Charles IV "le Bel" Capet, roi de France

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Charles IV "le Bel" Capet, roi de France

Also Known As: "Charles IV King of France", ""The Beautiful"", "le Bel"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Clermont, Oise, Picardie, France
Death: Died in Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, France
Place of Burial: Basilique Saint Denis , Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Philippe IV le Bel, roi de France and Juana I, reina de Navarra
Husband of Blanche de Bourgogne, Reine de France; Marie de Luxembourg, reine de France and Jeanne d'Evreux, reine de France
Father of Philippe Capet de la Marche; Jeanne Capet de la Marche; Filip; Louis Capet de France; Jeanne Capet, (mort jeune) and 2 others
Brother of Marguerite Capet de France, (mort jeune); Louis X le Hutin, roi de France; Isabella of France, Queen consort of England; Philippe V "le Long", roi de France et de Navarre; Robert Capet, Prince of France and 2 others

Occupation: Roi de France et de Navarre (1322-1328), King of France and Navarre
Managed by: Henn Sarv
Last Updated:

About Charles IV "le Bel" Capet, roi de France

Charles IV de France, dit Charles le Bel, né le 18 juin 1294 au château de Creil (Oise), mort le 1er février 1328 à Vincennes, fut comte de la Marche puis, de 1322 à 1328, roi de France, le quinzième et dernier de la dynastie dite des Capétiens directs, et roi de Navarre (sous le nom de Charles Ier).

Sommaire

1 Biographie

2 Mariage et descendance

3 Succession

4 Source partielle

5 Notes et références de l'article


Biographie

Troisième fils du roi de France et de Navarre Philippe IV le Bel et de la reine Jeanne Ire de Navarre, il reçoit en 1314 le comté de la Marche en apanage.

Il monte sur le trône à la mort de son frère Philippe V le Long et est sacré à Reims le 21 février 1322 par l'archevêque Robert de Courtenay. En tant qu'héritier de Jeanne de Navarre, il ajoute au titre de roi de France celui de roi de Navarre.

Trouvant le trésor royal épuisé par les abus du règne précédent, il punit sévèrement et dépouille les financiers lombards ayant commis toutes sortes d'exactions. Il traite avec la même rigueur les mauvais juges et les seigneurs qui s'étaient accaparé des biens des particuliers. Il fait même arrêter Girard de la Guette, ex-surintendant des finances de Philippe le Long, lequel est accusé d'avoir détourné un million deux cent mille livres.

Mariage et descendance

En 1307 ou 1308, il épouse Blanche de Bourgogne, qui sera condamnée pour adultère au début de l'année 1314. L'année de son avènement, le pape Jean XXII annule le mariage pour cause de consanguinité (Mahaut d'Artois, la mère de son épouse, étant également sa marraine).[1]

Le 21 septembre 1322 à Provins, il prend pour seconde épouse Marie de Luxembourg, qui lui donnera une fille mais qui ne survivra pas. Le 21 mars 1324, au cours d'un voyage à Issoudun en Berry, la voiture de Marie de Luxembourg se renverse, provoquant la mort de la reine et de l'enfant mâle qu'elle portait.

Le 13 juillet 1325, le roi, toujours sans héritier, épouse en troisièmes noces sa cousine Jeanne d'Évreux. Cette dernière accouche d'une première fille prénommée Jeanne en 1326, et d'une seconde fille, Marie, l'année suivante. Elle est de nouveau enceinte lorsque le roi meurt en février 1328. Il faut attendre la naissance de l'enfant pour savoir si les Capétiens vont conserver le trône. C'est de nouveau une fille, Blanche, qui nait le 1er avril 1328. Cette dernière fille épousera en 1345 Philippe (1336-1375), duc d'Orléans, fils de Philippe VI de Valois.

Succession

En l'absence de descendant mâle survivant, qui va alors régner ? Il y a trois prétendants :

               Isabelle

d'Aragon

†1271 Philippe III

†1285 Marie

de Brabant

†1322

                       
                                                                
                                 
               Philippe IV

†1314 Charles

de Valois

†1325 Louis

d'Évreux

†1319


                                                                
                                   
   Louis X

†1316 Philippe V

†1322 Isabelle

x Édouard II Charles IV

†1328 Philippe VI de Valois Philippe III d'Evreux


                                      
           

Jeanne

r.Navarre

x Philippe III d'Evreux Jean Ier Édouard III

d'Angleterre


Édouard III d'Angleterre est écarté pour le motif qu'une femme, qui n'a pas le droit de monter sur le trône, ne peut pas transmettre ce droit. Cette succession contestée par le roi d'Angleterre fut une des raisons principales de la guerre de Cent Ans.

Le trône passe entre les mains de Philippe de Valois, cousin germain de Charles IV, qui devient roi de France sous le nom de Philippe VI, tandis que la Navarre est restituée à son héritière légitime, Jeanne II, dont l'illégitimité supposée en raison de l'inconduite de sa mère ne sera jamais prouvée. Elle a épousé en 1317 son cousin Philippe d'Evreux, qui devient roi de Navarre sous le nom de Philippe III de Navarre.

Précédé par Charles IV de France Suivi par

Philippe V

Charles IV

roi de France

1322-1328

Philippe VI 

Philippe II

Charles Ier

roi de Navarre

1322-1328

Jeanne II 
Source partielle

« Charles IV de France », dans Marie-Nicolas Bouillet et Alexis Chassang (dir.), Dictionnaire universel d'histoire et de géographie, 1878 [détail des éditions] (Wikisource)

Notes et références de l'article

↑ Histoire universelle de l'Église catholique, de René-François Rohrbacher, tome 20, p. 85.

Chronologie des Rois de France, Rois des Français et Empereurs des Français

de 987 à 1870

Rois de France

-

Rois des Français 987 Hugues Capet 996 Robert II 1031 Henri Ier 1060 Philippe Ier 1108 Louis VI 1137 Louis VII 1180 Philippe II 1223 Louis VIII 1226 Louis IX 1270 Philippe III 1285 Philippe IV 1314 Louis X 1316 Jean Ier 1316 Philippe V 1322 Charles IV 1328 Philippe VI 1350 Jean II 1364 Charles V 1380 Charles VI 1422 Charles VII 1461 Louis XI 1483 Charles VIII 1498 Louis XII 1515 François Ier 1547 Henri II 1559 François II 1560 Charles IX 1574 Henri III 1589 Henri IV 1610 Louis XIII 1643 Louis XIV 1715 Louis XV 1774 Louis XVI 1792

 

Empereur des Français

1804 Napoléon Ier 1815 Napoléon II(non proclamé) 1815

Rois de France

Roi des Français 1814 Louis XVIII 1824 Charles X

1830 Louis-Philippe Ier 1848


Empereur des Français

1852 Napoléon III 1870

--------------------

Charles IV of France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Charles IV (18/19 June 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and of Navarre (as Charles I) and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: he was the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage.

Biography

He was the third son of Philip IV. By virtue of his mother, Jeanne I of Navarre's, birthright, Charles claimed the title Charles I, King of Navarre.

From 1314 to his accession to the throne, he held the title of Count of La Marche. He was crowned King of France in 1322 at the cathedral in Reims. In 1325, Charles seized the English possessions in France. At the time, Charles's sister Isabella was married to King Edward II of England. Edward sent Isabella to France to negotiate with her brother. Instead, Charles and Isabella organized the overthrow of Edward II, and the installation of Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer as regents of England on behalf of Isabella's young son Edward III of England.

During his six-year reign Charles IV increased taxes, imposed onerous duties, and arbitrarily confiscated estates from enemies or those he disliked. In 1323 he expelled the Jews from France, using as an excuse the widely circulated rumor that they had conspired with lepers and Islamic rulers (including the king of Babylon) to poison the wells and murder every Christian in the kingdom.

As with his brother before him, Charles died without a male heir, thus ending the direct line of the Capetian dynasty. Twelve years earlier, a rule against succession by females, arguably derived from the Salic Law, had been recognized as controlling succession to the French throne. Application of this rule barred Charles's 1-year-old daughter Mary by his third wife, Jeanne d'Évreux, from succeeding as the monarch. Jeanne was also pregnant at the time of his death. Since it could have been possible that she would give birth to a son, a regency was set up with the heir presumptive Philip of Valois, a member of the House of Valois (the next-most-senior branch of the Capetian dynasty), being the regent. After two months, Jeanne gave birth to another daughter. The regent thus became the King and in May was consecrated and crowned Philip VI. At this time, a further rule of succession, again arguably based on the Salic Law, was recognized as forbidding not only inheritance by a woman, but also inheritance through a female line. Application of this rule barred Edward III of England from the French throne.

Charles IV died at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, and is interred with his third wife, Jeanne d'Évreux in Saint Denis Basilica.

--------------------

Charles IV (18/19 June 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and of Navarre (as Charles I) and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: he was the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage.

Contents [hide]

1 Biography

2 Ancestry

3 Family

3.1 Wives

3.2 Children

4 References

5 Sources


[edit] Biography

He was the third son of Philip IV. By virtue of his mother, Jeanne I of Navarre's, birthright, Charles claimed the title Charles I, King of Navarre.

From 1314 to his accession to the throne, he held the title of Count of La Marche. He was crowned King of France in 1322 at the cathedral in Reims. In 1325, Charles seized the English possessions in France. At the time, Charles's sister Isabella was married to King Edward II of England. Edward sent Isabella to France to negotiate with her brother. Instead, Charles and Isabella organized the overthrow of Edward II, and the installation of Isabella and her lover Roger Mortimer as regents of England on behalf of Isabella's young son Edward III of England.

During his six-year reign Charles IV increased taxes, imposed onerous duties, and arbitrarily confiscated estates from enemies or those he disliked. In 1323 he expelled the Jews from France, using as an excuse the widely circulated rumor that they had conspired with lepers and Islamic rulers (including the king of Babylon) to poison the wells and murder every Christian in the kingdom.

As with his brother before him, Charles died without a male heir, thus ending the direct line of the Capetian dynasty. Twelve years earlier, a rule against succession by females, arguably derived from the Salic Law, had been recognized as controlling succession to the French throne. Application of this rule barred Charles's 1-year-old daughter Mary by his third wife, Jeanne d'Évreux, from succeeding as the monarch. Jeanne was also pregnant at the time of his death. Since it could have been possible that she would give birth to a son, a regency was set up with the heir presumptive Philip of Valois, a member of the House of Valois (the next-most-senior branch of the Capetian dynasty), being the regent. After two months, Jeanne gave birth to another daughter. The regent thus became the King and in May was consecrated and crowned Philip VI. At this time, a further rule of succession, again arguably based on the Salic Law, was recognized as forbidding not only inheritance by a woman, but also inheritance through a female line. Application of this rule barred Edward III of England from the French throne.

Charles IV died at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, and is interred with his third wife, Jeanne d'Évreux in Saint Denis Basilica.

[edit] Ancestry

[show]v • d • eAncestors of Charles IV of France

                                 

 16. Louis VIII of France 
 
         

 8. Louis IX of France   
 
               

 17. Blanche of Castile 
 
         

 4. Philip III of France   
 
                     

 18. Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence 
 
         

 9. Marguerite of Provence   
 
               

 19. Beatrice of Savoy 
 
         

 2. Philip IV of France   
 
                           

 20. Peter II of Aragon 
 
         

 10. James I of Aragon   
 
               

 21. Marie of Montpellier 
 
         

 5. Isabella of Aragon   
 
                     

 22. Andrew II of Hungary 
 
         

 11. Violant of Hungary   
 
               

 23. Yolanda de Courtenay 
 
         

 1. Charles IV of France   
 
                                 

 24. Theobald III, Count of Champagne 
 
         

 12. Theobald I of Navarre   
 
               

 25. Blanca Sánchez of Navarre 
 
         

 6. Henry I of Navarre   
 
                     

 26. Guy Archambaud of Bourbon 
 
         

 13. Margaret of Bourbon, Queen of Navarre   
 
               

 27. Guigone of Forez 
 
         

 3. Joan I of Navarre   
 
                           

 28. Louis VIII of France (= 16) 
 
         

 14. Robert I of Artois   
 
               

 29. Blanche of Castile (= 17) 
 
         

 7. Blanche of Artois   
 
                     

 30. Henry II, Duke of Brabant 
 
         

 15. Matilda of Brabant   
 
               

 31. Marie of Hohenstaufen 
 
         


[edit] Family

[edit] Wives


Marriage of Charles IV and Marie of Luxembourg, by Jean Fouquet.1307 — Blanche de Bourgogne, daughter of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy (1). The marriage was dissolved in 1322.

1322 — Marie de Luxembourg, daughter of Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor (2)

5 July 1325 — Jeanne d'Évreux (1310–71) (3)

[edit] Children

(1) Philip (1314–22)

(1) Jeanne (1315–20)

(2) Louis (1324)

(3) Jeanne (1326–27)

(3) Marie (1327–41)

(3) Blanche (1 April 1328 – 1382, who married Philip of Valois, Duke of Orléans

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Charles IV of France  

[edit] References

[edit] Sources

Weir, Alison, Isabella

Charles IV of France

House of Capet

Born: c. 1294 Died: 1 February 1328

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Philip V of France King of France

3 January 1322 – 1 February 1328 Succeeded by

Philip VI

King of Navarre

(as 'Charles I')

3 January 1322 – 1 February 1328 Succeeded by

Joan II

French royalty

Preceded by

Philip Heir to the Throne

as Heir presumptive

March 1321 — 3 January 1322 Succeeded by

Philip

French nobility

Preceded by

Vacant

(Guy de Lusignan) Count of La Marche

1314 – 3 January 1322 Succeeded by

Merged into crown

(eventually John II of France)

Count of Angoulême

1317 – 3 January 1322 Succeeded by

Merged into the crown

(eventually Joan II of Navarre)

Preceded by

Philip V of France Count of Champagne

(as 'Charles I')

3 January 1322 – 1 February 1328 Merged in the crown

view all 14

Charles IV "le Bel" Capet, roi de France's Timeline

1294
June 18, 1294
Clermont, Oise, Picardie, France
1307
1307
Age 12
France
1314
1314
Age 19
1315
1315
Age 20
1322
August 24, 1322
Age 28
Provins, Seine-et-Marne, France
1324
March 1324
Age 29
Issoudun, Indre, France
1324
Age 29
1325
July 5, 1325
Age 31
Paris, Seine, France
1326
1326
Age 31
Chateauneuf-Sur-Loire, Loiret, France
1327
1327
Age 32
Châteauneuf-sur-Loire, Loiret, Centre, France