Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President of the USA

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Benjamin Harrison, VI

Nicknames: "23rd President of the United States"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: North Bend, Hamilton, Ohio, United States
Death: Died in Indianapolis, Marion, Indiana, United States
Place of Burial: Buried at Crown Hill Cemetery, Indianapolis, Indiana
Immediate Family:

Son of Rep. John Scott Harrison and Elizabeth Ramsey Harrison
Husband of Caroline Lavinia Harrison and Mary Scott Harrison
Father of Russell Benjamin Harrison; Mary Scott McKee; (stillborn daughter) Harrison and Elizabeth Walker
Brother of Archibald Irwin Harrison; Mary Jane Irwin Harrison; Anna Symmes Harrison; John Irwin Harrison, Jr.; Anna Symmes Harrison and 5 others
Half brother of Elizabeth Short Harrison; William Henry Harrison and Sarah Lecretia Harrison

Occupation: 23rd President of the United States, 23rd President of the United States of America
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Benjamin Harrison, VI

Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was the 23rd President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. Harrison was born in North Bend, Ohio, and at age 21 moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he became a prominent state politician. During the American Civil War Harrison served as a Brigadier General in the XXI Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, but was later elected to the U.S. Senate from that state.

Harrison, a Republican, was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, Grover Cleveland. He is the only president elected from the state of Indiana. His presidential administration is best known for its economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act, and for annual federal spending that reached one billion dollars for the first time. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress", and used the issue, along with the growing unpopularity of the high tariff, to defeat the Republicans, both in the 1890 mid-term elections and in Harrison's bid for re-election in 1892.

After failing to win reelection he returned to private life at his home in Indianapolis where he remarried, wrote a book, and later represented the Republic of Venezuela in an international case against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1900 he traveled to Europe as part of the case and, after a brief stay, returned to Indianapolis where he died the following year from complications arising from influenza.

Family and education

The Harrisons were among the First Families of Virginia, with their presence in the New World dating back to the arrival of an Englishman, named Benjamin Harrison, at Jamestown, Virginia in 1630. The future president Benjamin was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, as the second of eight children of John Scott Harrison (later a U.S. Congressman from Ohio) and Elizabeth Ramsey Irwin. Benjamin was a grandson of President William Henry Harrison and great-grandson of revolutionary leader and former Virginia governor Benjamin Harrison V.[1] Harrison was seven years old when his grandfather was elected President, but he did not attend the inauguration.[2] Although Harrison's family was old and distinguished, he did not grow up in a wealthy household, as most of John Scott Harrison's farm income was expended on his children's education.[3] Despite the meager income, Harrison's boyhood was enjoyable, with much of it spent outdoors fishing or hunting.[4]

Benjamin Harrison's early schooling took place in a one-room schoolhouse near his home, but he was later provided with a tutor to help him with college preparatory studies.[5] Harrison and his brother, Irwin, enrolled in Farmer's College near Cincinnati, Ohio in 1847.[6] Harrison attended the college for two years.[7] In 1850, he transferred to Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where he was a member of the fraternity Phi Delta Theta and graduated in 1852.[8] Harrison attended Miami University with John Alexander Anderson,[9] who would become a six term congressman, and Whitelaw Reid, who would be Harrison's vice presidential candidate in his reelection campaign. While attending Miami University, was greatly influenced by one his professors, Robert Hamilton Bishop, who instructed him in history and political economy.[10] At Miami, Harrison joined a Presbyterian church and, like his mother, he would remain a member for the rest of his life.[11] After completing college Harrison took up the study of law in the Cincinnati law office of Storer & Gwynne, but before completing his law studies he returned to Oxford to marry.[12]

While at Farmer's College, Harrison met Caroline Lavinia Scott, the daughter of the University's president, John W. Scott, a Presbyterian minister.[13] On October 20, 1853, they married in Oxford, Ohio, with Caroline's father performing the ceremony. [9] The Harrisons had two children, Russell Benjamin Harrison (August 12, 1854 – December 13, 1936) and Mary "Mamie" Scott Harrison McKee (April 3, 1858 – October 28, 1930).[14]

[edit] Early legal career After his marriage in 1853, Harrison returned to live on his father's farm where he finished his law studies. In the same year, he inherited $800 after the death of an aunt, using the money to move to Indianapolis, Indiana in 1854.[15] He was admitted to the bar there and began practicing law in the office of John H. Ray. The same year he became a crier for the Federal Court in Indianapolis, making $2.50 per day. He was responsible for passing through the streets and declaring announcements from the court.[14]

While in Indianapolis, Benjamin Harrison was both the first President of the University Club, a private gentlemen's club, and the first President of the Phi Delta Theta Alumni Club of Indianapolis, the fraternity's first such club. Both clubs were still in existence in 2008.[16] Harrison grew up in a Whig household and was himself a supporter of Whig politics in his early life. He joined the Republican Party shortly after its formation in 1856 and that year campaigned on behalf of the Republican presidential candidate John C. Frémont.[17] He won election to become Indianapolis City Attorney in the same election, a position that paid an annual salary of $400.[18]

In 1858 Harrison entered into a law partnership, opening an office as Wallace & Harrison.[19] Harrison was the Republican candidate for the position of reporter of the Indiana Supreme Court in 1860, his first foray into politics. Although this office was not political, he was an active supporter of his party's platform. During the election he debated Thomas Hendricks, the Democratic candidate for governor and future Vice President of the United States, on behalf of the Republican Party.[20] After his law partner William Wallace was elected county clerk in 1860, Harrison opened a new firm with William Fishback, named Fishback & Harrison, where he worked until his entry into the army.[21]

[edit] Civil War


Brig. Gen. Benjamin HarrisonAt the outbreak of the Civil War, Harrison wished to join the Union Army, but initially resisted, as he was concerned that his young family would need his financial support.[22] In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issued a call for more recruits. While visiting Governor Oliver Morton, Harrison found him distressed over the shortage of men answering the latest call. Harrison told the governor, "If I can be of any service, I will go".[23] Morton then asked Harrison if he could help to recruit a regiment, though he would not ask him to serve. Harrison proceeded to raise a regiment, recruiting throughout northern Indiana. Morton offered its command to Harrison, but he declined because of his lack of military experience, and instead was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant. In August 1862, when the regiment left Indiana to join the Union Army at Louisville, Kentucky, Harrison was promoted by Morton to the rank of Colonel, and his regiment was commissioned as the 70th Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry.[24]

The 70th Indiana first saw action in the Battle of Perryville, but spent most of the next two years performing reconnaissance duty and guarding railroads in Kentucky and Tennessee. In 1864, Harrison and his regiment joined William T. Sherman's Atlanta Campaign and moved to the front lines. On January 2, 1864, Harrison was promoted to command the 1st Brigade of the 1st Division of the XXI Army Corps. He commanded the brigade at the Battles of Resaca, Cassville, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, Kennesaw Mountain, Marietta, Peachtree Creek and Atlanta. Harrison was later transferred to the Army of the Cumberland and participated in the Battle of Nashville.[25] On March 22, 1865, Harrison earned his final promotion, to the rank of Brigadier General, and marched in the Grand Review in Washington, D.C. before mustering out of the army on June 8, 1865.[25]

[edit] Post-war career

[edit] Indiana politics While serving in the army in October 1864, Harrison was reelected reporter of the Supreme Court of Indiana and served four more years.[26] The position was not politically powerful, but did afford Harrison a steady income.[26] Harrison's public profile was raised when President Grant appointed him to represent the federal government in a civil claim brought by Lambdin P. Milligan, whose wartime conviction for treason had been reversed by the Supreme Court. Due to Harrison's advocacy, the damages awarded against the government were minimal.[27] Local Republicans urged Harrison to run for Congress, but he initially confined his political activities to speaking on behalf of other Republican candidates, a task for which he received high praises from his colleagues.[28]


Benjamin Harrison Home in IndianapolisIn 1872, Harrison entered the race for the Republican nomination for governor of Indiana. He was unable to get the support of former Governor Oliver Morton, who favored his opponent, Thomas M. Browne, and ultimately Harrison lost his bid for statewide office.[29] Harrison returned to his law practice where, despite the Panic of 1873, he was financially successful enough to build a grand new home in Indianapolis in 1874.[30] He continued to make speeches on behalf of Republican candidates and policies.[31]

In 1876 Harrison did not initially seek his party's nomination for governor, but when the original nominee dropped out of the race, Harrison accepted the Republicans' invitation to take his place on the ticket.[32] His campaign was based strongly on economic policy, and he was in favor of deflating the national currency. His policies proved popular with his base, but he was ultimately defeated by a plurality to James D. Williams, losing by 5,084 votes out of a total 434,457 cast.[33] Harrison remained a prominent Republican in Indiana following his defeat, and when the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 reached Indianapolis, he helped to mediate between the workers and management and to preserve public order.[34]

When Senator Morton died in 1878, the Republicans nominated Harrison to run for the seat, but the party failed to gain a majority in the state legislature, and the Democratic majority elected Daniel W. Voorhees instead.[35] President Hayes appointed Harrison to the Mississippi River Commission in 1879, which was founded to facilitate internal improvements on that river.[36] He was a delegate at the 1880 Republican National Convention the following year.[37]

[edit] United States Senator


Walter Q. Gresham, Harrison's rival within the Indiana Republican PartyAfter Harrison led the Republican delegation to the National Convention, he was again mentioned as a possible Senate candidate.[38] He gave speeches in favor of Garfield in Indiana and New York, further raising his profile in the party. When the Republicans retook the state legislature, Harrison's election to the Senate was threatened by his intra-party rival Judge Walter Q. Gresham, but the contest was decided in favor of Harrison.[38] After President James Garfield's victory in 1880, Harrison was offered a cabinet position, but he declined in order to begin his term as senator.[39]

Harrison served in the Senate from March 4, 1881, to March 4, 1887. He was chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard (47th Congress) and U.S. Senate Committee on Territories (48th and 49th Congresses).[40] The major issue confronting Senator Harrison in 1881 was the budget surplus. Democrats wished to reduce the tariff, thus limiting the amount of money the government took in; Republicans instead wished to spend the money on internal improvements and pensions for Civil War veterans. Harrison took his party's side and advocated for generous pensions for veterans and their widows.[41] Harrison also supported, unsuccessfully, aid for education of Southerners, especially the children of the slaves freed in the Civil War, believing that education was necessary to make the white and black populations truly equal in political and economic power.[42] Harrison differed from his party in opposing the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, believing that it violated existing treaties with China.[43]

In 1884, Harrison and Gresham again opposed each other, this time for influence at the 1884 Republican National Convention.[44] The delegation ended up supporting James G. Blaine, the eventual nominee.[44] In the Senate, Harrison achieved passage of his Dependent Pension Bill only to see it vetoed by President Grover Cleveland.[45] His efforts to further the admission of new western states were stymied by Democrats, who feared that the new states would elect Republicans to Congress.[45]

In 1885, the Democrats redistricted the Indiana state legislature, which resulted in an increased Democratic majority in 1886, despite an overall Republican majority statewide.[46] Harrison was defeated in his bid for reelection, the result being determined against him after a deadlock in the state senate, with the legislature eventually choosing Democrat David Turpie.[47] Harrison returned to Indianapolis and his law practice, but stayed active in state and national politics.[48]

[edit] Election of 1888 Main article: United States presidential election, 1888

[edit] Nomination


Harrison-Morton campaign poster


Inauguration of Benjamin Harrison, March 4, 1889


Results of the 1888 election, with states won by Harrison in red, and those won by Cleveland in blue. The initial favorite for the Republican nomination was the previous nominee, James G. Blaine of Maine. After Blaine wrote several letters denying any interest in the nomination, his supporters divided among other candidates, with John Sherman of Ohio as the leader among them.[49] Others, including Chauncey Depew of New York, Russell Alger of Michigan, and Harrison's old nemesis Walter Q. Gresham, now a federal appellate court judge in Chicago, also sought the delegates' support at the 1888 Republican National Convention.[49] Blaine did not choose any of the candidates as a successor, so none entered the convention with a majority of the Blaine supporters.

Harrison placed fourth on the first ballot, with Sherman in the lead, and the next few ballots showed little change.[50] The Blaine supporters shifted their support around among the candidates they found acceptable, and when they shifted to Harrison, they found a candidate who could attract the votes of many delegates.[51] He was nominated on the eighth ballot by 544 to 108 votes, winning the Republican presidential nomination.[52] Levi P. Morton of New York was chosen as his running mate.[53]

[edit] Election over Cleveland Harrison's opponent in the general election was incumbent President Grover Cleveland. He ran a front-porch campaign, typical of the era, in which the candidate does not campaign but only receives delegations and makes pronouncements from his home town.[54] The Republicans campaigned heavily on the issue of protective tariffs, turning out protectionist voters in the important industrial states of the North. The election focused on the swing states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Harrison's home state of Indiana.[55] Harrison and Cleveland split these four states, with Harrison winning by means of notoriously fraudulent balloting in New York and Indiana.[56] Voter turnout was 79.3% because of a large interest in the campaign issue, and nearly eleven million votes were cast.[57] Although Harrison received 90,000 fewer popular votes than Cleveland, he carried the Electoral College 233 to 168.[58]

Although he had made no political bargains, his supporters had given many pledges upon his behalf. When Boss Matthew Quay of Pennsylvania, who rebuffed for a Cabinet position for his political support during the convention, heard that Harrison ascribed his narrow victory to Providence, Quay exclaimed that Harrison would never know "how close a number of men were compelled to approach...the penitentiary to make him President."[59] Harrison was known as the Centennial President because his inauguration celebrated the centenary of the first inauguration of George Washington in 1789.[60]

[edit] Presidency 1889–1893

[edit] Civil service reform and pensions


Political footballCivil service reform was a prominent issue following Harrison's election. Harrison had campaigned as a supporter of the merit system, as opposed to the spoils system.[61] Although some of the civil service had been classified under the Pendleton Act by previous administrations, Harrison spent much of his first months in office deciding on political appointments.[62] Congress was widely divided on the issue and Harrison was reluctant to address the issue in hope of preventing the alienation of either side. The issue became a political football of the time and was immortalized in a cartoon captioned "What can I do when both parties insist on kicking?"[63] Harrison appointed Theodore Roosevelt and Hugh Smith Thompson, both reformers, to the Civil Service Commission, but otherwise did little to further the reform cause.[64]

Harrison quickly saw the enactment of the Dependent and Disability Pension Act in 1890, a cause he had championed while in Congress.[65] In addition to providing pensions to disabled Civil War veterans (regardless of the cause of their disability,) the Act depleted some of the troublesome federal budget surplus.[65] Pension expenditures reached $135 million under Harrison, the largest expenditure of its kind to that point in American history, a problem exacerbated by Pension Bureau commissioner James R. Tanner's expansive interpretation of the pension laws.[65]

[edit] Tariff


Harrison and the Billion-Dollar Congress are portrayed as wasting the surplus in this cartoon from Puck.The issue of tariff levels had been a major point of contention in American politics since before the Civil War, and tariffs became the most prominent issue of the 1888 election.[66] The high tariff rates had created a surplus of money in the Treasury, which led many Democrats (as well as the growing Populist movement) to call for lowering the rates.[67] Most Republicans wished the rates to remain high, and to spend the surplus on internal improvements as well as the elimination of some internal taxes.[67]

Representative William McKinley and Senator Nelson W. Aldrich framed the McKinley Tariff that would raise the tariff even higher, including making some rates intentionally prohibitive.[68] At Secretary of State James Blaine's urging, Harrison attempted to make the tariff more acceptable by urging Congress to add reciprocity provisions, which would allow the President to reduce rates when other countries reduced their rates on American exports.[66] The tariff was removed from imported raw sugar, and sugar growers in the United States were given a two cent per pound subsidy on their production.[68] Even with the reductions and reciprocity, the McKinley Tariff enacted the highest average rate in American history, and the spending associated with it contributed to the reputation of the Billion-Dollar Congress.[66]

[edit] Antitrust laws


Senator John Sherman worked closely with Harrison, writing bills regulating monopolies and monetary policy.Members of both parties were concerned with the growth of the power of trusts and monopolies, and one of the first acts of the 51st Congress was to pass the Sherman Antitrust Act, sponsored by Senator John Sherman of Ohio.[69] The Act passed by wide margins in both houses, and Harrison signed it into law.[69] The Sherman Act was the first Federal act of its kind, and marked a new use of federal government power.[70] While Harrison approved of the law and its intent, there is no evidence he ever sought to enforce it very vigorously.[71] The government successfully concluded only one case during Harrison's time in office (against a Tennessee coal company),[72] although it did pursue cases against several other trusts.[71]

[edit] Silver One of the most volatile issues of the 1880s was whether the currency should be backed by gold and silver, or by gold alone.[73] The issue cut across party lines, with western Republicans and southern Democrats joining together in the call for the free coinage of silver, and both parties' representatives in the northeast holding firm for the gold standard.[74] Because silver was worth less than its legal equivalent in gold, taxpayers paid their government bills in silver, while international creditors demanded payment in gold, resulting in a depletion of the nation's gold supply.[74] Owing to worldwide deflation in the late nineteenth century, however, a strict gold standard had resulted in reduction of incomes without the equivalent reduction in debts, pushing debtors and the poor to call for silver coinage as an inflationary measure.[74]

The silver coinage issue had not been much discussed in the 1888 campaign, so Harrison's exact position on the issue was initially unclear, but his appointment of a silverite Treasury Secretary, William Windom, encouraged the free silver supporters.[75] Harrison attempted to steer a middle course between the two positions, advocating a free coinage of silver, but at its own value, not at a fixed ratio to gold.[76] This served only to disappoint both factions. In July 1890, Senator Sherman achieved passage of a compromise bill, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, in both houses.[76] Harrison thought that the bill would end the controversy, and he signed it into law.[77] The effect of the bill, however, was the increased depletion of the nation's gold supply, a problem that would persist until the second Cleveland administration resolved it.[78]

[edit] Technology In Harrison's time in office, the United States was continuing to experience advances in science and technology. Harrison was the earliest President whose voice is known to be preserved. That thirty-six-second recording (help·info) was originally made on a wax phonograph cylinder in 1889 by Giuseppe Bettini.[79] Harrison also had electricity installed in the White House for the first time by Edison General Electric Company, but he and his wife would not touch the light switches for fear of electrocution and would often go to sleep with the lights on.[80]

[edit] Foreign policy The First International Conference of American States met in Washington in 1889, establishing an information center that later became the Pan American Union.[81] The conference failed to achieve any diplomatic breakthrough, but that failure led the Secretary of State Blaine to focus on tariff reciprocity with Latin American nations, which was more successful.[82] Harrison sent Frederick Douglass as ambassador to Haiti, but failed in his attempts to establish a naval base there.[83]

The first international crisis Harrison had to face occurred over fishing rights on the Alaskan coast. Canada claimed fishing and sealing rights around many of the Aleutian Islands, in violation of U.S. law.[84] As a result, the United States Navy seized several Canadian ships.[84] In 1891, the administration began negotiations with the British that would eventually lead to a compromise over fishing rights after international arbitration, with the British government paying compensation in 1898.[85]


Sailors from the USS Baltimore caused the major foreign affairs crisis of Harrison's administration.In 1891, a diplomatic crisis arose in Chile, later called the Baltimore Crisis. The American minister to Chile, Patrick Egan, granted asylum to Chileans who were seeking refuge from Chilean Civil War.[86] This raised tensions between Chile and the United States, and when sailors from the Baltimore took shore leave in Valparaiso, a fight broke out, resulting in the deaths of two dozen American sailors and three dozen arrested.[87] With Blaine out of town, Harrison himself drafted a demand for reparations.[88] The Chilean minister of foreign affairs replied that Harrison's message was "erroneous or deliberately incorrect," and said that the Chilean government was treating the affair the same as any other criminal matter.[88] Tensions increased as Harrison threatened to break off diplomatic relations unless the United States received a suitable apology.[88] Ultimately, after Blaine returned to the capital, the administration made conciliatory overtures to the Chilean government. After the letter was withdrawn, war was averted.[89]

In the last days of his administration, Harrison dealt with the issue of Hawaiian annexation. Following a coup d'état against Queen Liliuokalani, the new government of Hawaii led by Sanford Dole petitioned for annexation by the United States.[90] Harrison was interested in expanding American influence in Hawaii and in establishing a naval base at Pearl Harbor but had not previously expressed an opinion on annexing the islands.[91] The United States consul in Hawaii John L. Stevens recognized the new government on February 1, 1893 and forwarded their proposals to Washington. With just one month left before leaving office, the administration signed a treaty on February 14 and submitted it to the Senate the next day with Harrison's recommendation.[90] The Senate failed to act, and President Cleveland withdrew the treaty shortly after taking office.[92]

[edit] Cabinet The Harrison Cabinet Office Name Term


President Benjamin Harrison 1889–1893 Vice President Levi P. Morton 1889–1893


Secretary of State James G. Blaine 1889–1892 John W. Foster 1892–1893


Secretary of Treasury William Windom 1889–1891 Charles W. Foster 1891–1893


Secretary of War Redfield Proctor 1889–1891 Stephen B. Elkins 1891–1893


Attorney General William H. H. Miller 1889–1893


Postmaster General John Wanamaker 1889–1893


Secretary of the Navy Benjamin F. Tracy 1889–1893


Secretary of the Interior John W. Noble 1889–1893


Secretary of Agriculture Jeremiah M. Rusk 1889–1893


Harrison's cabinet in 1889 Front row, left to right: Harrison, William Windom, John Wanamaker, Redfield Proctor, James G. Blaine Back row, left to right: William H. H. Miller, John W. Noble, Jeremiah M. Rusk, Benjamin F. Tracy [edit] Judicial appointments

[edit] Supreme Court


Harrison appointed four Supreme Court justices, including David Josiah Brewer.Harrison appointed four justices to the Supreme Court of the United States. His first nominee was David Josiah Brewer, a judge on the Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. Brewer, the nephew of Justice Field, had previously been considered for a cabinet position.[93] Shortly after Brewer's nomination, Justice Matthews died, creating another vacancy. Harrison had considered Henry Billings Brown, a Michigan judge and admiralty law expert, for the first vacancy and now nominated him for the second.[93] For the third vacancy, which arose in 1892, Harrison nominated George Shiras. Shiras's appointment was somewhat controversial because his age—sixty—was older than usual for a newly appointed Justice.[93] Shiras also drew the opposition of Senator Matthew Quay of Pennsylvania because they were in different factions of the Pennsylvania Republican party, but his nomination was nonetheless approved.[93] Finally, at the end of his term, Harrison nominated Howell Edmunds Jackson to replace Justice Lamar, who died in January 1893. Harrison knew the incoming Senate would be controlled by Democrats, so he selected Jackson, a respected Tennessee Democrat with whom he was friendly to ensure his nominee would not be rejected.[93] Jackson's nomination was indeed successful, but he died after only two years on the Court.[93]

[edit] Other courts Main article: Benjamin Harrison judicial appointments In addition to his Supreme Court appointments, Harrison appointed ten judges to the courts of appeals, two judges to the circuit courts, and 26 judges to the district courts. Because Harrison was in office at the time that Congress eliminated the circuit courts in favor of the courts of appeals, he and Grover Cleveland were the only two Presidents to have appointed judges to both bodies.

[edit] States admitted to the Union When Harrison took office, no new states had been admitted in more than a decade, owing to Congressional Democrats' reluctance to admit states that they believed would return Republican members. Early in Harrison's term, however, the lame duck Congress passed bills that admitted four states to the union: North Dakota and South Dakota on November 2, 1889, Montana on November 8, and Washington on November 11.[94] The following year two more states held constitutional conventions and were admitted: Idaho on July 3 and Wyoming on July 10, 1890.[94] The initial Congressional delegations from all six states were solidly Republican.[94] More states were admitted under Harrison's presidency than any other since George Washington's.

[edit] Reelection campaign in 1892


Official White House portrait of Benjamin Harrison, painted by Eastman JohnsonLong before the end of the Harrison Administration, the treasury surplus had evaporated and the nation's economic health was worsening with the approach of the conditions that would lead to the Panic of 1893.[95] Congressional elections in 1890 went against the Republicans, several party leaders withdrew their support for President Harrison, although he had cooperated with Congressional Republicans on legislation, and it was clear that Harrison would not be re-nominated unanimously.[96] Many of Harrison's detractors pushed for the nomination of Blaine, until Blaine publicly proclaimed himself not to be a candidate in February 1892.[96] Some party leaders still hoped to draft Blaine into running, and speculation increased when Blaine resigned as Secretary of State in June.[97] At the convention in Minneapolis, Harrison prevailed on the first ballot, but not without significant opposition.[98]


Results of the 1892 election, with states won by Harrison in red, those won by Cleveland in blue, and those won by Weaver in green.The Democrats renominated former President Cleveland, making the 1892 election a rematch of the one four years earlier. The issue of the tariff had worked to the Republicans' advantage in 1888, but the revisions of the past four years had made imported goods so expensive that now many voters shifted to the reform position.[99] Many westerners, traditionally Republican voters, defected to the new Populist Party candidate, James Weaver, who promised free silver, generous veterans' pensions, and an eight-hour work day.[100] The effects of the suppression of the Homestead Strike rebounded against the Republicans as well, even though no federal action was involved.[100]

Just two weeks before the election, on October 25, Harrison's wife Caroline died after a long battle with tuberculosis.[101] Harrison did not actively campaign on his own behalf during his reelection bid and remained with his wife. Their daughter Mary Harrison McKee continued the duties of the First Lady after her mother's death.[102]

Neither Harrison nor Cleveland actively campaigned during the election—the first time no candidate campaigned in a presidential election.[103] Cleveland ultimately won the election with 227 electoral votes to Harrison's 145. Cleveland also won in the popular vote 5,556,918 to 5,176,108.[104]

[edit] Post-presidency


Grave of President Harrison and his two wives in Indianapolis, IndianaAfter he left office, Harrison returned to Indiana. From July 1895 to March 1901, Harrison was on the Board of Trustees of Purdue University. Harrison Hall, a campus dormitory, was named in his honor.[105] In 1896 he remarried, to Mary Scott Lord Dimmick, the niece of his deceased wife, and 25 years his junior. Harrison's two adult children, Russell, 41 years old at the time, and Mary (Mamie), 38, did not attend the wedding because they disagreed with their father's marriage. Benjamin and Mary had one child, Elizabeth (February 21, 1897 – December 26, 1955).[106] In 1899 Harrison went to the First Peace Conference at The Hague. He wrote a series of articles about the Federal government and the presidency, which were re-published in 1918 as a book titled This Country of Ours.[107] For a few months in 1894, he moved to San Francisco, California, and taught and gave law lectures at Stanford University.[108] In 1896 some of Harrison's friends in the Republican party tried to convince him to seek the presidency again, but he declined and openly supported William McKinley and traveled around the nation making appearances and speeches on McKinley's behalf.[109]

In 1900 Harrison served as an attorney for the Republic of Venezuela in their boundary dispute with the United Kingdom.[110] The two nations disputed the border between Venezuela and British Guiana. An international trial was agreed upon and the Venezuelan government hired Harrison to represent them in the case. He filed an 800-page brief on their behalf and traveled to Paris where he spent more than 25 hours arguing in court. Although he lost the case, his legal arguments won him international renown.[111]

Harrison developed a heavy cold in February 1901. Despite treatment by steam vapor inhalation, his condition only worsened, and he died from influenza and pneumonia at his home on Wednesday, March 13, 1901, at the age of 67. Harrison is interred in Indianapolis's Crown Hill Cemetery, along with both of his wives. [112]

-------------------- 23rd prsident of the United States of America. -------------------- Benjamin Harrison was the 23rd president of the United States, and grandson of the 9th president, William Henry Harrison. -------------------- Nominated for President on the eighth ballot at the 1888 Republican Convention, Benjamin Harrison conducted one of the first "front-porch" campaigns, delivering short speeches to delegations that visited him in Indianapolis. As he was only 5 feet, 6 inches tall, Democrats called him "Little Ben"; Republicans replied that he was big enough to wear the hat of his grandfather, "Old Tippecanoe."

Born in 1833 on a farm by the Ohio River below Cincinnati, Harrison attended Miami University in Ohio and read law in Cincinnati. He moved to Indianapolis, where he practiced law and campaigned for the Republican Party. He married Caroline Lavinia Scott in 1853. After the Civil War--he was Colonel of the 70th Volunteer Infantry--Harrison became a pillar of Indianapolis, enhancing his reputation as a brilliant lawyer.

The Democrats defeated him for Governor of Indiana in 1876 by unfairly stigmatizing him as "Kid Gloves" Harrison. In the 1880's he served in the United States Senate, where he championed Indians. homesteaders, and Civil War veterans.

In the Presidential election, Harrison received 100,000 fewer popular votes than Cleveland, but carried the Electoral College 233 to 168. Although Harrison had made no political bargains, his supporters had given innumerable pledges upon his behalf.

When Boss Matt Quay of Pennsylvania heard that Harrison ascribed his narrow victory to Providence, Quay exclaimed that Harrison would never know "how close a number of men were compelled to approach... the penitentiary to make him President."

Harrison was proud of the vigorous foreign policy which he helped shape. The first Pan American Congress met in Washington in 1889, establishing an information center which later became the Pan American Union. At the end of his administration Harrison submitted to the Senate a treaty to annex Hawaii; to his disappointment, President Cleveland later withdrew it.

Substantial appropriation bills were signed by Harrison for internal improvements, naval expansion, and subsidies for steamship lines. For the first time except in war, Congress appropriated a billion dollars. When critics attacked "the billion-dollar Congress," Speaker Thomas B. Reed replied, "This is a billion-dollar country." President Harrison also signed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act "to protect trade and commerce against unlawful restraints and monopolies," the first Federal act attempting to regulate trusts.

The most perplexing domestic problem Harrison faced was the tariff issue. The high tariff rates in effect had created a surplus of money in the Treasury. Low-tariff advocates argued that the surplus was hurting business. Republican leaders in Congress successfully met the challenge. Representative William McKinley and Senator Nelson W. Aldrich framed a still higher tariff bill; some rates were intentionally prohibitive.

Harrison tried to make the tariff more acceptable by writing in reciprocity provisions. To cope with the Treasury surplus, the tariff was removed from imported raw sugar; sugar growers within the United States were given two cents a pound bounty on their production.

Long before the end of the Harrison Administration, the Treasury surplus had evaporated, and prosperity seemed about to disappear as well. Congressional elections in 1890 went stingingly against the Republicans, and party leaders decided to abandon President Harrison although he had cooperated with Congress on party legislation. Nevertheless, his party renominated him in 1892, but he was defeated by Cleveland.

After he left office, Harrison returned to Indianapolis, and married the widowed Mrs. Mary Dimmick in 1896. A dignified elder statesman, he died in 1901.

-------------------- Benjamin Harrison Picture - 23rd President.

Nominated for President on the eighth ballot at the 1888 Republican Convention, Benjamin Harrison conducted one of the first "front-porch" campaigns, delivering short speeches to delegations that visited him in Indianapolis. As he was only 5 feet, 6 inches tall, Democrats called him "Little Ben"; Republicans replied that he was big enough to wear the hat of his grandfather, "Old Tippecanoe."

Born in 1833 on a farm by the Ohio River below Cincinnati, Harrison attended Miami University in Ohio and read law in Cincinnati. He moved to Indianapolis, where he practiced law and campaigned for the Republican Party. He married Caroline Lavinia Scott in 1853. After the Civil War--he was Colonel of the 70th Volunteer Infantry--Harrison became a pillar of Indianapolis, enhancing his reputation as a brilliant lawyer.

The Democrats defeated him for Governor of Indiana in 1876 by unfairly stigmatizing him as "Kid Gloves" Harrison. In the 1880's he served in the United States Senate, where he championed Indians. homesteaders, and Civil War veterans.

In the Presidential election, Harrison received 100,000 fewer popular votes than Cleveland, but carried the Electoral College 233 to 168. Although Harrison had made no political bargains, his supporters had given innumerable pledges upon his behalf.

When Boss Matt Quay of Pennsylvania heard that Harrison ascribed his narrow victory to Providence, Quay exclaimed that Harrison would never know "how close a number of men were compelled to approach... the penitentiary to make him President."

Harrison was proud of the vigorous foreign policy which he helped shape. The first Pan American Congress met in Washington in 1889, establishing an information center which later became the Pan American Union. At the end of his administration Harrison submitted to the Senate a treaty to annex Hawaii; to his disappointment, President Cleveland later withdrew it.

Substantial appropriation bills were signed by Harrison for internal improvements, naval expansion, and subsidies for steamship lines. For the first time except in war, Congress appropriated a billion dollars. When critics attacked "the billion-dollar Congress," Speaker Thomas B. Reed replied, "This is a billion-dollar country."

President Harrison also signed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act "to protect trade and commerce against unlawful restraints and monopolies," the first Federal act attempting to regulate trusts.

The most perplexing domestic problem Harrison faced was the tariff issue. The high tariff rates in effect had created a surplus of money in the Treasury. Low-tariff advocates argued that the surplus was hurting business. Republican leaders in Congress successfully met the challenge. Representative William McKinley and Senator Nelson W. Aldrich framed a still higher tariff bill; some rates were intentionally prohibitive.

Harrison tried to make the tariff more acceptable by writing in reciprocity provisions. To cope with the Treasury surplus, the tariff was removed from imported raw sugar; sugar growers within the United States were given two cents a pound bounty on their production.

Long before the end of the Harrison Administration, the Treasury surplus had evaporated, and prosperity seemed about to disappear as well. Congressional elections in 1890 went stingingly against the Republicans, and party leaders decided to abandon President Harrison although he had cooperated with Congress on party legislation. Nevertheless, his party renominated him in 1892, but he was defeated by Cleveland.

After he left office, Harrison returned to Indianapolis, and married the widowed Mrs. Mary Dimmick in 1896. A dignified elder statesman, he died in 1901.

Benjamin Harrison was President from 1889-1893.

-------------------- President of the United States -------------------- Benjamin was the twenty-third President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. He was born in North Bend, Ohio, and at age 21 moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he became a prominent state politician. During the American Civil War Harrison served as a Brigadier General in the XXI Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, but was later elected to the U.S. Senate from that state. He was elected to the presidency in 1888. He was the first and only president from the state of Indiana. His presidential administration is best known for its economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act. The Harrisons were among the First Families of Virginia, with their presence in the New World dating back to the arrival of an Englishman, also named Benjamin Harrison, at Jamestown, Virginia in 1630. The future president Benjamin was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, as the second of eight children of John Scott Harrison (later a U.S. Congressman from Ohio) and Elizabeth Ramsey Irwin. Benjamin was a grandson of President William Henry Harrison and great-grandson of revolutionary leader and former Virginia governor Benjamin Harrison. He maintained a membership in the Sons of the American Revolution. His early schooling took place in a one-room schoolhouse near his home. In 1845 he was provided with a tutor to help him with college preparatory studies. In 1847 he was enrolled in Farmer's College, previously known as Carey's Academy, near Cincinnati, Ohio, which he attended for two years. In 1850 Harrison transferred to Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where he was a member of the fraternity Phi Delta Theta and graduated in 1852. Harrison attended Miami with John Alexander Anderson who would become a six term congressman, and Whitelaw Reid, who would be Harrison's vice presidential candidate in his reelection campaign. While attending Miami University, Harrison joined a Presbyterian church and, like his mother, he would remain a member for the rest his life. -------------------- Benjamin Harrison was a Civil War general and a Republican senator from Indiana before defeating incumbent Grover Cleveland in the 1888 presidential election. His presidency was undistinguished, but his family tree was not: Harrison's great-grandfather was a signer of the Declaration of Independence; his grandfather was William Henry Harrison, ninth president of the United States; and his father was a congressman from Ohio. In a try for a second term, Harrison was defeated by Grover Cleveland in a rematch of their 1888 race. Harrison's first wife, Caroline, died less than a month before Harrison lost his re-election bid. He was the 23rd president. SOURCE: Who2.com

-------------------- the 23rd President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. Harrison was born in North Bend, Ohio, and at age 21 moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he became a prominent state politician. During the American Civil War Harrison served as a Brigadier General in the XXI Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, but was later elected to the U.S. Senate from that state.

Harrison, a Republican, was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, Grover Cleveland. He is the only president elected from the state of Indiana. His presidential administration is best known for its economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act, and for annual federal spending that reached one billion dollars for the first time. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress", and used the issue, along with the growing unpopularity of the high tariff, to defeat the Republicans, both in the 1890 mid-term elections and in Harrison's bid for re-election in 1892.

After failing to win reelection he returned to private life at his home in Indianapolis where he remarried, wrote a book, and later represented the Republic of Venezuela in an international case against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1900 he traveled to Europe as part of the case and, after a brief stay, returned to Indianapolis where he died the following year from complications arising from influenza. -------------------- Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was the twenty-third President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. Harrison was born in North Bend, Ohio, and at age 21 moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he became a prominent state politician. During the American Civil War Harrison served as a Brigadier General in the XXI Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, but was later elected to the U.S. Senate.

Harrison, a Republican, was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democrat Grover Cleveland. He was the first, and to date only, president from the state of Indiana. His presidential administration is best known for its economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act, and for annual federal spending that reached one billion dollars for the first time. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress", and used the issue to defeat the Republican Party, both in the 1890 mid-term elections and in Harrison's bid for reelection in 1892.

Harrison's wife died near the end of his presidential term. After failing to win reelection he returned to private life at his home in Indianapolis where he remarried, authored a book, and later represented the Republic of Venezuela in an international case against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1900 he traveled to Europe as part of the case and, after a brief stay, returned to Indianapolis where he died the following year, from complications arising from influenza. -------------------- Our linkage to this US President is very weak in that it relies upon the linkage of Eleazar Holton back to William Fiske son of Robert Fiske, for which I have no references to any sort of documentation. -------------------- Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was the 23rd President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. Harrison was born in North Bend, Ohio, and at age 21 moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he became a prominent state politician. During the American Civil War Harrison served as a Brigadier General in the XXI Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, but was later elected to the U.S. Senate from that state.

Harrison, a Republican, was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, Grover Cleveland. He is the only president elected from the state of Indiana. His presidential administration is best known for its economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act, and for annual federal spending that reached one billion dollars for the first time. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress", and used the issue, along with the growing unpopularity of the high tariff, to defeat the Republicans, both in the 1890 mid-term elections and in Harrison's bid for re-election in 1892.

After failing to win reelection he returned to private life at his home in Indianapolis where he remarried, wrote a book, and later represented the Republic of Venezuela in an international case against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1900 he traveled to Europe as part of the case and, after a brief stay, returned to Indianapolis where he died the following year from complications arising from influenza.

The Harrisons were among the First Families of Virginia, with their presence in the New World dating back to the arrival of an Englishman, named Benjamin Harrison, at Jamestown, Virginia in 1630. The future president Benjamin was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, as the second of eight children of John Scott Harrison (later a U.S. Congressman from Ohio) and Elizabeth Ramsey Irwin. Benjamin was a grandson of President William Henry Harrison and great-grandson of revolutionary leader and former Virginia governor Benjamin Harrison V.[1] Harrison was seven years old when his grandfather was elected President, but he did not attend the inauguration.[2] Although Harrison's family was old and distinguished, he did not grow up in a wealthy household, as most of John Scott Harrison's farm income was expended on his children's education.[3] Despite the meager income, Harrison's boyhood was enjoyable, with much of it spent outdoors fishing or hunting.[4]

Benjamin Harrison's early schooling took place in a one-room schoolhouse near his home, but he was later provided with a tutor to help him with college preparatory studies.[5] Harrison and his brother, Irwin, enrolled in Farmer's College near Cincinnati, Ohio in 1847.[6] Harrison attended the college for two years.[7] In 1850, he transferred to Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where he was a member of the fraternity Phi Delta Theta and graduated in 1852.[8] Harrison attended Miami University with John Alexander Anderson,[9] who would become a six term congressman, and Whitelaw Reid, who would be Harrison's vice presidential candidate in his reelection campaign. While attending Miami University, was greatly influenced by one his professors, Robert Hamilton Bishop, who instructed him in history and political economy.[10] At Miami, Harrison joined a Presbyterian church and, like his mother, he would remain a member for the rest of his life.[11] After completing college Harrison took up the study of law in the Cincinnati law office of Storer & Gwynne, but before completing his law studies he returned to Oxford to marry.[12]

While at Farmer's College, Harrison met Caroline Lavinia Scott, the daughter of the University's president, John W. Scott, a Presbyterian minister.[13] On October 20, 1853, they married in Oxford, Ohio, with Caroline's father performing the ceremony. [9] The Harrisons had two children, Russell Benjamin Harrison (August 12, 1854 – December 13, 1936) and Mary "Mamie" Scott Harrison McKee (April 3, 1858 – October 28, 1930).[14]

[edit] Early legal career After his marriage in 1853, Harrison returned to live on his father's farm where he finished his law studies. In the same year, he inherited $800 after the death of an aunt, using the money to move to Indianapolis, Indiana in 1854.[15] He was admitted to the bar there and began practicing law in the office of John H. Ray. The same year he became a crier for the Federal Court in Indianapolis, making $2.50 per day. He was responsible for passing through the streets and declaring announcements from the court.[14]

While in Indianapolis, Benjamin Harrison was both the first President of the University Club, a private gentlemen's club, and the first President of the Phi Delta Theta Alumni Club of Indianapolis, the fraternity's first such club. Both clubs were still in existence in 2008.[16] Harrison grew up in a Whig household and was himself a supporter of Whig politics in his early life. He joined the Republican Party shortly after its formation in 1856 and that year campaigned on behalf of the Republican presidential candidate John C. Frémont.[17] He won election to become Indianapolis City Attorney in the same election, a position that paid an annual salary of $400.[18]

In 1858 Harrison entered into a law partnership, opening an office as Wallace & Harrison.[19] Harrison was the Republican candidate for the position of reporter of the Indiana Supreme Court in 1860, his first foray into politics. Although this office was not political, he was an active supporter of his party's platform. During the election he debated Thomas Hendricks, the Democratic candidate for governor and future Vice President of the United States, on behalf of the Republican Party.[20] After his law partner William Wallace was elected county clerk in 1860, Harrison opened a new firm with William Fishback, named Fishback & Harrison, where he worked until his entry into the army.[21]

[edit] Civil War

Brig. Gen. Benjamin HarrisonAt the outbreak of the Civil War, Harrison wished to join the Union Army, but initially resisted, as he was concerned that his young family would need his financial support.[22] In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issued a call for more recruits. While visiting Governor Oliver Morton, Harrison found him distressed over the shortage of men answering the latest call. Harrison told the governor, "If I can be of any service, I will go".[23] Morton then asked Harrison if he could help to recruit a regiment, though he would not ask him to serve. Harrison proceeded to raise a regiment, recruiting throughout northern Indiana. Morton offered its command to Harrison, but he declined because of his lack of military experience, and instead was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant. In August 1862, when the regiment left Indiana to join the Union Army at Louisville, Kentucky, Harrison was promoted by Morton to the rank of Colonel, and his regiment was commissioned as the 70th Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry.[24]

The 70th Indiana first saw action in the Battle of Perryville, but spent most of the next two years performing reconnaissance duty and guarding railroads in Kentucky and Tennessee. In 1864, Harrison and his regiment joined William T. Sherman's Atlanta Campaign and moved to the front lines. On January 2, 1864, Harrison was promoted to command the 1st Brigade of the 1st Division of the XXI Army Corps. He commanded the brigade at the Battles of Resaca, Cassville, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, Kennesaw Mountain, Marietta, Peachtree Creek and Atlanta. Harrison was later transferred to the Army of the Cumberland and participated in the Battle of Nashville.[25] On March 22, 1865, Harrison earned his final promotion, to the rank of Brigadier General, and marched in the Grand Review in Washington, D.C. before mustering out of the army on June 8, 1865.[25]

[edit] Post-war career

[edit] Indiana politics While serving in the army in October 1864, Harrison was reelected reporter of the Supreme Court of Indiana and served four more years.[26] The position was not politically powerful, but did afford Harrison a steady income.[26] Harrison's public profile was raised when President Grant appointed him to represent the federal government in a civil claim brought by Lambdin P. Milligan, whose wartime conviction for treason had been reversed by the Supreme Court. Due to Harrison's advocacy, the damages awarded against the government were minimal.[27] Local Republicans urged Harrison to run for Congress, but he initially confined his political activities to speaking on behalf of other Republican candidates, a task for which he received high praises from his colleagues.[28]

Benjamin Harrison Home in IndianapolisIn 1872, Harrison entered the race for the Republican nomination for governor of Indiana. He was unable to get the support of former Governor Oliver Morton, who favored his opponent, Thomas M. Browne, and ultimately Harrison lost his bid for statewide office.[29] Harrison returned to his law practice where, despite the Panic of 1873, he was financially successful enough to build a grand new home in Indianapolis in 1874.[30] He continued to make speeches on behalf of Republican candidates and policies.[31]

In 1876 Harrison did not initially seek his party's nomination for governor, but when the original nominee dropped out of the race, Harrison accepted the Republicans' invitation to take his place on the ticket.[32] His campaign was based strongly on economic policy, and he was in favor of deflating the national currency. His policies proved popular with his base, but he was ultimately defeated by a plurality to James D. Williams, losing by 5,084 votes out of a total 434,457 cast.[33] Harrison remained a prominent Republican in Indiana following his defeat, and when the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 reached Indianapolis, he helped to mediate between the workers and management and to preserve public order.[34]

When Senator Morton died in 1878, the Republicans nominated Harrison to run for the seat, but the party failed to gain a majority in the state legislature, and the Democratic majority elected Daniel W. Voorhees instead.[35] President Hayes appointed Harrison to the Mississippi River Commission in 1879, which was founded to facilitate internal improvements on that river.[36] He was a delegate at the 1880 Republican National Convention the following year.[37]

[edit] United States Senator

Walter Q. Gresham, Harrison's rival within the Indiana Republican PartyAfter Harrison led the Republican delegation to the National Convention, he was again mentioned as a possible Senate candidate.[38] He gave speeches in favor of Garfield in Indiana and New York, further raising his profile in the party. When the Republicans retook the state legislature, Harrison's election to the Senate was threatened by his intra-party rival Judge Walter Q. Gresham, but the contest was decided in favor of Harrison.[38] After President James Garfield's victory in 1880, Harrison was offered a cabinet position, but he declined in order to begin his term as senator.[39]

Harrison served in the Senate from March 4, 1881, to March 4, 1887. He was chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard (47th Congress) and U.S. Senate Committee on Territories (48th and 49th Congresses).[40] The major issue confronting Senator Harrison in 1881 was the budget surplus. Democrats wished to reduce the tariff, thus limiting the amount of money the government took in; Republicans instead wished to spend the money on internal improvements and pensions for Civil War veterans. Harrison took his party's side and advocated for generous pensions for veterans and their widows.[41] Harrison also supported, unsuccessfully, aid for education of Southerners, especially the children of the slaves freed in the Civil War, believing that education was necessary to make the white and black populations truly equal in political and economic power.[42] Harrison differed from his party in opposing the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, believing that it violated existing treaties with China.[43]

In 1884, Harrison and Gresham again opposed each other, this time for influence at the 1884 Republican National Convention.[44] The delegation ended up supporting James G. Blaine, the eventual nominee.[44] In the Senate, Harrison achieved passage of his Dependent Pension Bill only to see it vetoed by President Grover Cleveland.[45] His efforts to further the admission of new western states were stymied by Democrats, who feared that the new states would elect Republicans to Congress.[45]

In 1885, the Democrats redistricted the Indiana state legislature, which resulted in an increased Democratic majority in 1886, despite an overall Republican majority statewide.[46] Harrison was defeated in his bid for reelection, the result being determined against him after a deadlock in the state senate, with the legislature eventually choosing Democrat David Turpie.[47] Harrison returned to Indianapolis and his law practice, but stayed active in state and national politics.[48]

[edit] Election of 1888 Main article: United States presidential election, 1888

[edit] Nomination

Harrison-Morton campaign poster

Inauguration of Benjamin Harrison, March 4, 1889

Results of the 1888 election, with states won by Harrison in red, and those won by Cleveland in blue. The initial favorite for the Republican nomination was the previous nominee, James G. Blaine of Maine. After Blaine wrote several letters denying any interest in the nomination, his supporters divided among other candidates, with John Sherman of Ohio as the leader among them.[49] Others, including Chauncey Depew of New York, Russell Alger of Michigan, and Harrison's old nemesis Walter Q. Gresham, now a federal appellate court judge in Chicago, also sought the delegates' support at the 1888 Republican National Convention.[49] Blaine did not choose any of the candidates as a successor, so none entered the convention with a majority of the Blaine supporters.

Harrison placed fourth on the first ballot, with Sherman in the lead, and the next few ballots showed little change.[50] The Blaine supporters shifted their support around among the candidates they found acceptable, and when they shifted to Harrison, they found a candidate who could attract the votes of many delegates.[51] He was nominated on the eighth ballot by 544 to 108 votes, winning the Republican presidential nomination.[52] Levi P. Morton of New York was chosen as his running mate.[53]

[edit] Election over Cleveland Harrison's opponent in the general election was incumbent President Grover Cleveland. He ran a front-porch campaign, typical of the era, in which the candidate does not campaign but only receives delegations and makes pronouncements from his home town.[54] The Republicans campaigned heavily on the issue of protective tariffs, turning out protectionist voters in the important industrial states of the North. The election focused on the swing states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Harrison's home state of Indiana.[55] Harrison and Cleveland split these four states, with Harrison winning by means of notoriously fraudulent balloting in New York and Indiana.[56] Voter turnout was 79.3% because of a large interest in the campaign issue, and nearly eleven million votes were cast.[57] Although Harrison received 90,000 fewer popular votes than Cleveland, he carried the Electoral College 233 to 168.[58]

Although he had made no political bargains, his supporters had given many pledges upon his behalf. When Boss Matthew Quay of Pennsylvania, who rebuffed for a Cabinet position for his political support during the convention, heard that Harrison ascribed his narrow victory to Providence, Quay exclaimed that Harrison would never know "how close a number of men were compelled to approach...the penitentiary to make him President."[59] Harrison was known as the Centennial President because his inauguration celebrated the centenary of the first inauguration of George Washington in 1789.[60]

[edit] Presidency 1889–1893

[edit] Civil service reform and pensions

Political footballCivil service reform was a prominent issue following Harrison's election. Harrison had campaigned as a supporter of the merit system, as opposed to the spoils system.[61] Although some of the civil service had been classified under the Pendleton Act by previous administrations, Harrison spent much of his first months in office deciding on political appointments.[62] Congress was widely divided on the issue and Harrison was reluctant to address the issue in hope of preventing the alienation of either side. The issue became a political football of the time and was immortalized in a cartoon captioned "What can I do when both parties insist on kicking?"[63] Harrison appointed Theodore Roosevelt and Hugh Smith Thompson, both reformers, to the Civil Service Commission, but otherwise did little to further the reform cause.[64]

Harrison quickly saw the enactment of the Dependent and Disability Pension Act in 1890, a cause he had championed while in Congress.[65] In addition to providing pensions to disabled Civil War veterans (regardless of the cause of their disability,) the Act depleted some of the troublesome federal budget surplus.[65] Pension expenditures reached $135 million under Harrison, the largest expenditure of its kind to that point in American history, a problem exacerbated by Pension Bureau commissioner James R. Tanner's expansive interpretation of the pension laws.[65]

[edit] Tariff

Harrison and the Billion-Dollar Congress are portrayed as wasting the surplus in this cartoon from Puck.The issue of tariff levels had been a major point of contention in American politics since before the Civil War, and tariffs became the most prominent issue of the 1888 election.[66] The high tariff rates had created a surplus of money in the Treasury, which led many Democrats (as well as the growing Populist movement) to call for lowering the rates.[67] Most Republicans wished the rates to remain high, and to spend the surplus on internal improvements as well as the elimination of some internal taxes.[67]

Representative William McKinley and Senator Nelson W. Aldrich framed the McKinley Tariff that would raise the tariff even higher, including making some rates intentionally prohibitive.[68] At Secretary of State James Blaine's urging, Harrison attempted to make the tariff more acceptable by urging Congress to add reciprocity provisions, which would allow the President to reduce rates when other countries reduced their rates on American exports.[66] The tariff was removed from imported raw sugar, and sugar growers in the United States were given a two cent per pound subsidy on their production.[68] Even with the reductions and reciprocity, the McKinley Tariff enacted the highest average rate in American history, and the spending associated with it contributed to the reputation of the Billion-Dollar Congress.[66]

[edit] Antitrust laws

Senator John Sherman worked closely with Harrison, writing bills regulating monopolies and monetary policy.Members of both parties were concerned with the growth of the power of trusts and monopolies, and one of the first acts of the 51st Congress was to pass the Sherman Antitrust Act, sponsored by Senator John Sherman of Ohio.[69] The Act passed by wide margins in both houses, and Harrison signed it into law.[69] The Sherman Act was the first Federal act of its kind, and marked a new use of federal government power.[70] While Harrison approved of the law and its intent, there is no evidence he ever sought to enforce it very vigorously.[71] The government successfully concluded only one case during Harrison's time in office (against a Tennessee coal company),[72] although it did pursue cases against several other trusts.[71]

[edit] Silver One of the most volatile issues of the 1880s was whether the currency should be backed by gold and silver, or by gold alone.[73] The issue cut across party lines, with western Republicans and southern Democrats joining together in the call for the free coinage of silver, and both parties' representatives in the northeast holding firm for the gold standard.[74] Because silver was worth less than its legal equivalent in gold, taxpayers paid their government bills in silver, while international creditors demanded payment in gold, resulting in a depletion of the nation's gold supply.[74] Owing to worldwide deflation in the late nineteenth century, however, a strict gold standard had resulted in reduction of incomes without the equivalent reduction in debts, pushing debtors and the poor to call for silver coinage as an inflationary measure.[74]

The silver coinage issue had not been much discussed in the 1888 campaign, so Harrison's exact position on the issue was initially unclear, but his appointment of a silverite Treasury Secretary, William Windom, encouraged the free silver supporters.[75] Harrison attempted to steer a middle course between the two positions, advocating a free coinage of silver, but at its own value, not at a fixed ratio to gold.[76] This served only to disappoint both factions. In July 1890, Senator Sherman achieved passage of a compromise bill, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, in both houses.[76] Harrison thought that the bill would end the controversy, and he signed it into law.[77] The effect of the bill, however, was the increased depletion of the nation's gold supply, a problem that would persist until the second Cleveland administration resolved it.[78]

[edit] Technology In Harrison's time in office, the United States was continuing to experience advances in science and technology. Harrison was the earliest President whose voice is known to be preserved. That thirty-six-second recording (help·info) was originally made on a wax phonograph cylinder in 1889 by Giuseppe Bettini.[79] Harrison also had electricity installed in the White House for the first time by Edison General Electric Company, but he and his wife would not touch the light switches for fear of electrocution and would often go to sleep with the lights on.[80]

[edit] Foreign policy The First International Conference of American States met in Washington in 1889, establishing an information center that later became the Pan American Union.[81] The conference failed to achieve any diplomatic breakthrough, but that failure led the Secretary of State Blaine to focus on tariff reciprocity with Latin American nations, which was more successful.[82] Harrison sent Frederick Douglass as ambassador to Haiti, but failed in his attempts to establish a naval base there.[83]

The first international crisis Harrison had to face occurred over fishing rights on the Alaskan coast. Canada claimed fishing and sealing rights around many of the Aleutian Islands, in violation of U.S. law.[84] As a result, the United States Navy seized several Canadian ships.[84] In 1891, the administration began negotiations with the British that would eventually lead to a compromise over fishing rights after international arbitration, with the British government paying compensation in 1898.[85]

Sailors from the USS Baltimore caused the major foreign affairs crisis of Harrison's administration.In 1891, a diplomatic crisis arose in Chile, later called the Baltimore Crisis. The American minister to Chile, Patrick Egan, granted asylum to Chileans who were seeking refuge from Chilean Civil War.[86] This raised tensions between Chile and the United States, and when sailors from the Baltimore took shore leave in Valparaiso, a fight broke out, resulting in the deaths of two dozen American sailors and three dozen arrested.[87] With Blaine out of town, Harrison himself drafted a demand for reparations.[88] The Chilean minister of foreign affairs replied that Harrison's message was "erroneous or deliberately incorrect," and said that the Chilean government was treating the affair the same as any other criminal matter.[88] Tensions increased as Harrison threatened to break off diplomatic relations unless the United States received a suitable apology.[88] Ultimately, after Blaine returned to the capital, the administration made conciliatory overtures to the Chilean government. After the letter was withdrawn, war was averted.[89]

In the last days of his administration, Harrison dealt with the issue of Hawaiian annexation. Following a coup d'état against Queen Liliuokalani, the new government of Hawaii led by Sanford Dole petitioned for annexation by the United States.[90] Harrison was interested in expanding American influence in Hawaii and in establishing a naval base at Pearl Harbor but had not previously expressed an opinion on annexing the islands.[91] The United States consul in Hawaii John L. Stevens recognized the new government on February 1, 1893 and forwarded their proposals to Washington. With just one month left before leaving office, the administration signed a treaty on February 14 and submitted it to the Senate the next day with Harrison's recommendation.[90] The Senate failed to act, and President Cleveland withdrew the treaty shortly after taking office.[92]

[edit] Cabinet The Harrison Cabinet Office Name Term

President Benjamin Harrison 1889–1893 Vice President Levi P. Morton 1889–1893

Secretary of State James G. Blaine 1889–1892 John W. Foster 1892–1893

Secretary of Treasury William Windom 1889–1891 Charles W. Foster 1891–1893

Secretary of War Redfield Proctor 1889–1891 Stephen B. Elkins 1891–1893

Attorney General William H. H. Miller 1889–1893

Postmaster General John Wanamaker 1889–1893

Secretary of the Navy Benjamin F. Tracy 1889–1893

Secretary of the Interior John W. Noble 1889–1893

Secretary of Agriculture Jeremiah M. Rusk 1889–1893

Harrison's cabinet in 1889 Front row, left to right: Harrison, William Windom, John Wanamaker, Redfield Proctor, James G. Blaine Back row, left to right: William H. H. Miller, John W. Noble, Jeremiah M. Rusk, Benjamin F. Tracy [edit] Judicial appointments

[edit] Supreme Court

Harrison appointed four Supreme Court justices, including David Josiah Brewer.Harrison appointed four justices to the Supreme Court of the United States. His first nominee was David Josiah Brewer, a judge on the Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. Brewer, the nephew of Justice Field, had previously been considered for a cabinet position.[93] Shortly after Brewer's nomination, Justice Matthews died, creating another vacancy. Harrison had considered Henry Billings Brown, a Michigan judge and admiralty law expert, for the first vacancy and now nominated him for the second.[93] For the third vacancy, which arose in 1892, Harrison nominated George Shiras. Shiras's appointment was somewhat controversial because his age—sixty—was older than usual for a newly appointed Justice.[93] Shiras also drew the opposition of Senator Matthew Quay of Pennsylvania because they were in different factions of the Pennsylvania Republican party, but his nomination was nonetheless approved.[93] Finally, at the end of his term, Harrison nominated Howell Edmunds Jackson to replace Justice Lamar, who died in January 1893. Harrison knew the incoming Senate would be controlled by Democrats, so he selected Jackson, a respected Tennessee Democrat with whom he was friendly to ensure his nominee would not be rejected.[93] Jackson's nomination was indeed successful, but he died after only two years on the Court.[93]

[edit] Other courts Main article: Benjamin Harrison judicial appointments In addition to his Supreme Court appointments, Harrison appointed ten judges to the courts of appeals, two judges to the circuit courts, and 26 judges to the district courts. Because Harrison was in office at the time that Congress eliminated the circuit courts in favor of the courts of appeals, he and Grover Cleveland were the only two Presidents to have appointed judges to both bodies.

[edit] States admitted to the Union When Harrison took office, no new states had been admitted in more than a decade, owing to Congressional Democrats' reluctance to admit states that they believed would return Republican members. Early in Harrison's term, however, the lame duck Congress passed bills that admitted four states to the union: North Dakota and South Dakota on November 2, 1889, Montana on November 8, and Washington on November 11.[94] The following year two more states held constitutional conventions and were admitted: Idaho on July 3 and Wyoming on July 10, 1890.[94] The initial Congressional delegations from all six states were solidly Republican.[94] More states were admitted under Harrison's presidency than any other since George Washington's.

[edit] Reelection campaign in 1892

Official White House portrait of Benjamin Harrison, painted by Eastman JohnsonLong before the end of the Harrison Administration, the treasury surplus had evaporated and the nation's economic health was worsening with the approach of the conditions that would lead to the Panic of 1893.[95] Congressional elections in 1890 went against the Republicans, several party leaders withdrew their support for President Harrison, although he had cooperated with Congressional Republicans on legislation, and it was clear that Harrison would not be re-nominated unanimously.[96] Many of Harrison's detractors pushed for the nomination of Blaine, until Blaine publicly proclaimed himself not to be a candidate in February 1892.[96] Some party leaders still hoped to draft Blaine into running, and speculation increased when Blaine resigned as Secretary of State in June.[97] At the convention in Minneapolis, Harrison prevailed on the first ballot, but not without significant opposition.[98]

Results of the 1892 election, with states won by Harrison in red, those won by Cleveland in blue, and those won by Weaver in green.The Democrats renominated former President Cleveland, making the 1892 election a rematch of the one four years earlier. The issue of the tariff had worked to the Republicans' advantage in 1888, but the revisions of the past four years had made imported goods so expensive that now many voters shifted to the reform position.[99] Many westerners, traditionally Republican voters, defected to the new Populist Party candidate, James Weaver, who promised free silver, generous veterans' pensions, and an eight-hour work day.[100] The effects of the suppression of the Homestead Strike rebounded against the Republicans as well, even though no federal action was involved.[100]

Just two weeks before the election, on October 25, Harrison's wife Caroline died after a long battle with tuberculosis.[101] Harrison did not actively campaign on his own behalf during his reelection bid and remained with his wife. Their daughter Mary Harrison McKee continued the duties of the First Lady after her mother's death.[102]

Neither Harrison nor Cleveland actively campaigned during the election—the first time no candidate campaigned in a presidential election.[103] Cleveland ultimately won the election with 227 electoral votes to Harrison's 145. Cleveland also won in the popular vote 5,556,918 to 5,176,108.[104]

[edit] Post-presidency

Grave of President Harrison and his two wives in Indianapolis, IndianaAfter he left office, Harrison returned to Indiana. From July 1895 to March 1901, Harrison was on the Board of Trustees of Purdue University. Harrison Hall, a campus dormitory, was named in his honor.[105] In 1896 he remarried, to Mary Scott Lord Dimmick, the niece of his deceased wife, and 25 years his junior. Harrison's two adult children, Russell, 41 years old at the time, and Mary (Mamie), 38, did not attend the wedding because they disagreed with their father's marriage. Benjamin and Mary had one child, Elizabeth (February 21, 1897 – December 26, 1955).[106] In 1899 Harrison went to the First Peace Conference at The Hague. He wrote a series of articles about the Federal government and the presidency, which were re-published in 1918 as a book titled This Country of Ours.[107] For a few months in 1894, he moved to San Francisco, California, and taught and gave law lectures at Stanford University.[108] In 1896 some of Harrison's friends in the Republican party tried to convince him to seek the presidency again, but he declined and openly supported William McKinley and traveled around the nation making appearances and speeches on McKinley's behalf.[109]

In 1900 Harrison served as an attorney for the Republic of Venezuela in their boundary dispute with the United Kingdom.[110] The two nations disputed the border between Venezuela and British Guiana. An international trial was agreed upon and the Venezuelan government hired Harrison to represent them in the case. He filed an 800-page brief on their behalf and traveled to Paris where he spent more than 25 hours arguing in court. Although he lost the case, his legal arguments won him international renown.[111]

Harrison developed a heavy cold in February 1901. Despite treatment by steam vapor inhalation, his condition only worsened, and he died from influenza and pneumonia at his home on Wednesday, March 13, 1901, at the age of 67. Harrison is interred in Indianapolis's Crown Hill Cemetery, along with both of his wives. [112]

-------------------- 23rd prsident of the United States of America. -------------------- Benjamin Harrison was the 23rd president of the United States, and grandson of the 9th president, William Henry Harrison. -------------------- Nominated for President on the eighth ballot at the 1888 Republican Convention, Benjamin Harrison conducted one of the first "front-porch" campaigns, delivering short speeches to delegations that visited him in Indianapolis. As he was only 5 feet, 6 inches tall, Democrats called him "Little Ben"; Republicans replied that he was big enough to wear the hat of his grandfather, "Old Tippecanoe."

Born in 1833 on a farm by the Ohio River below Cincinnati, Harrison attended Miami University in Ohio and read law in Cincinnati. He moved to Indianapolis, where he practiced law and campaigned for the Republican Party. He married Caroline Lavinia Scott in 1853. After the Civil War--he was Colonel of the 70th Volunteer Infantry--Harrison became a pillar of Indianapolis, enhancing his reputation as a brilliant lawyer.

The Democrats defeated him for Governor of Indiana in 1876 by unfairly stigmatizing him as "Kid Gloves" Harrison. In the 1880's he served in the United States Senate, where he championed Indians. homesteaders, and Civil War veterans.

In the Presidential election, Harrison received 100,000 fewer popular votes than Cleveland, but carried the Electoral College 233 to 168. Although Harrison had made no political bargains, his supporters had given innumerable pledges upon his behalf.

When Boss Matt Quay of Pennsylvania heard that Harrison ascribed his narrow victory to Providence, Quay exclaimed that Harrison would never know "how close a number of men were compelled to approach... the penitentiary to make him President."

Harrison was proud of the vigorous foreign policy which he helped shape. The first Pan American Congress met in Washington in 1889, establishing an information center which later became the Pan American Union. At the end of his administration Harrison submitted to the Senate a treaty to annex Hawaii; to his disappointment, President Cleveland later withdrew it.

Substantial appropriation bills were signed by Harrison for internal improvements, naval expansion, and subsidies for steamship lines. For the first time except in war, Congress appropriated a billion dollars. When critics attacked "the billion-dollar Congress," Speaker Thomas B. Reed replied, "This is a billion-dollar country." President Harrison also signed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act "to protect trade and commerce against unlawful restraints and monopolies," the first Federal act attempting to regulate trusts.

The most perplexing domestic problem Harrison faced was the tariff issue. The high tariff rates in effect had created a surplus of money in the Treasury. Low-tariff advocates argued that the surplus was hurting business. Republican leaders in Congress successfully met the challenge. Representative William McKinley and Senator Nelson W. Aldrich framed a still higher tariff bill; some rates were intentionally prohibitive.

Harrison tried to make the tariff more acceptable by writing in reciprocity provisions. To cope with the Treasury surplus, the tariff was removed from imported raw sugar; sugar growers within the United States were given two cents a pound bounty on their production.

Long before the end of the Harrison Administration, the Treasury surplus had evaporated, and prosperity seemed about to disappear as well. Congressional elections in 1890 went stingingly against the Republicans, and party leaders decided to abandon President Harrison although he had cooperated with Congress on party legislation. Nevertheless, his party renominated him in 1892, but he was defeated by Cleveland.

After he left office, Harrison returned to Indianapolis, and married the widowed Mrs. Mary Dimmick in 1896. A dignified elder statesman, he died in 1901.

-------------------- Benjamin Harrison Picture - 23rd President.

Nominated for President on the eighth ballot at the 1888 Republican Convention, Benjamin Harrison conducted one of the first "front-porch" campaigns, delivering short speeches to delegations that visited him in Indianapolis. As he was only 5 feet, 6 inches tall, Democrats called him "Little Ben"; Republicans replied that he was big enough to wear the hat of his grandfather, "Old Tippecanoe."

Born in 1833 on a farm by the Ohio River below Cincinnati, Harrison attended Miami University in Ohio and read law in Cincinnati. He moved to Indianapolis, where he practiced law and campaigned for the Republican Party. He married Caroline Lavinia Scott in 1853. After the Civil War--he was Colonel of the 70th Volunteer Infantry--Harrison became a pillar of Indianapolis, enhancing his reputation as a brilliant lawyer.

The Democrats defeated him for Governor of Indiana in 1876 by unfairly stigmatizing him as "Kid Gloves" Harrison. In the 1880's he served in the United States Senate, where he championed Indians. homesteaders, and Civil War veterans.

In the Presidential election, Harrison received 100,000 fewer popular votes than Cleveland, but carried the Electoral College 233 to 168. Although Harrison had made no political bargains, his supporters had given innumerable pledges upon his behalf.

When Boss Matt Quay of Pennsylvania heard that Harrison ascribed his narrow victory to Providence, Quay exclaimed that Harrison would never know "how close a number of men were compelled to approach... the penitentiary to make him President."

Harrison was proud of the vigorous foreign policy which he helped shape. The first Pan American Congress met in Washington in 1889, establishing an information center which later became the Pan American Union. At the end of his administration Harrison submitted to the Senate a treaty to annex Hawaii; to his disappointment, President Cleveland later withdrew it.

Substantial appropriation bills were signed by Harrison for internal improvements, naval expansion, and subsidies for steamship lines. For the first time except in war, Congress appropriated a billion dollars. When critics attacked "the billion-dollar Congress," Speaker Thomas B. Reed replied, "This is a billion-dollar country."

President Harrison also signed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act "to protect trade and commerce against unlawful restraints and monopolies," the first Federal act attempting to regulate trusts.

The most perplexing domestic problem Harrison faced was the tariff issue. The high tariff rates in effect had created a surplus of money in the Treasury. Low-tariff advocates argued that the surplus was hurting business. Republican leaders in Congress successfully met the challenge. Representative William McKinley and Senator Nelson W. Aldrich framed a still higher tariff bill; some rates were intentionally prohibitive.

Harrison tried to make the tariff more acceptable by writing in reciprocity provisions. To cope with the Treasury surplus, the tariff was removed from imported raw sugar; sugar growers within the United States were given two cents a pound bounty on their production.

Long before the end of the Harrison Administration, the Treasury surplus had evaporated, and prosperity seemed about to disappear as well. Congressional elections in 1890 went stingingly against the Republicans, and party leaders decided to abandon President Harrison although he had cooperated with Congress on party legislation. Nevertheless, his party renominated him in 1892, but he was defeated by Cleveland.

After he left office, Harrison returned to Indianapolis, and married the widowed Mrs. Mary Dimmick in 1896. A dignified elder statesman, he died in 1901.

Benjamin Harrison was President from 1889-1893.

-------------------- President of the United States -------------------- Benjamin was the twenty-third President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. He was born in North Bend, Ohio, and at age 21 moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he became a prominent state politician. During the American Civil War Harrison served as a Brigadier General in the XXI Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, but was later elected to the U.S. Senate from that state. He was elected to the presidency in 1888. He was the first and only president from the state of Indiana. His presidential administration is best known for its economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act. The Harrisons were among the First Families of Virginia, with their presence in the New World dating back to the arrival of an Englishman, also named Benjamin Harrison, at Jamestown, Virginia in 1630. The future president Benjamin was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, as the second of eight children of John Scott Harrison (later a U.S. Congressman from Ohio) and Elizabeth Ramsey Irwin. Benjamin was a grandson of President William Henry Harrison and great-grandson of revolutionary leader and former Virginia governor Benjamin Harrison. He maintained a membership in the Sons of the American Revolution. His early schooling took place in a one-room schoolhouse near his home. In 1845 he was provided with a tutor to help him with college preparatory studies. In 1847 he was enrolled in Farmer's College, previously known as Carey's Academy, near Cincinnati, Ohio, which he attended for two years. In 1850 Harrison transferred to Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where he was a member of the fraternity Phi Delta Theta and graduated in 1852. Harrison attended Miami with John Alexander Anderson who would become a six term congressman, and Whitelaw Reid, who would be Harrison's vice presidential candidate in his reelection campaign. While attending Miami University, Harrison joined a Presbyterian church and, like his mother, he would remain a member for the rest his life. -------------------- Benjamin Harrison was a Civil War general and a Republican senator from Indiana before defeating incumbent Grover Cleveland in the 1888 presidential election. His presidency was undistinguished, but his family tree was not: Harrison's great-grandfather was a signer of the Declaration of Independence; his grandfather was William Henry Harrison, ninth president of the United States; and his father was a congressman from Ohio. In a try for a second term, Harrison was defeated by Grover Cleveland in a rematch of their 1888 race. Harrison's first wife, Caroline, died less than a month before Harrison lost his re-election bid. He was the 23rd president. SOURCE: Who2.com

-------------------- the 23rd President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. Harrison was born in North Bend, Ohio, and at age 21 moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he became a prominent state politician. During the American Civil War Harrison served as a Brigadier General in the XXI Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, but was later elected to the U.S. Senate from that state.

Harrison, a Republican, was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democratic incumbent, Grover Cleveland. He is the only president elected from the state of Indiana. His presidential administration is best known for its economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act, and for annual federal spending that reached one billion dollars for the first time. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress", and used the issue, along with the growing unpopularity of the high tariff, to defeat the Republicans, both in the 1890 mid-term elections and in Harrison's bid for re-election in 1892.

After failing to win reelection he returned to private life at his home in Indianapolis where he remarried, wrote a book, and later represented the Republic of Venezuela in an international case against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1900 he traveled to Europe as part of the case and, after a brief stay, returned to Indianapolis where he died the following year from complications arising from influenza. -------------------- Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was the twenty-third President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. Harrison was born in North Bend, Ohio, and at age 21 moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he became a prominent state politician. During the American Civil War Harrison served as a Brigadier General in the XXI Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, but was later elected to the U.S. Senate.

Harrison, a Republican, was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democrat Grover Cleveland. He was the first, and to date only, president from the state of Indiana. His presidential administration is best known for its economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act, and for annual federal spending that reached one billion dollars for the first time. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress", and used the issue to defeat the Republican Party, both in the 1890 mid-term elections and in Harrison's bid for reelection in 1892.

Harrison's wife died near the end of his presidential term. After failing to win reelection he returned to private life at his home in Indianapolis where he remarried, authored a book, and later represented the Republic of Venezuela in an international case against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1900 he traveled to Europe as part of the case and, after a brief stay, returned to Indianapolis where he died the following year, from complications arising from influenza. -------------------- Our linkage to this US President is very weak in that it relies upon the linkage of Eleazar Holton back to William Fiske son of Robert Fiske, for which I have no references to any sort of documentation. -------------------- Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was the twenty-third President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. Harrison was born inNorth Bend, Ohio, and at age 21 moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he became a prominent state politician. During the American Civil War Harrison served as aBrigadier General in the XXI Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, but was later elected to the U.S. Senate.

Harrison, a Republican, was elected to the presidency in 1888, defeating the Democrat Grover Cleveland. He was the first, and to date only, president from the state of Indiana. His presidential administration is best known for its economic legislation, including the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act, and for annual federal spending that reached one billion dollars for the first time. Democrats attacked the "Billion Dollar Congress", and used the issue to defeat the Republican Party, both in the 1890 mid-term elections and in Harrison's bid for reelection in 1892.

Harrison's wife died near the end of his presidential term. After failing to win reelection he returned to private life at his home in Indianapolis where he remarried, authored a book, and later represented the Republic of Venezuela in an international case against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1900 he traveled to Europe as part of the case and, after a brief stay, returned to Indianapolis where he died the following year, from complications arising from influenza.

The Harrisons were among the First Families of Virginia, with the arrival of an Englishman, also named Benjamin Harrison, at Jamestown, Virginia in the Colony of Virginia in 1630. The future president Benjamin was born on August 20, 1833, in North Bend, Hamilton County, Ohio, as the second of eight children of John Scott Harrison (later a U.S. Congressman from Ohio) and Elizabeth Ramsey Irwin. Benjamin was a grandson of President William Henry Harrison and great-grandson of revolutionary leader and former Virginia governor Benjamin Harrison V.[1][2]

His early schooling took place in a one-room schoolhouse near his home. In 1845 he was provided with a tutor to help him with college preparatory studies. In 1847 he was enrolled in a newly built farmer's college called Gary's Academy, near Cincinnati, Ohio, which he attended for two years.[3] In 1850 Harrison transferred to Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where he was a member of the fraternity Phi Delta Theta and graduated in 1852.[4] Harrison attended Miami with John Alexander Anderson,[5] who would become a six term congressman, and Whitelaw Reid, who would be Harrison's vice presidential candidate in his reelection campaign. While attending Miami University, Harrison joined a Presbyterian church and, like his mother, he would remain a member for the rest his life.[6] After completing college Harrison took up the study of law in the Cincinnati law office of Storer & Gwynne, but before completing his law studies he returned to Oxford to marry.[7]

On October 20, 1853 Harrison, at the age of 20, married Caroline Lavinia Scott, 21, in Oxford, Ohio. She was the daughter of the University's president, Rev. John W. Scott,[5] who performed the wedding ceremony. The Harrisons had two children, Russell Benjamin Harrison (August 12, 1854 - December 13, 1936) and Mary "Mamie" Scott Harrison McKee (April 3, 1858 - October 28, 1930).[8]

[edit]Legal career After marriage, Harrison returned to live on his father's farm where he finished his law studies. That same year, he inherited $800 after the death of an aunt, using the money to move to Indianapolis, Indiana in 1854.[9] He was admitted to the bar there, and began practicing law in the office of John H. Ray. The same year he became a crier for the Federal Court in Indianapolis, making $2.50 per day. He was responsible for passing through the streets and declaring announcements from the court.[8] He was made an honorary member of Delta Chi, a legal professional fraternity at Michigan University.[10]

While in Indianapolis, Benjamin Harrison was both the first President of the University Club, a private gentlemen's club, and the first President of the Phi Delta Theta Alumni Club of Indianapolis, the fraternity's first such club. Both clubs were still in existence in 2008.[11] Harrison's grew up in a Whig household and was himself a supporter of Whig politics in his early life. He joined the Republican Party shortly after its formation in 1856 and that year campaigned on behalf of the Republican presidential candidate John C. Fremont. He won election to become Indianapolis City Attorney in the same election, a position that paid an annual salary of $400.[12]

In 1858 Harrison entered into a law partnership, opening an office as Wallace & Harrison.[13] Harrison was Republican candidate for the position of reporter of the Indiana Supreme Court in 1860, his first foray into politics. Although this office was not political, he was an active supporter of his party's platform. During the election he debated Thomas Hendricks, the Democratic candidate for governor and future Vice President of the United States, on behalf of the Republican Party.[14] After his law partner William Wallace was elected county clerk in 1860, Harrison opened a new firm with William Fishbank, named Fishback & Harrison, where he worked until his entry into the army.[15]

[edit]Civil WarBrig. Gen. Benjamin HarrisonIn 1862 President Abraham Lincoln issued a call for more recruits to join the Union Army. While visiting Governor Oliver Morton, Harrison found him distressed over the shortage of men answering the latest call. Harrison is quoted as saying to the governor, "If I can be of any service, I will go".[16][17] Morto n then asked Harrison if he could help to recruit a regiment, though he would not ask him to serve. Harrison then proceeded to raise a regiment, by recruiting throughout northern Indiana. He was offered its command by Morton, but he declined because of his lack of military experience, and instead was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant. In August 1862, when the regiment left Indiana to join the Union Army at Louisville, Kentucky, Harrison was promoted by Morton to the rank of Colonel, and his regiment was commissioned as the 70th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment.[18][19]

The regiment first saw action in the Battle of Perryville. The unit performed reconnaissance duty and guarded railroads in Kentucky and Tennessee, until William T. Sherman'sAtlanta Campaign in 1864. On January 2, 1864, Harrison was promoted to command the 1st Brigade of the 1st Division of the XXI Army Corps. He commanded the Brigade atResaca, Cassville, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, Kennesaw Mountai

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Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President of the USA's Timeline

1833
August 20, 1833
North Bend, Hamilton, Ohio, United States
1853
October 20, 1853
Age 20
Oxford, OH

http://www.archive.org/stream/benjaminharrison007546mbp/benjaminhar...

"Benjamin Harrison Hoosier Warrior"

From shortly after Ben's twentieth birthday in late August un-
til the day of their wedding, he and Carrie followed patterns of
conduct wholly unpredictable but thoroughly amusing. She was
intent upon keeping secret the day and the hour so as "to blind
the curious." When Ben visited Oxford, he found her acting
and speaking in the presence of her students and friends "with
as great circumspection as a nun before her abbess." He added:
"Her sewing she does in the privacy of her own chamber. Stu-
diously avoiding an exposure of the suspected garments." Ben,
on the other hand, steadfastly refused to be a victim of the "tyr-
anny of a malicious and gossiping eye," for, as he put it, "con-
science approving, I shall act, though the whole world beside
disapprove." There was a certain amount of good common sense
underlying his attitude, for Ben held it as a principle that "the
man who commits himself to the absurd task of pleasing every-
body, is like a cork intrusted to the reversed and whirling cur-
rents of the 'Devil's Hole* [Niagara], and the one is as likely to
reach the ocean as the other is to maintain a dignified individu-
ality in society'

This show of stoicism, however, was somewhat of a false front.
As the days passed, Ben unbent sufficiently with Anderson to con-
fess that "my spirits are much regulated by my moods in these
times, now cheerful and talkative, and again silent, almost sad."
When he roused himself from these fits, he seemed to renew his
confidence by his determination to succeed in spite of every ob-
stacle, as he was quick to add:

I never lose my courage, however depressed my spirits may be. A
young man with good health and a well trained mind is guilty of
. . . cowardness, when he gives way to discouragement. "Faint heart"
never did anything worthy of man; how then could it win "the fair
lady" who prides herself upon the heroism and bravery of her lover.

By far the most trying problem for Ben was his selection of the
proper wedding garments. Only the timely arrival of his brother
Irwin served to tranquilize his ruffled disposition. "Together,"
he writes to John Anderson, "we spent almost the entire morn-
ing with tailors, boot makers, and gents furnishers." In retro-
spect, Ben's account of this expedition for clothing is quite sig-
nificant, though at the time it was peculiarly painful:

Never did a more disagreeable, vexatious task fall to my lot: from
the earliest thought of the matter to the possession of the last article,
was one continued series of quandaries and perplexities, from each of
which I was only released in the most desperate effort. I chose an
entire suit of black, vest and all.

Ben strongly suspected that his choice of a somber all-black
wedding outfit would be regarded by many as an example of his
lack of taste. But, like most things he did, this departure from
the dictates of fashion was willful and premeditated. Not only
did he select a black satin vest in place of the conventional "white
vest of the drone," but he also indulged his early and growing
fondness for a frock coat. As he admitted:

"Instead of the swallow tail and dept dress, I ordered a frock coat.
I am not entirely satisfied that I was right in this latter particular, but
this I know: that I will look and feel better in the old 'frock'!! I am
very little concerned about my appearance, however, so long as I
maintain gentility and avoid poverty. "

Ben found it difficult to pursue his studies with requisite at-
tention, and finally he brushed aside his legal tomes with the
confession: "I am tired of the suspense and dissipation of mind
incident to the anticipation of such an event. I long to have the
anticipation emerge into reality."

With deep respect, Ben asked Dr. Scott if he would consent
to perform the ceremony. He added understandingly, however,
"it will perhaps be an embarrassing part for the father to assume
the marriage of his daughter, yet, if it would not be too incon-
sonant with your feelings, we would be glad to have it so." Ben
felt it necessary to say a word also of the prospect he had of afford-
ing Dr. Scott's daughter a comfortable home and support:

For the present I shall offer a place in my father's house, where she
will receive the welcome of a daughter and a sister. My present design
is to "migrate" to Chicago in the Spring, when I will be able to obtain
immediate admission to the Bar, and once admitted, the energetic
and patient pursuit of my profession will insure success. ... In a word,
I pledge my best efforts for her happiness ... in the sincere hope that
the time will meet with your approval and that you will consent to
perform the ceremony.

Procurement of the marriage license proved somewhat more
embarrassing. Inasmuch as he had not yet attained his legal ma-
jority, Ben had to be accompanied by his father when he went
to Hamilton, the county seat, where they obtained the license
three days before the wedding.

On Wednesday evening, October 19, Ben arrived in Oxford
about nine o'clock and went directly to the Mansion House,
where he put up for the night.

October 20, 1853, dawned cool and brisk, and autumn wore
its finest dress. Tradition has it that Dr. Scott performed the cere-
mony in his own home, in the first-floor front room on the west
side of the house. As Carrie had desired, the wedding was a sim-
ple one, with the family, a few guests and no display of presents.
The bride appeared in a simple gray traveling dress and Ben
wore his new black suit. Immediately after the ceremony a wed-
ding breakfast was served, and, as soon as it was polite to do so,
the newly wedded couple left Oxford in a rattling old omnibus
for Hamilton, thence to The Point.

===========================================

http://www.lanepl.org/scanned/BUTLER%20BIOS/butler%20bios%2037-42.pdf

Carrie Scoff met her future husband while
he was a student at Farmers College.
In 1849, Dr. Scott returned to Oxford as
princlpal of the Oxford Female Institute, a move
which also attracted Ben Harrison to Miami, where
he graduated in 1852.

When the family returned to Oxford in
1849, "Scott was faced with providing a boarding
department for his school," Mrs. Smith wrote. "He
bought the rarnbling Old Temperance Tavern at the
corner of West High and South College, and also
the residence of Rebecca Teal which stood behind
it facing the Institute across the sfreet (South
College Avenue). He joined the two structures by
adding extra rooms between them."

The Old Temperance Tavern became the
Scott house, and there Oct. 20, 1853, Carrie and
Ben Harrison were married by the Rev. Scott.
Because he wasn't 21, then the legal age,
Harrison couldn't obtain a marriage license on his
own. His congressman father had to accompany
him to the Butler County Courthouse in Hamilton
three days before the wedding to secure the
necessary document.

1854
August 12, 1854
Age 20
Oxford, Butler, OH

http://www.archive.org/stream/benjaminharrison007546mbp/benjaminhar...

"Benjamin Harrison Hoosier Warrior"

Ben's happy turn in fortune came none too soon. At Oxford,
Ohio, on Saturday, August 12, 1854 just eight days before Ben's
twenty-first birthday Carrie gave birth to a boy. They named
him Russell. Congress had recessed, and John Scott Harrison
was at home resting when the news of Russell's birth came. In
his own quiet way he rose to the occasion and honored the proud
parents with a significantly beautiful letter. Part of his epistle
was directed to Ben:

'You now stand, my dear son, in a new relation in life a relation
that will be attended with new joys and also new cares and responsi-
bilitiesthat the former may outnumber the latter I hope with all my
heart. And yet my experience tells me that life is very much of a
mixed draught in which the bitter and the sweet are pretty fairly
or at least equally contributed afflictions, sometimes bring joys and
again, joys afflictions, and so we are all never perfectly happy, and
never so miserable, that hope does not spread a small ray on the sur-
rounding darkness.'

And to Carrie he sent warmest congratulations and love; he asked
Ben to tell her that:

'I wish her all of a young mother's joy. I will not say without a
young mother's anxiety, for I believe in that very anxiety is entwined
her pleasure and her joy but I will say that T hope she may escape
those many little pains and annoyances which so often afflict a young
mother.'

. . .

The child was named after Russell Farnura Lord who had married Carrie's
older sister, Elizabeth. They were married in 1849 and made their home in Honesdale. -- Indianapolis News, Dec. 10, 1889.

1858
April 3, 1858
Age 24
Indianapolis, Indiana

http://www.archive.org/stream/benjaminharrison007546mbp/benjaminhar...

"Benjamin Harrison Hoosier Warrior"

"On Saturday, April 3, 1858, Ben wrote in his diary for the fourth and last
time that year: "Our Little Girl Born About Noon . . . after Carrie had
gone through severe labor for about twelve hours . . . doctor had
to use forceps. " Thus it was with the arrival of Mary forever
to be called Mamie that Russell was superseded as the baby of
the family. The newcomer, according to sister Jennie, was "a
perfect little beauty . . . prettier than Russell." Poor Carrie came
in for little or no credit for this bundle of natural pulchritude,
for Jennie added: "I think she must be pretty . . . sure enough . . .
I suppose like her father ... of course."

1861
April 12, 1861
- April 9, 1865
Age 27
USA

The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a civil war in the United States of America. Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession from the U.S. and formed the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy). Led by Jefferson Davis, they fought against the U.S. federal government (the Union), which was supported by all the free states and the five border slave states in the north.

In the presidential election of 1860, the Republican Party, led by Abraham Lincoln, had campaigned against the expansion of slavery beyond the states in which it already existed. The Republican victory in that election resulted in seven Southern states declaring their secession from the Union even before Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861. Both the outgoing and incoming U.S. administrations rejected secession, considering it rebellion.

Hostilities began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces attacked a U.S. military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Lincoln responded by calling for a volunteer army from each state, leading to declarations of secession by four more Southern slave states. Both sides raised armies as the Union assumed control of the border states early in the war and established a naval blockade. In September 1862, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation made ending slavery in the South a war goal, and dissuaded the British from intervening. Confederate commander Robert E. Lee won battles in the east, but in 1863 his northward advance was turned back at Gettysburg and, in the west, the Union gained control of the Mississippi River at the Battle of Vicksburg, thereby splitting the Confederacy. Long-term Union advantages in men and material were realized in 1864 when Ulysses S. Grant fought battles of attrition against Lee, while Union general William Sherman captured Atlanta, Georgia, and marched to the sea. Confederate resistance collapsed after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.

The American Civil War was the deadliest war in American history, causing 620,000 soldier deaths and an undetermined number of civilian casualties. Its legacy includes ending slavery in the United States, restoring the Union, and strengthening the role of the federal government. The social, political, economic and racial issues of the war decisively shaped the reconstruction era that lasted to 1877, and brought changes that helped make the country a united superpower.

June 1861
Age 27
Indianapolis, Marion, IN, USA

http://www.archive.org/stream/benjaminharrison007546mbp/benjaminhar...

"Benjamin Harrison Hoosier Warrior"

Stillborn third child:

"Before the Civil War was three months old, a black cloud of
personal sorrow temporarily engulfed the Harrison home. Carrie
lost at birth the child whom she and Ben awaited as their "third
pet." 23 Their sorrow was intense and prolonged despite the many
consoling messages of sympathy that poured in from relatives and
friends. Yet, the rare beauty and warmth of the condolences ex-
pressed by John Scott Harrison, who knew this type of sorrow
only too well and too frequently, certainly revived their spirits: (23)

I hear with sorrow the loss and disappointment you sustained in
the death of your little babe but few will doubt that your loss has
been her infinite gain. She has exchanged a world of sin for one of
purity and bliss. . . .

You have lost a little one, too young to know and love you . . . but
God in his mercy is sparing to you two bright and intelligent children
who have learned to do this . . . and you should, and do feel grateful
that He has been disposed to withhold what would have been still a
more bitter cup. Such afflictions fall more heavily upon the bereaved
mother . . . and Carrie has our sincere sympathy. . . . M "

(23): John Scott Harrison to Benjamin Harrison, June 25, 1861, Harrison MSS,
Vol. 4.

...

On June 13, 1861, Ben noted his expense for a child's coffin and box for the
grave, amounting to $10.50.

1881
March 4, 1881
- March 4, 1887
Age 47
District of Columbia, United States
1889
March 4, 1889
- March 4, 1893
Age 55
District of Columbia, United States
1896
April 6, 1896
Age 62
New York City, New York
1897
March 21, 1897
Age 63
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States