorii principis sorore" was abducted by "Halaricus" and later married "Athaulfo propinquo suo"[83].
  • The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Ataulfus” married “Placidiam” at Narbonne in 414[84]. Her first husband married her after failing to establish an alliance with Emperor Honorius[85].
  • As part of the peace negotiated by King Walia with the Romans in 416, Galla Placidia was returned to her brother Honorius in early 416[86]. The Chronicon Albeldense names “Ballia” as successor of “Sigericus”, adding that he made peace with Emperor Honorius and returned his sister Placidia to him[87].
  • Iordanes records the marriage of "Constantio patricio" and Placidia after the latter was returned to Rome by Walia King of the Visigoths[88]. Iordanes records that Placidia was created "Augustam" and her son Valentinian "Cæsar" to lead the opposition to Iohannes who invaded the western empire[89].
  • The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the death in 450 of “Valentiniani Imperatoris mater Placidia…apud Romam”[90].

m firstly (Narbonne 1 Jan 414) as his third wife, ATAULF King of the Visigoths, son of --- (-murdered Barcelona [Aug/Sep] 416).

m secondly (1 Jan 417) FLAVIUS CONSTANTIUS, son of --- (-2 Sep 421). He succeeded 8 Feb 421 as Emperor CONSTANTIUS III.

References:

  • [51] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 347.
  • [52] Zosso, F. and Zingg, C. (1995) Les Empereurs Romains (Editions Errance, Paris), p. 169.
  • [53] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XII, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 189.
  • [54] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40.
  • [55] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 561.
  • [56] Zosso and Zingg (1995), pp. 168-9.
  • [57] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 388, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 62.
  • [58] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 170.
  • [59] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, pp. 565 and 566.
  • [60] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88.
  • [61] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40.
  • [62] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XII, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 192.
  • [63] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88.
  • [64] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40.
  • [65] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 386, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 62.
  • [66] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 390, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 62.
  • [67] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88.
  • [68] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 40 and 41.
  • [69] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 562.
  • [70] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 348.
  • [71] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88.
  • [72] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 563.
  • [73] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 348.
  • [74] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 40 and 41.
  • [75] Zosimus, Liber V, 4, p. 250, and 12, p. 261.
  • [76] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 41.
  • [77] Zosimus, Liber V, 28, p. 263.
  • [78] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 41.
  • [79] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 408, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 69.
  • [80] The two dates being that of her parents' marriage and that of her mother's death in childbirth.
  • [81] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88.
  • [82] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 40 and 41.
  • [83] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 410, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 70.
  • [84] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 353.
  • [85] Wood, I. (1994) The Merovingian Kingdoms (Longman), p. 7.
  • [86] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42.
  • [87] Chronicon Albeldense 17, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1133C.
  • [88] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42.
  • [89] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42.
  • [90] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 367.

---

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Toulouse Kings, Dukes, and Counts (covering her first marriage):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/TOULOUSE.htm#AtaulfVisigothdied416

ATAULF, son of --- (-murdered Barcelona [Aug/Sep] 416).

  • Iordanes names "Ataulfo" as "eius [Alaricus rex Vesegotharum] consanguineo" but does not specify the precise relationship[23]. He is first mentioned in 408 in relation to a military campaign in upper Pannonia[24].
  • He succeeded his brother-in-law in 410 as ATAULF King of the Visigoths. Procopius records that Ataulf succeeded on the death of Alaric[25].
  • The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that the Goths left Italy during the reign of “Ataulphus” and occupied “Gallias, ac postea Hispanias”, adding that Ataulf reigned for six years[26]. He led his people out of Italy and established his court at Narbonne[27]. He crossed the Pyrenees into Spain from the Visigoth base in Toulouse with a small army, charged by the enfeebled Roman State in Hispania with expelling the Vandal invaders from the south and the Suevi from the north west[28]. They occupied Barcelona in 414[29].
  • He was assassinated by Dubius or Eberwolf in revenge for the earlier killing of Sarus, the brother of Ataulf's successor Sigeric[30]. The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Ataulfus” was murdered at Barcelona “per quemdam Gothum…inter familiars fabulas” in 416[31].
  • m firstly ---. The name of Ataulf's first wife is not known.
  • m secondly ([410]) --- of the Visigoths, sister of ALARIC King of the Visigoths, daughter of ---.

m thirdly (Narbonne 1 Jan 414) as her first husband, GALLA PLACIDIA, daughter of Emperor THEODOSIUS I & his second wife Galla ([388/early May 394][32]-27 Nov 450).

  • Iordanes names "Placidiam" as the daughter of Emperor Theodosius & his second wife, recording in a later passage that she was captured by "Halaricus rex Vesegotharum" when he attacked Rome and later married his successor "Atauulfo"[33]. The Chronicle of Marcellinus also records that "Placidia Honorii principis sorore" was abducted by "Halaricus" and later married "Athaulfo propinquo suo"[34].
  • Captured by Alaric King of the Visigoths during the sack of Rome in Aug 409, she passed to Ataulf on his accession as king[35]. The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Ataulfus” married “Placidiam” at Narbonne in 414[36]. Her first husband married her after failing to establish an alliance with Emperor Honorius[37].
  • As part of the peace negotiated by King Walia with the Romans in 416, Galla Placidia was returned to her brother Honorius in early 416[38]. The Chronicon Albeldense names “Ballia” as successor of “Sigericus”, adding that he made peace with Emperor Honorius and returned his sister Placidia to him[39].
  • She married secondly (1 Jan 417) Flavius Constantius, who succeeded in 421 as Emperor CONSTANTIUS III. Iordanes records that Placidia was created "Augustam" and her son Valentinian "Cæsar" to lead the opposition to Iohannes who invaded the western empire[40]. The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the death in 450 of “Valentiniani Imperatoris mater Placidia…apud Romam”[41].

King Ataulf & his first wife had six children[42]:

a) six children (-murdered Barcelona [Aug/Sep] 415).

  • Sigesar, Bishop of the Goths, tried in vain to protect these children after their father's death[43].

King Ataulf & his third wife had one child:

b) THEODOSIUS (Barcelona end 414-Barcelona before Aug 415).

  • The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.

References:

  • [23] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 99.
  • [24] Wolfram, H. (1998) History Of The Goths (Berkeley, California), p. 165.
  • [25] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. 1, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), De Bello Persico III.3, p. 318.
  • [26] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 172.
  • [27] Wolfram (1998), pp. 161-3.
  • [28] Payne, S. G. (1973) A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1 - Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century (University of Wisconsin Press), in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, consulted at http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm (15 Dec 2002), Chapter 1, p. 8.
  • [29] Atkinson, W. C. (1960) A History of Spain and Portugal (Penguin 1973), p. 37.
  • [30] Wolfram (1998), p. 165.
  • [31] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 354.
  • [32] The two dates being those of her parents' marriage and her mother's death in childbirth.
  • [33] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 40 and 41.
  • [34] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 410, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 70.
  • [35] Zosso, F. and Zingg, C. (1995) Les Empereurs Romains (Editions Errance, Paris), p. 186.
  • [36] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 353.
  • [37] Wood, I. (1994) The Merovingian Kingdoms (Longman), p. 7.
  • [38] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42.
  • [39] Chronicon Albeldense 17, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1133C.
  • [40] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42.
  • [41] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 367.
  • [42] Wolfram (1998), p. 442, footnote 302.
  • [43] Wolfram (1998), p. 455, footnote 190.

---

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Italy Kings (covering her second marriage):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#Constantiusdied421

FLAVIUS CONSTANTIUS (-2 Sep 421).

  • He succeeded 8 Feb 421 as Emperor CONSTANTIUS III.

m (1 Jan 417) as her second husband, GALLA PLACIDIA, widow of ATAULF King of the Visigoths, daughter of Emperor THEODOSIUS I & his second wife Galla (-Rome 27 Nov 450).

  • Iordanes records the marriage of "Constantio patricio" and Placidia after the latter was returned to Rome by Walia King of the Visigoths[103].
  • The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the death in 450 of “Valentiniani Imperatoris mater Placidia…apud Romam”[104].

Emperor Constantius & his wife had two children:

a) HONORIA ([417/18]-).

  • The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ names "Honoria et Valentiniano" as the children of Placidia Augusta[105]. The order in which the children are named suggests that Honoria was the older child but this is not certain.
  • Iordanes records that Attila unsuccessfully proposed marriage to "Honoriam Valentiniani principis germanam, filiam Placidiæ Augustæ"[106].

b) VALENTINIAN (Ravenna 2 Jul 419-murdered 16 Mar 455).

  • The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the birth "419 V Non Iul" at Ravenna of "Valentinianus iunior…patre Constantio et Placidia matre"[107]. The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ records his birth "VI Non Iul"[108]. Iordanes names "Placidiam" as the mother of "Valentiniani iunioris imperatoris"[109].
  • Iordanes records that Placidia was created "Augustam" and her son Valentinian "Cæsar" to lead the opposition to Iohannes who invaded the western empire, and that after Iohannes was defeated Valentinian was created joint emperor at Ravenna by his maternal uncle[110]. The Chronicle of Marcellinus also records the event, dating it to 424[111]. He succeeded in 423 as Emperor VALENTINIAN III, jointly with his maternal uncle, Emperor in the West. The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Valentinianus iunior" was made emperor at Ravenna in 425[112]. The Chronicon Paschale records that "Valentinianus junior" was named augustus "X Kal Nov" in 425 by "Theodosio juniore Augusto"[113].
  • Iordanes records that Emperor Valentinian was murdered by Maximus who had invaded the empire[114]. The Chronicon Paschale records that "Valentinianus Augustus" was murdered in 455[115].
  • m (29 Oct 437) as her first husband, EUDOXIA, daughter of Emperor THEODOSIUS II, Emperor in the East & his wife Eudoxia --- (422-after 462). The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the betrothal in 424 of "Valentinianus cæsar" and "Theodosii imperatoris Eudoxiam filiam"[116]. Ioannes Malalas records the marriage of "Valentinianus iunior…Constantii Imperatoris et Placidiæ magnæ filius" and "Theodosio…filiam Eudoxiam…ex Eudocia Augusta, Philosophi filia"[117]. Theophanes records the marriage of "Valentinianus Gallæ Placidiæ et Constantini filius" and "Eudoxiam Theodosii imperatoris filiam ex Eudocia coniuge" in 426[118]. Iordanes records the marriage of Emperor Valentinian III in the third year of his reign to "Eudoxiam Theodosii principis filiam", specifying that her father transferred Illyria to the western empire as her dowry[119]. The Chronicon Paschale records the marriage "Constantinopolim…XII Kal Nov" in 437 of "Valentinianus junior Augustus" and "Eudoxia filia Theodosii et Eudocæ Augustæ"[120]. She married secondly ([Mar] 455) Emperor Petronius Maximus. After the murder of her first husband, she was forced to marry his successor, but was captured during the Vandal invasion and taken to north Africa with her two daughters[121]. Iordanes records that "Eudoxia Valentiniani uxore" invited "Gizericus…rex Vandalorum" to Rome from Africa, but was taken back to Africa by him with her two daughters[122]. She was freed in 462[123].
  • Emperor Valentinian & his wife had two children.

References:

  • [103] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42.
  • [104] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 367.
  • [105] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XII, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 192.
  • [106] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 115.
  • [107] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 410, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 70.
  • [108] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XII, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 192.
  • [109] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40.
  • [110] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42.
  • [111] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 424, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 76.
  • [112] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 425, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 76.
  • [113] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 580.
  • [114] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 118.
  • [115] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 592.
  • [116] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 424, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 76.
  • [117] Dindorf, L. (ed.) (1831) Ioannes Malalas, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) XIV, p. 355.
  • [118] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5926/426, p. 142.
  • [119] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42.
  • [120] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 582.
  • [121] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
  • [122] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 43.
  • [123] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 200.

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Appears to be the English Wikipedia page on Galla Placidia:

Galla Placidia was born in 392 and died 27 Nov. 450, daughter of of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I, was the consort of Ataulf king of the Goths and after his death the Empress consort of Constantius III, Western Roman Emperor.

Her brother was Honorius.

Placidia was the daughter of Roman Emperor Theodosius I and his second wife Galla.[1] Her older brother Gratian died young. Her mother died in childbirth in 394, giving birth to John, who died with their mother.[2] Placidia was a younger, paternal half-sister of Emperors Arcadius and Honorius. Her older half-sister Pulcheria predeceased her parents as mentioned in the writings of Gregory of Nyssa, placing the death of Pulcheria prior to the death of Aelia Flaccilla, first wife of Theodosius I, in 385.[3] Her paternal grandparents were Count Theodosius and his wife Thermantia, as mentioned in the "Historia Romana" by Paul the Deacon. Her maternal grandparents were Valentinian I and his second wife Justina, as mentioned by Jordanes.[

First marriage

In the disturbances that followed the fall of Stilicho, throughout the Italian Peninsula the wives and children of the foederati were slain. The foederati were considered loyalists of Stilicho and treated accordingly. The natural consequence of all this was that these men, to the number of 30,000, flocked to the camp of Alaric I, King of the Visigoths, clamouring to be led against their cowardly enemies. Alaric accordingly led them across the Julian Alps and, in September 408, stood before the Aurelian Walls and began a strict blockade.[11] Rome was under siege , with minor interruptions, from 408 to August 24, 410. Zosimus records that Placidia was within the city during the siege. When Serena was accused of conspiring with Alaric, "the whole senate therefore, with Placidia, uterine sister to the emperor, thought it proper that she should suffer death".[12] Her reasons for concurring to the execution of her cousin are not stated in the account.[5]

Prior to the fall of Rome, Placidia was captured by Alaric. Her captivity was recorded by both Jordanes and Marcellinus Comes, though the exact circumstances are not mentioned.[1] She followed the Visigoths in their move from the Italian Peninsula to Gaul in 412. Their ruler Ataulf, having succeeded Alaric, entered an alliance with Honorius against Jovinus and Sebastianus, rival Western Roman emperors located in Gaul. He managed to defeat and execute both Gallo-Roman emperors in 413.[13]

After the heads of Sebastianus and Jovinus arrived at Honorius' court in Ravenna in late August, to be forwarded for display among other usurpers on the walls of Carthage, relations between Ataulf and Honorius improved sufficiently for Ataulf to cement them by marrying Galla Placidia at Narbonne on January 1, 414. The nuptials were celebrated with high Roman festivities and magnificent gifts from the Gothic booty. Priscus Attalus gave the wedding speech, a classical epithalamium. The marriage was recorded by Hydatius.[1] The historian Jordanes states that they married earlier, in 411 at Forum Livii (Forlì). Jordanes's date may actually be when she and the Gothic king first became more than captor and captive.

Placidia and Ataulf had a single known son, Theodosius. He was born in Barcelona by the end of 414. Theodosius died early in the following year, thus eliminating an opportunity for a Romano-Visigothic line.[5][14] Years later the corpse was exhumed and reburied in the imperial mausoleum in St. Peter's Basilica, Rome. In Hispania, Ataulf imprudently accepted into his service a man identified as "Dubius" or "Eberwolf", a former follower of Sarus. Sarus was a Germanic chieftain who was killed while fighting under Jovinus and Sebastianus. His follower harbored a secret desire to avenge the death of his beloved patron. And so, in the palace at Barcelona, the man brought Ataulf's reign to a sudden end by killing him while he bathed in August/September, 415.[15]

The Amali faction proceeded to proclaim Sigeric, a brother of Sarus, as the next king of the Visigoths. According to the The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, the first act of Sigeric's reign "was the inhuman murder" of Ataulf's six children from a former marriage "whom he tore, without pity, from the feeble arms of a venerable bishop." (the later being Sigesar, Bishop of the Goths[16]). As for Galla Placidia, as Ataulf's widow, she was "treated with cruel and wanton insult" by being forced to walk more than twelve miles on foot among the crowd of captives driven ahead of the mounted Sigeric. Seeing the noble widow's sufferings, however, became one of the factors that roused indignant opponents of the usurper, who quickly assassinated Sigeric and replaced him with Wallia, Ataulf's relative.[17]

[edit] Second marriage

Interior of the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna

According to the Chronicon Albeldense, included in the Roda Codex, Wallia was in desperate need of food supplies. He surrendered to Constantius III, at the time magister militum of Honorius, negotiating terms giving foederati status for the Visigoths. Placidia was returned to Honorius as part of the peace treaty.[18] Her brother Honorius forced her into marriage to Constantius III on January 1, 417.[5] Their daughter Justa Grata Honoria was probably born in 417 or 418. The history of Paul the Deacon mentions her first when mentioning the children of the marriage, suggesting she was the eldest. Their son Valentinian III was born on July 2, 419.[19]

Placidia intervened in the succession crisis following the death of Pope Zosimus on December 26, 418. Two factions of the Roman clergy had proceeded to elect their own Popes, the first electing Eulalius (27 December) and the other one electing Boniface I (28 December). They acted as rival Popes while situated in the same city, Rome. Said city was thrown into tumult as both factions clashed. Symmachus, Prefect of Rome, sent his report to the imperial court at Ravenna, requesting an imperial decision on the matter.[20] Placidia and, presumably, Constantius petitioned the emperor in favor of Eulalius.[5] This was arguably the first intervention by an Emperor in the Papal election.

Honorius initially confirmed Eulalius as the legitimate Pope. As this failed to put an end to the controversy, Honorius called a Synod of Italian bishops at Ravenna to decide on the matter. The Synod convened from February to March 419 but failed to reach a conclusion. Honorius decided to call a second Synod in May, this time calling Gaulish and African bishops to participate. In the mean time, the two rival Popes were ordered to leave Rome. However, as Easter approached, Eulalius returned to the city and attempted to seize the Basilica of St. John Lateran in order to "preside at the paschal ceremonies". Imperial troops managed to repel him and on Easter (March 30, 419) the ceremonies were presided by Achilleus, Bishop of Spoleto. The conflict cost Eulalius' imperial favor and Boniface was proclaimed the legitimate Pope as of April 3, 419, returning to Rome a week later.[20] Placidia had personally written to the African bishops, summoning them to the second synod. Three of her letters are known to have survived.[5]

On February 8, 421, Constantius was proclaimed an Augustus, becoming a co-ruler with the childless Honorius. Placidia was proclaimed an Augusta. She was the only Empress in the West, since Honorius had divorced Thermantia, his second wife, in 408 and never remarried. Both titles were not recognised by Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor. Constantius reportedly complained about the loss of personal freedom and privacy that came with the imperial office. He died of an illness on September 2, 421.[21]

--------------------

ID: I21415

Name: Galla Placida of Rome

Given Name: Galla Placida

Surname: of Rome

Name: Galla PLACIDA

Given Name: Galla

Surname: PLACIDA

Name: Aelia Galla PLACIDIA

Given Name: Aelia Galla

Surname: PLACIDIA

Sex: F

_UID: 70C77CB6887AFF48A3B0EA7F8517D64121F0

Change Date: 26 Nov 2005

Note:

Galla Placidia (born around 390; died at Rome November 27, 450) lived one of the most eventful lives of late antiquity. Daughter of the Roman emperor Theodosius I and his second wife, Galla, herself daughter of the Emperor Valentinian I, Galla Placidia was half sister of emperors Honorius and Arcadius.

In either 409 or 410, during Alaric's siege of Rome, she became the captive of the Visigoths, who kept her with them as they wandered through Italy, and later Gaul. She married Athaulf, brother of Alaric, and king of the Visigoths after his death, at Narbo in January 414, although the historian Jordanes states that they married earlier, in 411 at Forum Livii (Forli). Jordanes's date may actually be when the Roman empress and the Gothic king first became more than captor and captive. She had a son, Theodosius, by the Visigothic king, but he died in infancy, was buried in Barcelona, but years later the corpse was exhumed and reburied in the imperial mausoleum in Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome. Athaulf was mortally wounded by a servant of a Gothic chieftain he had slain, and before dying in the late summer of 415, instructed his brother to return Galla to the Romans. It was the Gothic King Wallia who traded her to the Romans in return for a treaty and supplies early in 416.

Her brother Honorius forced her into marriage to the Roman Constantius in January of 417. They had a son who became Valentinian III and his rather more strong-willed sister, Justa Grata Honoria. Constantius became emperor in 421, but died shortly afterwards, and Galla was forced from the Western empire to find refuge at Constantinople. After Honorius died, and after the suppression of Joannes, her son Valentinian was elevated as Emperor in Rome in 425.

At first she attempted to rule in her son's name, but as the generals loyal to her one by one either died or defected to Aetius, imperial policy came to rest in his hands by the time he was made patrician.

Throughout her life Galla remained a devout Catholic, and in her later years endowed or enriched several churches in Ravenna.

A good, modern study of Placidia and the times she lived in can be found in Stewart Irwin Oost, Galla Placidia Augusta, A Biographical Essay (1967).

The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna was one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites inscribed in 1996.

Birth: ABT 363

Death: 450

Father: Theodosius I of Rome b: 11 JAN 346/47 in Cauca, Gallaccia, Spain

Mother: Galla Valentiniana of Rome b: ABT 350

Marriage 1 Constantine III Gratianus of Rome b: ABT 361

Married:

Children

Julia Gratia Honoria
Flavius Valentinian III of Rome b: 2 JUL 419 in Ravenna, Italy
Flavius Julius II

Marriage 2 ALARIC @ I OF THE VISiGOTHS b: ABT 370 in Romania

Married:

Children

Basina of Thuringia b: ABT 398
Theodoric I of the Visigoths b: 390

Forrás / Source:

http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I21415

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http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gala_Placidia

Aelia Galla Placidia (Constantinopla, Entre 388 y 392 – Roma, †27 de noviembre de 450), hija del emperador romano Teodosio I y de su segunda esposa Gala, emperatriz consorte de Constancio III, emperador del Imperio Romano de Occidente y madre de Valentiniano III, emperador de Occidente. Gala Placidia era hermanastra de los emperadores Honorio y Arcadio.

Al fallecer su padre (395), permaneció en Roma junto a su tía Constancia, hija del emperador Constancio II y esposa del emperador Graciano el Joven. En el 409 o 410, durante el sitio de Roma de Alarico, Gala fue hecha prisionera por los visigodos, acompañándolos durante su incursión a través de Italia y Galia, donde Alarico murió ese mismo año.

Se casó con Ataúlfo, cuñado y sucesor de Alarico I, en Narbona en enero del 414, aunque el historiador Jordanes indica que se casaron en el 411 en el foro Livii (Forli). La fecha de Jordanes puede realmente referirse al inicio del romance entre ella y el rey godo, pues algunos historiadores afirman que hubo más amor que política en dicha unión. Ella tuvo un hijo, Teodosio, de Ataúlfo, pero murió a los pocos años y lo enterraron en Barcelona. Años más tarde, el cadáver fue trasladado al mausoleo imperial de la Basílica de San Pedro en Roma. Ataúlfo fue herido mortalmente por un criado de un noble al que había mandado matar, y antes de morir a finales del verano del 415, ordenó a su hermano devolver a Gala a los romanos. Le sucedió Sigerico que fue asesinado a los siete días, aunque tuvo tiempo de matar a los hijos de Ataúlfo y someter a Gala a diversas vejaciones.

Le sustituyó Walia, que organizó una expedición a África para aprovisionarse de víveres, pero fracasó y en el 416 se vio obligado a negociar con Roma. A cambio de una provisión de trigo, Walia se comprometió a devolver a Gala Placidia y a luchar como aliado de los romanos contra los invasores bárbaros de la península ibérica.

Su hermano Honorio la forzó a casarse con el general Constancio, asociado al gobierno del Imperio de Occidente, en enero del 417. De este matrimonio tuvo dos hijos, Valentiniano III y Honoria. Constancio se convertiría en coemperador en el 421, pero murió al poco tiempo.

Su hermano Honorio intentó abusar sexualmente de ella, lo que dio lugar a un gran escándalo público y unido a las acusaciones de que había conspirado contra él en connivencia con los visigodos, hizo que Gala se refugiara con sus hijos en la corte de Constantinopla, donde permaneció hasta la muerte de su hermano en el 423.

Interior del Mausoleo de Gala Placidia en Rávena (Italia).

Tras acabar con la usurpación de Juan y a pesar de las tentativas de Aecio para ayudarlo, su hijo Valentiniano fue coronado emperador de Occidente en el 425 a los 6 años de edad, gobernando Gala como regente desde ese año hasta el 437.

Procuró en un principio gobernar en el nombre de su hijo con la ayuda de generales leales. Sin embargo, Aecio acabó por tener el control de la política imperial. Supuestamente, Placidia hizo las paces con Aecio, quien sería el baluarte frente a la amenaza de Atila.

Murió en Roma el 27 de noviembre del 450.

A lo largo de su vida fue una cristiana devota, y en sus últimos años construyó o enriqueció varias iglesias. Mandó edificar las basílicas de San Juan Bautista y de la Santa Cruz en Rávena. De la segunda sólo queda el oratorio de San Lorenzo, conocido como mausoleo de Gala Placidia. En Roma finalizó la basílica de San Juan Laterano, hoy Letrán.

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Aelia Galla Placidia (c.388 – †27 de noviembre de 450), hija del emperador romano Teodosio I y de su segunda esposa Gala, hija de Valentiniano I, emperador de Occidente. Gala Placidia era hermanastra de los emperadores Honorio y Arcadio.

Al fallecer su padre (395), permaneció en Roma junto a su tía Constancia, hija del emperador Constancio II y esposa del emperador Graciano. En el 409 o 410, durante el sitio de Roma de Alarico, Gala fue hecha prisionera por los visigodos, acompañándolos durante su incursión a través de Italia y Galia, donde Alarico murió ese mismo año.

Se casó con Ataúlfo, cuñado y sucesor de Alarico I, en Narbona en enero del 414, aunque el historiador Jordanes indica que se casaron en el 411 en el foro Livii (Forli). La fecha de Jordanes puede realmente referirse al inicio del romance entre ella y el rey godo, pues algunos historiadores afirman que hubo más amor que política en dicha unión. Ella tuvo un hijo, Teodosio, de Ataúlfo, pero murió a los pocos años y lo enterraron en Barcelona. Años más tarde, el cadáver fue trasladado al mausoleo imperial de la Basílica de San Pedro en Roma. Ataúlfo fue herido mortalmente por un criado de un noble al que había mandado matar, y antes de morir a finales del verano del 415, ordenó a su hermano devolver a Gala a los romanos. Le sucedió Sigerico que fue asesinado a los siete días, aunque tuvo tiempo de matar a los hijos de Ataúlfo y someter a Gala a diversas vejaciones.

Le sustituyó Walia, que organizó una expedición a África para aprovisionarse de víveres, pero fracasó y en el 416 se vio obligado a negociar con Roma. A cambio de una provisión de trigo, Walia se comprometió a devolver a Gala Placidia y a luchar como aliado de los romanos contra los invasores bárbaros de la península ibérica.

Su hermano Honorio la forzó a casarse con el general Constancio, asociado al gobierno del Imperio de Occidente, en enero del 417. De este matrimonio tuvo dos hijos, Valentiniano III y Honoria. Constancio se convertiría en coemperador en el 421, pero murió al poco tiempo.

Su hermano Honorio intentó abusar sexualmente de ella, lo que dio lugar a un gran escándalo público y a que Gala se refugiara con sus hijos en la corte de Constantinopla, donde permaneció hasta la muerte de su hermano en el 423.

Tras acabar con la usurpación de Juan y a pesar de las tentativas de Aecio para ayudarlo, su hijo Valentiniano fue coronado emperador de Occidente en el 425 a los 6 años de edad, gobernando Gala como regente desde ese año hasta el 437.

Procuró en un principio gobernar en el nombre de su hijo con la ayuda de generales leales. Sin embargo, Aecio acabó por tener el control de la política imperial. Supuestamente, Placidia hizo las paces con Aecio, quien sería el baluarte frente a la amenaza de Atila.

Murió en Roma en noviembre del 450.

A lo largo de su vida fue una cristiana devota, y en sus últimos años construyó o enriqueció varias iglesias. Mandó edificar las basílicas de San Juan Bautista y de la Santa Cruz en Rávena. De la segunda sólo queda el oratorio de San Lorenzo, conocido como mausoleo de Gala Placidia. En Roma finalizó la basílica de San Juan Laterano, hoy Letrán.

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gala_Placidia

--------------------

info & pic

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galla_Placidia

--------------------

Later married Roman Emperor Constantius III.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galla_%28wife_of_Theodosius_I%29

The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia is a highly important Byzantine mausoleum in Ravenna, Italy. It is one of the eight structures in Ravenna that were inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1996. As the UNESCO experts reasoned, “it is the earliest and best preserved of all mosaic monuments, and at the same time one of the most artistically perfect”.

http://mosaicartsource.wordpress.com/2007/02/05/galla-placidia-mausoleum-in-ravenna/

-------------------- Placidia was the daughter of Roman Emperor Theodosius I and his second wife Galla. Her older brother Gratian died young. Her mother died in childbirth in 394, giving birth to John, who died with their mother. Placidia was a younger, paternal half-sister of Emperors Arcadius and Honorius. Her older half-sister Pulcheria predeceased her parents as mentioned in the writings of Gregory of Nyssa, placing the death of Pulcheria prior to the death of Aelia Flaccilla, first wife of Theodosius I, in 385.Her paternal grandparents were Count Theodosius and his wife Thermantia, as mentioned in the "Historia Romana" by Paul the Deacon. Her maternal grandparents were Valentinian I and his second wife Justina, as mentioned by Jordanes.

Placidia was granted her own household by her father in the early 390s and was thus financially independent while underage. She was summoned to the court of her father in Mediolanum during 394. She was present at Theodosius' death on January 17, 395. She was granted the title of "Nobilissima Puella" ("Most Noble Girl") during her childhood.

Placidia spent most of her early years in the household of Stilicho the Vandal and his wife Serena. She is presumed to have learned weaving and embroidery. She might have also been given a classical education though no details are known. Serena was a first cousin of Arcadius, Honorius and Placidia. The poem "In Praise of Serena" by Claudian and the "Historia Nova" by Zosimus clarify that Serena's father was an elder Honorius, a brother to Theodosius I. According to "De Consulatu Stilichonis" by Claudian, Placidia was betrothed to Eucherius, only known son of Stilicho and Serena. Her scheduled marriage is mentioned in the text as the third union between Stilicho's family and the Theodosian dynasty, following those of Stilicho to Serena and Maria, their daughter, to Honorius.

Stilicho was the magister militum of the Western Roman Empire. He was the only known person to hold the rank of "magister militum in praesenti" from 394 to 408 in both the Western and the Eastern Roman Empire. He was also titled "magister equitum et peditum" ("Master of the Horse and of Foot"), placing him in charge of both the cavalry and infantry forces of the Western Roman Empire. In 408, Arcadius died and was succeeded by his son Theodosius II, only seven years old. Stilicho planned to proceed to Constantinople and "undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius", convincing Honorius not to travel to the East himself. Shortly after, Olympius, "an officer of rank in the court-guards" attempted to convince Honorius that Stilicho was in fact conspiring to depose Theodosius II, to replace him with Eucherius. Olympius proceeded to lead a military coup d'état which left him in control of Honorius and his court. Stilicho was arrested and executed on August 22, 408. Eucherius sought refuge in Rome but was arrested there by Arsacius and Tarentius, two eunuchs following imperial command. They executed him not long after. Honorius appointed Tarentius imperial chamberlain, and gave the next post under him to Arsacius. Their deaths left Placidia effectively unattached.

In the disturbances that followed the fall of Stilicho, throughout the Italian Peninsula the wives and children of the foederati were slain. The foederati were considered loyalists of Stilicho and treated accordingly. The natural consequence of all this was that these men, to the number of 30,000, flocked to the camp of Alaric I, King of the Visigoths, clamouring to be led against their cowardly enemies. Alaric accordingly led them across the Julian Alps and, in September 408, stood before the Aurelian Walls and began a strict blockade. Rome was under siege , with minor interruptions, from 408 to August 24, 410. Zosimus records that Placidia was within the city during the siege. When Serena was accused of conspiring with Alaric, "the whole senate therefore, with Placidia, uterine sister to the emperor, thought it proper that she should suffer death". Her reasons for concurring to the execution of her cousin are not stated in the account.

Prior to the fall of Rome, Placidia was captured by Alaric. Her captivity was recorded by both Jordanes and Marcellinus Comes, though the exact circumstances are not mentioned. She followed the Visigoths in their move from the Italian Peninsula to Gaul in 412. Their ruler Ataulf, having succeeded Alaric, entered an alliance with Honorius against Jovinus and Sebastianus, rival Western Roman emperors located in Gaul. He managed to defeat and execute both Gallo-Roman emperors in 413.

After the heads of Sebastianus and Jovinus arrived at Honorius' court in Ravenna in late August, to be forwarded for display among other usurpers on the walls of Carthage, relations between Ataulf and Honorius improved sufficiently for Ataulf to cement them by marrying Galla Placidia at Narbonne on January 1, 414. The nuptials were celebrated with high Roman festivities and magnificent gifts from the Gothic booty. Priscus Attalus gave the wedding speech, a classical epithalamium. The marriage was recorded by Hydatius. The historian Jordanes states that they married earlier, in 411 at Forum Livii (Forlì). Jordanes's date may actually be when she and the Gothic king first became more than captor and captive.

Placidia and Ataulf had a single known son, Theodosius. He was born in Barcelona by the end of 414. Theodosius died early in the following year, thus eliminating an opportunity for a Romano-Visigothic line. Years later the corpse was exhumed and reburied in the imperial mausoleum in St. Peter's Basilica, Rome. In Hispania, Ataulf imprudently accepted into his service a man identified as "Dubius" or "Eberwolf", a former follower of Sarus. Sarus was a Germanic chieftain who was killed while fighting under Jovinus and Sebastianus. His follower harbored a secret desire to avenge the death of his beloved patron. And so, in the palace at Barcelona, the man brought Ataulf's reign to a sudden end by killing him while he bathed in August/September, 415.

The Amali faction proceeded to proclaim Sigeric, a brother of Sarus, as the next king of the Visigoths. According to the The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, the first act of Sigeric's reign "was the inhuman murder" of Ataulf's six children from a former marriage "whom he tore, without pity, from the feeble arms of a venerable bishop." (the later being Sigesar, Bishop of the Goths). As for Galla Placidia, as Ataulf's widow, she was "treated with cruel and wanton insult" by being forced to walk more than twelve miles on foot among the crowd of captives driven ahead of the mounted Sigeric. Seeing the noble widow's sufferings, however, became one of the factors that roused indignant opponents of the usurper, who quickly assassinated Sigeric and replaced him with Wallia, Ataulf's relative.

According to the Chronicon Albeldense, included in the Roda Codex, Wallia was in desperate need of food supplies. He surrendered to Constantius III, at the time magister militum of Honorius, negotiating terms giving foederati status for the Visigoths. Placidia was returned to Honorius as part of the peace treaty. Her brother Honorius forced her into marriage to Constantius III on January 1, 417. Their daughter Justa Grata Honoria was probably born in 417 or 418. The history of Paul the Deacon mentions her first when mentioning the children of the marriage, suggesting she was the eldest. Their son Valentinian III was born on 2 July 419.

Galla herself, the former Augusta, was however forced from the Western Empire. Whatever the politics or motivations, the public issue was increasingly scandalous public sexual caresses from her own brother Honorius. This at least was the interpretation given by Olympiodorus of Thebes, a historian used as a source by Zosimus, Sozomen and probably Philostorgius, as J.F. Matthews has demonstrated. Gibbon had a different opinion. "The power of Placidia; and the indecent familiarity of her brother, which might be no more than the symptoms of a childish affection, were universally attributed to incestuous love." Gibbon compares the public caresses to those of Muhammad to his daughter Fatimah, as a "sensual indulgence" without actual incest involved.

With the generals loyal to having either died or defected to Aëtius, Placidia apparently succumbed to the inevitable. Aetius was recalled from exile in 433, given the titles of "magister militum" and "Patrician". The appointments effectively left Aetius in control of the entire Western Roman Army and with considerable influence over imperial policy. She continued to act as regent until 437, though her direct influence over decisions had diminished. She would continue to exercise political influence to her death in 450, no longer however the only power at court. [58]

Aetius, was later pivotal to the defense of the Western Empire against Attila the Hun. Attila was diverted from his focus on Constantinople towards Italy as his target due to a letter from Placidia's own daughter Justa Grata Honoria in the spring of 450, asking him to rescue her from an unwanted marriage to a Roman senator that the Imperial family, including Placidia, was trying to force on her. Honoria had also sent her engagement ring with the letter. Though Honoria may not have intended a proposal of marriage, Attila chose to interpret her message as such. He accepted, asking for half of the western Empire as dowry. When Valentinian discovered the plan, only the influence of Placidia convinced him to exile, rather than kill, Honoria. He also wrote to Attila strenuously denying the legitimacy of the supposed marriage proposal. Attila, not convinced, sent an emissary to Ravenna to proclaim that Honoria was innocent, that the proposal had been legitimate, and that he would come to claim what was rightfully his. Honoria was married to Flavius Bassus Herculanus, though this did not prevent Attila to still press his claim [59]

Placidia died shortly afterwards at Rome in November 450, and did not live to see Attila ravage Italy in 451 – 453 in a much more brutal campaign than the Goths had waged, using Justa's letter as their sole "legitimate" excuse.

-------------------- BIOGRAPHY: b. c. 390

d. Nov. 27, 450

Roman empress, the daughter of the emperor Theodosius I (ruled 379-395), sister of the Western emperor Flavius Honorius (ruled 393-423), wife of the Western emperor Constantius III (ruled 421), and mother of the Western emperor Valentinian III (ruled 425-455).

Captured in Rome when the city fell to the Goths in 410, she was carried off to Gaul and married (414) to the Visigothic chieftain Ataulphus, who was assassinated in 415. In 416 Galla Placidia was restored to the Romans, and the following year she was married to Constantius. She adorned Ravenna with a number of churches; the small chapel usually--though wrongly--known as the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia contains some of the finest examples of early Byzantine mosaics.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- Galla Placida married the Master of the Soldiers Constantius (who ruled briefly as co-Emperor with Honorius, Galla's brother) when he was at the height of his career, and their son Valentinian III reigned in the West. When the Visigoths under King Alaric I sacked Rome in 410, they carried off Galla with them as hostage. She was of course returned, and later went on to rule the empire when her son was very young with the formal title of "piissima et perpetua Augusta mater" which translates to "most pius and eternal Empress."

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Galla Placidia (born around 390; died at Rome November 27, 450) lived one of the most eventful lives of late antiquity. Daughter of the Roman emperor Theodosius I and his second wife, Galla, herself daughter of the Emperor Valentinian I, Galla Placidia was half sister of emperors Honorius and Arcadius.

In either 409 or 410, during Alaric's siege of Rome, she became the captive of the Visigoths, who kept her with them as they wandered through Italy, and later Gaul. She married Athaulf, brother of Alaric, and king of the Visigoths after his death, at Narbo in January 414, although the historian Jordanes states that they married earlier, in 411 at Forum Livii (Forli). Jordanes's date may actually be when the Roman empress and the Gothic king first became more than captor and captive. She had a son, Theodosius, by the Visigothic king, but he died in infancy, was buried in Barcelona, but years later the corpse was exhumed and reburied in the imperial mausoleum in Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome. Athaulf was mortally wounded by a servant of a Gothic chieftain he had slain, and before dying in the late summer of 415, instructed his brother to return Galla to the Romans. It was the Gothic King Wallia who traded her to the Romans in return for a treaty and supplies early in 416.

Her brother Honorius forced her into marriage to the Roman Constantius in January of 417. They had a son who became Valentinian III and his rather more strong-willed sister, Justa Grata Honoria. Constantius became emperor in 421, but died shortly afterwards, and Galla was forced from the Western empire to find refuge at Constantinople. After Honorius died, and after the suppression of Joannes, her son Valentinian was elevated as Emperor in Rome in 425.

At first she attempted to rule in her son's name, but as the generals loyal to her one by one either died or defected to Aetius, imperial policy came to rest in his hands by the time he was made patrician.

Throughout her life Galla remained a devout Catholic, and in her later years endowed or enriched several churches in Ravenna.

A good, modern study of Placidia and the times she lived in can be found in Stewart Irwin Oost, Galla Placidia Augusta, A Biographical Essay (1967).

The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna was one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites inscribed in 1996.

-------------------- Reference: http://familytrees.genopro.com/318186/jarleslekt/default.htm?page=toc_families.htm -------------------- BIOGRAPHY: b. c. 390

d. Nov. 27, 450

Roman empress, the daughter of the emperor Theodosius I (ruled 379-395), sister of the Western emperor Flavius Honorius (ruled 393-423), wife of the Western emperor Constantius III (ruled 421), and mother of the Western emperor Valentinian III (ruled 425-455).

Captured in Rome when the city fell to the Goths in 410, she was carried off to Gaul and married (414) to the Visigothic chieftain Ataulphus, who was assassinated in 415. In 416 Galla Placidia was restored to the Romans, and the following year she was married to Constantius. She adorned Ravenna with a number of churches; the small chapel usually--though wrongly--known as the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia contains some of the finest examples of early Byzantine mosaics.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- Galla was happily kidnapped by Athaulf during the sack of Rome. -------------------- Galla Placida married the Master of the Soldiers Constantius (who ruled briefly as co-Emperor with Honorius, Galla's brother) when he was at the height of his career, and their son Valentinian III reigned in the West. When the Visigoths under King Alaric I sacked Rome in 410, they carried off Galla with them as hostage. She was of course returned, and later went on to rule the empire when her son was very young with the formal title of "piissima et perpetua Augusta mater" which translates to "most pius and eternal Empress."

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Galla Placidia (born around 390; died at Rome November 27, 450) lived one of the most eventful lives of late antiquity. Daughter of the Roman emperor Theodosius I and his second wife, Galla, herself daughter of the Emperor Valentinian I, Galla Placidia was half sister of emperors Honorius and Arcadius.

In either 409 or 410, during Alaric's siege of Rome, she became the captive of the Visigoths, who kept her with them as they wandered through Italy, and later Gaul. She married Athaulf, brother of Alaric, and king of the Visigoths after his death, at Narbo in January 414, although the historian Jordanes states that they married earlier, in 411 at Forum Livii (Forli). Jordanes's date may actually be when the Roman empress and the Gothic king first became more than captor and captive. She had a son, Theodosius, by the Visigothic king, but he died in infancy, was buried in Barcelona, but years later the corpse was exhumed and reburied in the imperial mausoleum in Saint Peter's Basilica, Rome. Athaulf was mortally wounded by a servant of a Gothic chieftain he had slain, and before dying in the late summer of 415, instructed his brother to return Galla to the Romans. It was the Gothic King Wallia who traded her to the Romans in return for a treaty and supplies early in 416.

Her brother Honorius forced her into marriage to the Roman Constantius in January of 417. They had a son who became Valentinian III and his rather more strong-willed sister, Justa Grata Honoria. Constantius became emperor in 421, but died shortly afterwards, and Galla was forced from the Western empire to find refuge at Constantinople. After Honorius died, and after the suppression of Joannes, her son Valentinian was elevated as Emperor in Rome in 425.

At first she attempted to rule in her son's name, but as the generals loyal to her one by one either died or defected to Aetius, imperial policy came to rest in his hands by the time he was made patrician.

Throughout her life Galla remained a devout Catholic, and in her later years endowed or enriched several churches in Ravenna.

A good, modern study of Placidia and the times she lived in can be found in Stewart Irwin Oost, Galla Placidia Augusta, A Biographical Essay (1967).

The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna was one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites inscribed in 1996.

-------------------- Impératrice de Rome (421-450) -

Keizerin van Rome (421-450) -

Empress of Rome (421-450)

"Placidia Imperatrix Romae" (Latin) -------------------- Aelia Galla Placidia (c. 388 - November 27 , 450 ) was the daughter of Roman Emperor Theodosius I and his second wife Galla , who herself was daughter of the Emperor Valentinian I , Galla Placidia was half sister of emperors Honorius and Arcadius .

She had spent much time in the household of Stilicho the Vandal and his wife Serena . Stilicho was effectively the military steward of the West, and according to himself also of the East. He was executed by Honorius, however, in 408 causing most of the non-Italians in Roman service to go over to Visigoth chieftain Alaric I - who promptly invaded Italy. In either 409 or 410, during Alaric 's siege of Rome , Galla became the captive of the Visigoths, who kept her with them as they sacked Rome (for three days beginning August 24 , 410 ), then wandered through Italy where Alaric died in the same year, and later Gaul .

She married Athaulf , brother-in-law of Alaric, and king of the Visigoths after Alaric's death, at Narbo in January 414 , although the historian Jordanes states that they married earlier, in 411 at Forum Livii (Forlì ). Jordanes's date may actually be when she and the Gothic king first became more than captor and captive. She had a son, Theodosius, by the Visigothic king, but he died in infancy and was buried in Barcelona . Years later the corpse was exhumed and reburied in the imperial mausoleum in Saint Peter's Basilica , Rome. Athaulf was mortally wounded by a servant of a Gothic chieftain he had slain, and before dying in the late summer of 415 , instructed his brother to return Galla to the Romans. It was the Gothic King Wallia who traded her to the Romans in return for a treaty and supplies early in 416 .

Her brother Honorius forced her into marriage to the Roman Constantius in January of 417 . They had a son who became Valentinian III , and a rather more strong-willed daughter, Justa Grata Honoria . Constantius became emperor in 421 , but died shortly afterwards. Galla herself, the former Augusta, was however forced from the Western empire. Whatever the politics or motivations, the public issue was increasingly scandalous public sexual caresses from her own brother Honorius. She left with her young children to find refuge at Constantinople . After Honorius died in 423 , and after the suppression of Joannes despite his ally Aëtius ' attempt to raise troops to his aid, her son Valentinian was elevated as Emperor in Rome in 425 .

At first she attempted to rule in her son's name, but as the generals loyal to her one by one either died or defected to Aëtius, imperial policy came to rest in his hands by the time he was made patrician. Placidia apparently was the one who made peace with Aetius - he later was pivotal to the defense of the Western Empire against Attila the Hun - who was diverted from his focus on Constantinople towards Italy as his target due to a foolish letter from Placidia's own daughter, Justa Grata Honoria , in spring 450 , asking him to rescue her from an unwanted marriage to a senator that the Imperial family, including Placidia, was trying to force on her. Placidia's last notable public act was to convince her son Valentinian III to exile rather than kill Honoria for this. She died shortly afterwards at Rome in November 450, and did not live to see Attila ravage Italy in 451 -453 in a much more brutal campaign than the Goths had waged, using Justa's letter as their sole "legitimate" excuse.

Throughout her life Galla remained a devout Catholic , and in her later years endowed or enriched several churches in Ravenna . Her Mausoleum in Ravenna was one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites inscribed in 1996 . Galla married Alaric I , de Thuringia.9

http://www.ffish.com/family_tree/Descendants_Valerius_Licinianus/D1.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galla_Placidia

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Aelia Galla Placidia Augusta's Timeline

373
373
(Probably Present Germany)
385
385
Istanbul, Turkey
411
411
Age 26
414
January 1, 414
Age 29
Narbona, Francia
November, 414
Age 29
Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
416
April 7, 416
Age 31
Ravenna, Italy
417
417
Age 32
Rome, Lazio, Italy
419
July 2, 419
Age 34
Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
450
November 27, 450
Age 65
Roma, Tuscia et Umbria (present Regione Latium), Italia Suburbicaria (Present Italy), Roman Empire
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