Flavius Julius Constantius (317 - 361) MP

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Nicknames: "Flavius Julius Constantius"
Birthplace: Sirmium, Savia, Mid, Emperor
Death: Died in Tarsus, Siclia
Occupation: Roman Emperor, 337-350, Italy, Pannonia and Africa, Roman Emperor from 337 to 340 (Gaul, Britannia and Hispania), Emperor of the West, Roman Emperor (337-361), Roman Emperor (337-340)
Managed by: Jocelynn Elaine Oakes
Last Updated:

About Flavius Julius Constantius

Konstantin II (februar 317-340) var romersk keiser fra 337 til 340. Han var Konstantin den stores første sønn med sin andre kone Fausta. Konstantin II ble allerede som svært ung utpekt som en mulig etterfølger av sin far. I 317 ble han uropt til caesar sammen med sin eldre halvbror Crispus. Han var også konsul fire ganger, i 320, 321, 324 og 329. Da Konstantin I døde 22. mai 337 tok Konstantin II makta sammen med sine to yngre brødre Konstantius II og Konstans. Med hærens fulle støtte ble de utropt til augusti 9. september. Resten av keiserfamilien ble likvidert, med unntak av Gallus og Julian som var for unge til å utgjøre noen trussel. Sommeren 338 møttes de tre brødrene ved Viminacium for å dele farsarven mellom seg. Konstantin II fikk Britannia, Gallia og Hispania, hvor han hadde styrt som caesar under sin far. Konstantius II fikk alle de østlige provinsene og Konstans fikk Africa, Italia, Illyricum og Moesia. Det tok ikke lang tid før splid og uenighet oppsto mellom de tre brødrene. Konstantin mente nok at han som den eldste skulle anses som den overordnede av de tre, noe de andre to ikke ville godta. Det hele endte med at Konstantin gikk til krig mot den yngste broren, Konstans, og invaderte Italia i 340. Men Konstantins hær falt i et bakhold ved Aquileia og Konstantin ble drept i slaget som fulgte. Styringen over Konstantins del av keiserriket ble overtatt av Konstans.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantius_II

NB: Constantius II, Constantine II and Constans are 3 brothers, not the same person.

-------------------- Flavius Julius Constantius, second son of Constantine I and Fausta , was born on 7 August 317 in Illyricum. He seems to have been made a Caesar on 13 November 324 in Nicomedeia. He was sent to Gaul when his brother Constantine II fought on the Danube in 332. At the time of his father's Tricennalia he went to Constantinople and married his first wife, the daughter of his uncle Julius Constantius . When his father died in May 337, Constantius, who was campaigning in the east, rushed back to Constantinople and arranged for his father's obsequies. He may have been the force behind the murder of a large number of relatives and retainers in a purge. The only male family members who survived were Julian and his half-brother Gallus . The purge may have had its roots in the religious squabbling between the Orthodox and Arian factions in Constantinople. 1 In the first part of September 337 Constantius II and his two brothers met in Pannonia where they were acclaimed Augusti by the army to divide up the empire among themselves. The realm of Constantius II included the east, except for Thrace, Achaea, and Macedon. After his brother Constans I was killed by the forces of Magnentius in 350, Constantius obtained possession of his brother's realm which included the territory of Constantine II, who had died in 340. 2

Constantius spent a great deal of his reign on military campaigns; between 337 and 350, he resided in Antioch, between 351-359 he spent much of his time in Sirmium and Mediolanum (Milan), and in 360-361 he lived in Antioch again. While in the east, he spent several of his summers campaigning against the Persians. 3 Although he appears to have been a competent general, some contemporaries felt that Constantius was a better soldier in civil wars than in foreign combat and some disparaged his apparent reluctance to face the Persians. 4 However, this judgement may be a bit unfair. Perhaps "mixed success" might be a safer description of Constantius' military career. He succeeded in stopping every major Persian invasion, as the Battle of Singara in 348, costly to both sides, demonstrates. Indeed, when viewed in contrast with those of his immediate successors, Constantius' struggles with the Persians appear in a more favorable light.

The Persians were not the only threat to the empire during his reign. Constantius also fought several campaigns against various barbarian groups. However, his greatest threat came from a series of usurpers who arose in various sections of the western portions of the empire. To cope with them, Constantius shifted his base of operations from the east to Mediolanum (Milan) during the 350s. Although the revolts of his kinsman Nepotian in 350 and that of Silvanus in 355 were repressed by his opponents or by the emperor himself, the usurpation of Magnentius and that of Vetranio formed the basis of a more serious threat to the foundation of Constantius' rule. Both usurpers raised their standards in revolt in 350. Although Vetranio was repressed by Constantius into honorable retirement in the same year, it was only after the costly Battle of Mursa in 351 and the victory at Mons Seleuci in 353 that Constantius was able to quell Magnentius , who committed suicide in August 353. 5 In order to keep the Persians in check while he was dealing with the various usurpers, Constantius had appointed his cousin Gallus Caesar in 351 and had sent him east to maintain a Roman presence there. Gallus , however, under the influence of his wife Constantina , soon challenged his cousin's authority and was put to death by Constantius at the end of 354. 6

His first wife, the daughter of Julius Constantius , must have died in the '40s or early '50s because he married his second wife Eusebia in 353. Although the marriage was harmonious, she passed away in 360. 7 Largely due to the influence of Eusebia, Constantius appointed Gallus' half-brother Julian as his Caesar and dispatched him to Gaul in 355, while he went east to face the Persians. When Julian's military successes between 355 and 360 became too much for Constantius to endure, he attempted to weaken the Caesar by asking that some of the Gallic troops be sent to him for service in the east. Julian's troops acclaimed the Caesar as Augustus during January or February of 360; while en route to put down Julian , Constantius passed away at Mopsucrenae in Cilicia on 3 November 361. To give Constantius some credit, he is reported to have named Julian as his successor to avoid a succession crisis. At some point in 361 before his death he had married Faustina , who bore him a daughter, Constantia , posthumously. 8

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. 9 He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans ) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign. 10 -------------------- ID: I11596 Name: Flavius Julius Constantius II of Rome Prefix: Emperor Given Name: Flavius Julius Constantius II Surname: of Rome Sex: M _UID: D03E33CA201FD811BE490080C8C142CC51AE Change Date: 11 Jun 2005 Birth: 3 OCT 317 Death: 361

Father: FLAVIUS @ VALERIUS CONSTANTIUS b: 27 FEB 273 Mother: Flavia Maximiana b: ABT 293

Marriage 1 Fausta b: ABT 327 Married: Children

Flavius Theodosius of Rome b: 325 in Caus Castle, Salop
Constantine III Gratianus of Rome b: ABT 361
Constantia

Forrás / Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I11596 -------------------- Constantius II Emperor of the East and West Born : 7 Aug 317 Illyricum Died : 3 Nov 361 Mopsuestia (Misis), Turkey Father Constantine I the Great Emperor of Rome Mother Flavia Maxima Fausta Princess of the West Marriage - Faustina Empress of the East and West Children - - Constantia Princess of the East\West Forrás / Source: http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/persons/per02533.htm#0

-------------------- Constans I Emperor of the East and West Died : - Ruled 9 Sep 337-Jan 350 Father Constantine I the Great Emperor of Rome Mother Flavia Maxima Fausta Princess of the West Forrás / Source: http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/persons/per04589.htm#0

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantius_II -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_II_(emperor) -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constans -------------------- NB: Constantius II, Constantine II and Constans are 3 brothers, not the same person.

Flavius Julius Constans (320-350), was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. Constans was the third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, Constantine's second wife.

In 337 he succeeded his father, jointly with his older brothers Constantine II and Constantius II, receiving Italy, Pannonia and Africa as his portion. Constantine II, who ruled over Gaul, Spain and Britain, attempted to take advantage of his youth and inexperience by invading Italy in 340, but Constans defeated Constantine at Aquileia, where the older brother died. The invasion was the effect of brotherly tensions between the two emperors. Constantine II was, at first, Constans's guardian. As Constans grew older, Constantine II never relinquished that position.

In 341-2, Constans led a successful campaign against the Franks and in the early months of 343 visited Britain. The source for this visit, Julius Firmicus Maternus, does not give a reason for this but the quick movement and the danger involved in crossing the channel in the dangerous winter months, suggests it was in response to a military emergency of some kind, possibly to repel the Picts and Scots.

Regarding religion, Constans was tolerant of Judaism but promulgated an edict banning pagan sacrifices in 341. He suppressed Donatism in Africa and supported Nicene orthodoxy against Arianism, which was championed by his brother Constantius the latter. Constans called the Council of Sardica, which unsuccessfully tried to settle the conflict. In 350, the general Magnentius declared himself emperor with the support of the troops on the Rhine frontier, and later the entire Western portion of the Roman Empire. Constans lacked any support beyond his immediate household, and was forced to flee for his life. Magnentius' supporters cornered him in a fortification in Helena, southwestern Gaul, where he was killed by Magnentius's assassins.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constans

-------------------- Constans I (337-350 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr. Salve Regina University

Robert Frakes Clarion University

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta , was born between 320 and 323 A.D. 1 Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. 2 To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. 3 Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, 4 met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. 5 Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons. 6

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. 7 In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. 8 In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign. 9

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. 10 In what may be a topos , sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. 11 The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality 12 He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II , Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. 13 The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. 14 Unlike his brother Constantius II , who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other. 15

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees, where he was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge. 16

Bibliography

Barnes, T.D, Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire , Cambridge, 1993.

________. New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine . Cambridge, 1981.

DiMaio, Michael. and Duane W.-H.Arnold. " Per Vim, Per Caedem, Per Bellum : A Study of Murder and Ecclesiastical Politics in the Year 337 A.D.." Byzantion , 62 (1992): 158ff.

________. "Smoke in the Wind: Zonaras' Use of Philostorgius, Zosimus, John of Antioch, and John of Rhodes in his Narrative on the Neo-Flavian Emperors,." Byzantion 58 (1988): 230ff.

________. Zonaras' Account of the Neo-Flavian Emperors , (Ph.D. diss., University of Missouri-Columbia, 1977).

Frakes, Robert. "Cross-References to the Lost Books of Ammianus Marcellinus." Phoenix 49(1995): 232-246.

Kienast, Dietmar. Römische Kaisertabelle: Grundzüge einer römischen Kaiserchronologie . Darmstadt, 1990.

Jones, A.H.M. The Later Roman Empire (Baltimore, 1986 reprint).

________., J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris. "Fl. Iul. Constans 3" The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire , Cambridge, 1971, 1.220.

Leedom, Joe W. "Constantius II: Three Revisions," Byzantion 48 (1978): 133-136.

Lucien-Brun, X. "Constance II et le massacre des princes," Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé ser. 4 (1973): 585-602.

Seeck, O. "Constans (3)." RE 4: col. 948ff

Notes

1for his full name, see ILS , 724, 726; such variations as Flavius Constans ( ILS , 708, 728, 730; BCH , 70[1946], 260B), Constans ( ILS , 723, 728, 729), and Flavius Iunius Constans ( ILS , 725) appear on inscriptions. Constans' life is discussed by O. Seeck, RE 4, s.v. "Constans (3)," col. 948ff..

For a listing of the sources that treat the parentage of Constans I,, see T.D. Barnes, New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine , (Cambridge, 1981), 45, A.H.M. Jones, J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris, the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire , [Cambridge, 1971], s.v. "Fl. Iul. Constans 3," 1.220, Michael DiMaio, Zonaras' Account of the Neo-Flavian Emperors: A Commentary , (Ph.D diss., University of Missouri-Columbia, 1977), 281, n.18.

Constans' birthdate is calculated by counting backwards from his age at the time of his death. Sources indicate that he died at either 27 or 30 (DiMaio, Zonaras , 281, n.16; Jones, Martindale, and Morris, PLRE , 1.220). This would place his birth at some date between 320 and 323, although Barnes, relying on numismatic evidence, argues for the year 323 ( New Empire , 45).

2The surviving books of Ammianus Marcellinus' history begin with events in the Fall of 353. Cross-references in his extant books to earlier lost books suggest that he gave significant coverage to Constans. See further, R. Frakes, "Cross-References to the Lost Books of Ammianus Marcellinus," Phoenix 49 (1995): 232-246, esp. 243-45.

3For a discussion of the dating of Constans' Caesarship and a list of the sources that treat it, see PLRE , 1.220.

4For these events, see X. Lucien-Brun, "Constance II et le massacre des princes," Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé ser. 4 (1973): 585-602; Joe W. Leedom, "Constantius II: Three Revisions," Byzantion 48 (1978): 133-36. More recently, see Michael DiMaio and Duane W.-H. Arnold, " Per Vim, Per Caedem, Per Bellum : A Study of Murder and Ecclesiastical Politics in the Year 337 A.D.," Byzantion 62 (1992): 198 ff.

5For a listing of sources which discuss the apportionment of the empire among the sons of Constantine and their interpretation, see Michael DiMaio, "Smoke in the Wind: Zonaras' Use of Philostorgius, Zosimus, John of Antioch, and John of Rhodes in his Narrative on the Neo-Flavian Emperors," Byzantion , 58 (1988): 336ff, and Dietmar Kienast, Römische Kaisertabelle (Darmstadt, 1990), 307.

6For a listing of sources and a discussion of Constans' engagement to Olympias, see DiMaio and Arnold, Byzantion , 62 (1992): 196-197.

7For a listing of Constans' military campaigns, their chronology, and the sources that treat them, see Barnes, Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire , (Cambridge, 1993), 224-225

8For a reconstruction of the Battle of Aquileia and the sources that treat it, see DiMaio, Byzantion , 58(1988): 240ff

9See the cross-reference at Ammianus 20.1.1.

10For a listing of the sources that comment on Constans as an emperor, see DiMaio, Zonaras , 279, nn1-4.

11See Seeck, RE 4, col 951.7ff.

12See further Eutropius, 10.9. This condemnation of homosexuality challenges recent scholarly views of its acceptance in late antiquity. For further discusssion of this topic, see William A. Percy's review of Mark D. Jordan, The Invention of Sodomy in Christian Theology (Chicago, 1997) in The American Historical Review 103 (1998): 496-497. For a discussion of Constans' homosexual tendencies, see further DiMaio, Zonaras , 279ff.

13 CTh. 16.10.2 which states in the text it emanates only from Constantius II, but the heading of the following law from Constantius II and Constans states it comes from the same emperors thereby implying that Constans and Constantius issued CTh. 16.10.2 jointly.

14 Ibid. , 16.10.3.

15For a discussion of Constans' support of the Orthodox faction and the sources that treat this chain of events, see Barnes, Athanasius and Constantius , 62ff, 71ff, 87ff, 97ff, 113,128ff, 165, 265 nn.21-22.

16For a discussion of Constans' death, see DiMaio, Zonaras , 279-280, nn. 7-11; for a discussion of the sources that deal with this chain of events, see idem. ,Byzantion , 58(1988), 242ff.

.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael DiMaio, Jr. and Robert Frakes. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents,including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Spouses ChildrenMagnus Maximus Macsen (~340-388)

-------------------- Maximianus Constans Prince of Rome (West) Born : Abt. 322 Father Constantine I the Great Emperor of Rome Mother Flavia Maxima Fausta Princess of the West Marriage ? Children Abt. 340 - Magnus Maximus (alias Macsen of Rome (West) Forrás / Source: http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/persons/per08871.htm#0

-------------------- ID: I11591 Name: Maximian Given Name: Maximian Sex: M _UID: CB3E33CA201FD811BE490080C8C142CC4C5E Change Date: 26 Nov 2005 Death: Y

Father: FLAVIUS @ VALERIUS CONSTANTIUS b: 27 FEB 273 Mother: Flavia Maximiana b: ABT 293

Forrás / Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I11591 -------------------- NB: Constantius II, Constantine II and Constans are 3 brothers, not the same person.

Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. The eldest son of Constantine I and Fausta, he was born at Arles, and was raised as a Christian.

On March 1, 317, Constantine was made Caesar, and at the age of seven, in 323, took part in his father's campaign against the Sarmatians. At the age of ten he became commander of Gaul, after the death of his half-brother Crispus. An inscription dating to 330 records the title of Alamannicus, so it is probable that his generals won a victory over Alamanni. His military career continued when Constantine I elected his son field commander during the 332 campaign against the Goths.

Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. After the division of the empire, made by the three brothers in September of the same year in Pannonia, he ruled over Gaul, Britannia and Hispania.

He was involved in the struggle between the different Christian streams. The Western portion of the empire leaned towards Trinitarism and against Arianism, and Constantine freed Athanasius and allowed him to return to Alexandria. This action also put some burden on Constantius II, who was a supporter of Arianism.

At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italia, Africa and Illyricum. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control his deceased brother's realm.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_II_(emperor)

-------------------- Constantine II (337-340 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr. Salve Regina University

Robert Frakes Clarion University

Constantine II, whose full name was Flavius Claudius Constantinus, was the son of Constantine I and Fausta .1 Primary sources for the life and reign of Constantine II are scarce. 2 He was probably born in Arles in the summer of 316 A.D. and, like his brothers, raised as a Christian. He was made a Caesar on 1 March 317 and was involved in military expeditions at an early age. 3 For instance, in 323, he seems to have taken part in Constantine I's campaigns against the Sarmatians. 4 In 326, he was nominally put in command of Gaul at the age of 10 soon after the death of his half-brother Crispus .5 Constantine II's generals apparently won a victory over the Alamanni, since the title Alamannicus appears on his inscriptions from the year 330. 6 In 332 he was Constantine I's field commander during the latter's campaign against the Goths. 7 Before 335 he was married, but his wife's name is not known. In the years before his father's death in 337, he held court in Gaul. 8

Following the death of their father on 22 May 337, and the subsequent murder of other relatives and heirs, 9 Constantine II and his two brothers met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia where they were acclaimed Augusti by the army to apportion the empire among themselves . 10 Constantine's new realm included Britain, Gaul, and Spain. Upon his accession, he freed the fiery Trinitarian Bishop Athanasius from his exile and allowed him to return to Alexandria. 11 Whether Constantine II was motivated by sincere Trinitarian belief (popular in his realm) or if he wanted to cause problems from his brother Constantius II is unclear. In 340 Constantine II, in an attempt to seize some of his brother Constans' realm, died in a battle fought near Aquileia .12

Bibliography

Barnes, T.D. Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire , Cambridge, 1993.

________. New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine . Cambridge, 1981.

DiMaio, Michael. Zonaras' Account of the Neo-Flavian Emperors , (Ph.D. diss., University of Missouri-Columbia, 1977).

________. and Duane W.-H.Arnold. " Per Vim, Per Caedem, Per Bellum : A Study of Murder and Ecclesiastical Politics in the Year 337 A.D.." Byzantion , 62(1992): 158ff.

________., Jörn Zeuge, and Jane Bethune. "The Proelium Cibalense et Proelium Campi Ardiensis : The First Civil War of Constantine I and Licinius I." AncW : 21(1990): 67ff.

________. "Smoke in the Wind: Zonaras' Use of Philostorgius, Zosimus, John of Antioch, and John of Rhodes in his Narrative on the Neo-Flavian Emperors,." Byzantion 58(1988): 230ff.

Guthrie, Patrick. "The Execution of Crispus," Phoenix 20 (1966): 325-331.

Jones, A.H.M. The Later Roman Empire (Baltimore, 1986 reprint).

________., J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris. "Fl. Claudius Constantinus." The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire , Cambridge, 1971, 1.223.

Leedom, Joe W. "Constantius II: Three Revisions," Byzantion 48 (1978): 133-136.

Lucien-Brun, X. "Constance II et le massacre des princes," Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé ser. 4 (1973): 585-602.

Pohlsander, Hans. "Crispus Caesar: Brilliant Career and Tragic End," Historia 33 (1984): 76-106.

Seeck, O. "Constantinus (3)." RE 4: col. 1026-1028.

Notes

1For Constantine II's name, see: ILS, 712-13, 721-2, 724; AE 1960, # 06; he is called Flavius Constantinus on one inscription: ILS 714. Constantine II's early life is discussed by Otto Seeck, RE 4, s.v. "Constantinus (3)," col. 1026. 21f. For a listing of the sources that treat the parentage of Constantine II, see T. D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (Cambridge, MA., 1981), 44. The authors of PLRE wrongly claim that Constantine II was a bastard of Constantine I (A. H. M. Jones, J. R. Martindale, and J. Morris, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire [Cambridge, 1971], s. v. "Fl. Claudius Constantinus 3," 1. 223); this contention is based upon an argument from silence.

2The surviving books of Ammianus Marcellinus, which present our best political source for the fourth century, begin their coverage with the Fall of 353. For sources for Constantine II, see the short references in Origo Constantini Imperatoris (=Anonymus Valesianus) , Aurelius Victor, Eusebius, Eutropius, Zosimus, Orosius and Zonaras.

3For a discussion of the dating of the birth and Caesarship of Constantine II, see Michael DiMaio, Jörn Zeuge, and Jane Bethune, "The Proelium Cibalense et Proelium Campi Ardiensis : The First Civil War of Constantine I and Licinius I," AncW 21 (1990): 89ff.

4For the chronology and sources for Constantine I's expeditions against the Sarmatians, see ibid , 84.

5For Constantine II's nominal command of Gaul, see further Seeck, RE 4, col. 1026. 56 ff. For the death of Crispus, see Patrick Guthrie, "The Execution of Crispus," Phoenix 20 (1966): 325-331 and, more recently, Hans Pohlsander, "Crispus Caesar: Brilliant Career and Tragic End," Historia 33 (1984): 76-106.

6For his victory over the Alamanni, see ILS 724; CIL 3.7000; Barnes, New Empire, 84; idem , A thanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire (Cambridge, MA., 1993): 310-11, nn. 4-5.

7For a discussion of the Gothic war and sources that treat it, see DiMaio, Zonaras' Account of the Neo-Flavian Emperors: A Commentary (PhD diss., University of Missouri-Columbia, 1977): 194 ff.

8For his marriage, see Euseb. VC , 4. 49; for his residences in Gaul, see Athanasius, Apol. c. Arian. 87.7 (Opitz, ed., 2.1.166); for a listing of Constantine II's residences and movements before 337, see Barnes, New Empire , 84-5; for the same information after the death of Constantine I, see idem ., Athanasius and Constantius , 218.

9For these events, see X. Lucien-Brun, "Constance II et le massacre des princes," Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé ser. 4 (1973): 585-602; Joe W. Leedom, "Constantius II: Three Revisions," Byzantion 48 (1978): 133-36. More recently, see Michael DiMaio and Duane W.-H. Arnold, " Per Vim, Per Caedem, Per Bellum : A Study of Murder and Ecclesiastical Politics in the Year 337 A.D.," Byzantion 62 (1992): 198 ff.

10For a listing of the sources which discuss the division of the empire among the sons of Constantine and problems with their interpretation, see Michael DiMaio, "Smoke in the Wind: Zonaras' use of Philostorgius, Zosimus, John of Antioch, and John of Rhodes in his Narrative on the Neo-Flavian Emperors," Byzantion 58 (1988): 236 ff. For more general discussion, see Barnes, Athanasius and Constantius , 19ff.

11A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire (Baltimore, 1986 reprint): 114.

12For a reconstruction of the Battle of Aquileia and the sources that treat it, see DiMaio, Byzantion 58 (1988): 240 ff.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael DiMaio, Jr. and Robert Frakes. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents,including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Spouses ChildrenUter

--------------------

ID: I69090

Name: Constantius II of ROME

Suffix: Emperor

Title: Emperor

Sex: M

Birth: Abt 315

Death: 360

Note:

Sources: Universal Standard Encyclopedia; Kraentzler 1794, AF.

Universal: Became Emperor of the East upon his father's death and Emperor of

the entire Roman Empire after his brother, Constaus, was killed. In 355 he

appointed his cousin Julian as Caesar who succeeded him as emperor.

Change Date: 12 JUL 2000 at 21:33:17 -------------------- Constantius was the second of the three sons of Constantine I and his second wife Fausta. Constantius was born in Sirmium (then in Panonia, now Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia) and named Caesar by his father. He married three times, first to a daughter of Julius Constantius, then to Eusebia, and last to Faustina, who gave birth to a posthumous daughter called Constantia, who later married Emperor Gratian.

When Constantine died in 337, Constantius II led the massacre of his relatives descended from the second marriage of his grandfather Constantius Chlorus and Theodora,[1] leaving himself, his older brother Constantine II, his younger brother Constans and two cousins (Gallus and his half-brother Julian) as the only surviving males related to Constantine. The three brothers divided the Roman Empire among them, according to their father's will. Constantine II received Britannia, Gaul and Hispania; Constans ruled Italia, Africa, and Illyricum; and Constantius ruled the East

This division changed when Constantine II died in 340, trying to overthrow Constans in Italy, and Constans became sole ruler in the Western half of the empire. The division changed once more in 350 when Constans was killed in battle by forces loyal to the usurper Magnentius. Until this time, Constantius was preoccupied with fighting the Sassanid Empire, and he was forced to elevate his cousin Gallus to Caesar of the East to assist him, while he turned his attention to this usurper.

Constantius eventually met and crushed Magnentius in the Battle of Mursa Major, one of the bloodiest battles in Roman history, in 351. Magnentius committed suicide in 353, and Constantius soon after put his cousin Gallus to death. However, he still could not handle the military affairs of both the Eastern and German frontiers by himself, so in 355 he elevated his last remaining relative, Julian, to the rank of Caesar.

On 11 August 355, the magister militum Claudius Silvanus revolted in Gaul. Silvanus had surrendered to Constantius after the battle of Mursa Major. Constantius had made him magister militum in 353, with the purpose of blocking the German threats, a feat that Silvanus achieved by bribing the German tribes with the money he had collected. A plot organized by members of Constantius' court led the emperor to recall Silvanus. After Silvanus revolted, he received a letter by Constantius that recalled him to Milan, but which made no reference to the revolt. Ursicinus, who should have replaced Silvanus, bribed some troops, and Silvanus was killed.

Arbitio was the main general (magister militum) of Constantius. He was given a consulship in 355.

As Julian was hailed Augustus by the army in Gaul, in 361, Constantius saw no alternative but to face the usurper with violent force. As the two armies sought engagement, Constantius died from a fever near Tarsus on October 5th, 361, and Julian was proclaimed Augustus throughout the Roman Empire. Many of his ministers were put to trial at the Chalcedon tribunal

Constantius took an active part in the affairs of the Christian church — convening one council at Rimini and its twin at Seleuca, which met in 359 and 360. "Unfortunately for his memory the theologians whose advice he took were ultimately discredited and the malcontents whom he pressed to conform emerged victorious," writes the historian A.H.M. Jones. " The great councils of 359-60 are therefore not reckoned ecumenical in the tradition of the church, and Constantius II is not remembered as a restorer of unity, but as a heretic who arbitrarily imposed his will on the church."

Jones also notes that Constantius "appears in the pages of Ammianus as a conscientious emperor but a vain and stupid man, an easy prey to flatterers. He was timid and suspicious, and interested persons could easily play on his fears for their own advantage." Ammianus also notes that Constantius II repeatedly murdered Roman aristocrats on the merest hint that they might be seeking the Empire themselves, including killing one because he had a dream about him, and another because he had a purple tablecloth which might have been fashioned into the robe of an Emperor.

-------------------- Constantius II (337-361 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.

Salve Regina University

Robert Frakes

Clarion University

Flavius Julius Constantius, second son of Constantine I and Fausta , was born on 7 August 317 in Illyricum. He seems to have been made a Caesar on 13 November 324 in Nicomedeia. He was sent to Gaul when his brother Constantine II fought on the Danube in 332. At the time of his father's Tricennalia he went to Constantinople and married his first wife, the daughter of his uncle Julius Constantius . When his father died in May 337, Constantius, who was campaigning in the east, rushed back to Constantinople and arranged for his father's obsequies. He may have been the force behind the murder of a large number of relatives and retainers in a purge. The only male family members who survived were Julian and his half-brother Gallus . The purge may have had its roots in the religious squabbling between the Orthodox and Arian factions in Constantinople. 1 In the first part of September 337 Constantius II and his two brothers met in Pannonia where they were acclaimed Augusti by the army to divide up the empire among themselves. The realm of Constantius II included the east, except for Thrace, Achaea, and Macedon. After his brother Constans I was killed by the forces of Magnentius in 350, Constantius obtained possession of his brother's realm which included the territory of Constantine II, who had died in 340. 2

Constantius spent a great deal of his reign on military campaigns; between 337 and 350, he resided in Antioch, between 351-359 he spent much of his time in Sirmium and Mediolanum (Milan), and in 360-361 he lived in Antioch again. While in the east, he spent several of his summers campaigning against the Persians. 3 Although he appears to have been a competent general, some contemporaries felt that Constantius was a better soldier in civil wars than in foreign combat and some disparaged his apparent reluctance to face the Persians. 4 However, this judgement may be a bit unfair. Perhaps "mixed success" might be a safer description of Constantius' military career. He succeeded in stopping every major Persian invasion, as the Battle of Singara in 348, costly to both sides, demonstrates. Indeed, when viewed in contrast with those of his immediate successors, Constantius' struggles with the Persians appear in a more favorable light.

The Persians were not the only threat to the empire during his reign. Constantius also fought several campaigns against various barbarian groups. However, his greatest threat came from a series of usurpers who arose in various sections of the western portions of the empire. To cope with them, Constantius shifted his base of operations from the east to Mediolanum (Milan) during the 350s. Although the revolts of his kinsman Nepotian in 350 and that of Silvanus in 355 were repressed by his opponents or by the emperor himself, the usurpation of Magnentius and that of Vetranio formed the basis of a more serious threat to the foundation of Constantius' rule. Both usurpers raised their standards in revolt in 350. Although Vetranio was repressed by Constantius into honorable retirement in the same year, it was only after the costly Battle of Mursa in 351 and the victory at Mons Seleuci in 353 that Constantius was able to quell Magnentius , who committed suicide in August 353. 5 In order to keep the Persians in check while he was dealing with the various usurpers, Constantius had appointed his cousin Gallus Caesar in 351 and had sent him east to maintain a Roman presence there. Gallus , however, under the influence of his wife Constantina , soon challenged his cousin's authority and was put to death by Constantius at the end of 354. 6

His first wife, the daughter of Julius Constantius , must have died in the '40s or early '50s because he married his second wife Eusebia in 353. Although the marriage was harmonious, she passed away in 360. 7 Largely due to the influence of Eusebia, Constantius appointed Gallus' half-brother Julian as his Caesar and dispatched him to Gaul in 355, while he went east to face the Persians. When Julian's military successes between 355 and 360 became too much for Constantius to endure, he attempted to weaken the Caesar by asking that some of the Gallic troops be sent to him for service in the east. Julian's troops acclaimed the Caesar as Augustus during January or February of 360; while en route to put down Julian , Constantius passed away at Mopsucrenae in Cilicia on 3 November 361. To give Constantius some credit, he is reported to have named Julian as his successor to avoid a succession crisis. At some point in 361 before his death he had married Faustina , who bore him a daughter, Constantia , posthumously. 8

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. 9 He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans ) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign. 10

Bibliography

Barnes, T.D, Athanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire . Cambridge, 1993.

________. New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine . Cambridge, 1981.

Blockley, R.C. "Constantius Gallus and Julian as Caesars of Constantius II." Latomus 21 (1972): 433ff.

DiMaio, Michael. "The Antiochene Connection: Zonaras, Ammianus Marcellinus, and John of Antioch on the Reigns of the Emperors Constantius II and Julian." Byzantion 50 (1980): 158ff.

________. and Duane W.-H.Arnold. " Per Vim, Per Caedem, Per Bellum : A Study of Murder and Ecclesiastical Politics in the Year 337 A.D.." Byzantion , 62 (1992): 158ff.

________. "Smoke in the Wind: Zonaras' Use of Philostorgius, Zosimus, John of Antioch, and John of Rhodes in his Narrative on the Neo-Flavian Emperors." Byzantion 58 (1988): 230ff.

________. Zonaras' Account of the Neo-Flavian Emperors , (Ph.D. diss., University of Missouri-Columbia, 1977).

________. "Zonaras, Julian, and Philostorgios on the Death of Constantine I." GOTR 36 (1981): 118ff.

Ensslin, Wm. "Magnentius (1)," RE 14: col. 445ff.

Frakes, Robert. "Cross-References to the Lost Books of Ammianus Marcellinus." Phoenix 49 (1995): 232-246.

________. "Ammianus Marcellinus and Zonaras on a Late Roman Assassination." Historia 46 (1997): 121-128.

Jones, A.H.M., J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris. "Eusebia," the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire , Cambridge, 1971, 1.300ff.

________. J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris. "Faustina," PRLE . 1.326.

________. J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris. "Fl. Iul. Constantius 8," PRLE . 1.226.

Kienast, Dietmar. Römische Kaisertabelle: Grundzüge einer Römischen Kaiserchronologie . Darmstadt, 1990.

Klein, R. Constantius II und die Christliche Kirche Darmstadt, 1977.

Leedom, Joe W. "Constantius II: Three Revisions," Byzantion 48 (1978): 133-136.

Lucien-Brun, X. "Constance II et le massacre des princes," Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé ser. 4 (1973): 585-602.

Müller-Seidel, Ilse. "Die Usurpation Julians des Abtrünnigen im Lichte seiner Germanenpolitik." HZ 180 (1955): 225ff.

Seeck, O. "Constantius (4)." RE 4: col. 1044ff

________. "Vetranio (1)." RE 8.2: col. 1838ff

Notes

1Constantius II's full name: ILS , 705, 724, 731-33, 737, 739, 8808; such variations as Flavius Constantius ( Ibid. , 730, 734) or Constantius ( Ibid. , 708, 710, 729, 736, 738, 740) appear on inscriptions.

For a listing of the sources that treat the parentage of Constantius II, see T.D. Barnes, New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine , (Cambridge, 1981), 45, A.H.M. Jones, J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire , (Cambridge, 1971), s.v. "Fl Iul. Constantius 8," 1.226-227, Michael DiMaio, Zonaras' Account of the Neo-Flavian Emperors: A Commentary , (Ph.D diss., University of Missouri-Columbia, 1977), 281, n.18.

Although Barnes ( New Empire , 85) and the authors of the PLRE (1.226) date the Caesarship to 8 November 324 based on literary evidence, epigraphic evidence ( AE , 1937, #119: DiMaio, Zonaras , 360, n.14), more immediate than the literary evidence, presents a date of 13 November 324.

For Constantius' early military commands and first marriage: Ibid. , 359-60.

For a discussion of Constantius' role in Constantine's funeral, see idem. , "Zonaras, Julian, and Philostorgios on the Death of Constantine I," GOTR , 26 (1981) 118ff.

For a discussion of the purge of 337 and the sources that treat these matters, see X. Lucien-Brun, "Constance II et le massacre des princes," Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé ser. 4 (1973): 585-602; Joe W. Leedom, "Constantius II: Three Revisions," Byzantion 48 (1978): 132-145, and Michael DiMaio and Duane Arnold, " Per Vim, Per Caedem, Per Bellum : A Study of Murder and Ecclesiastical Politics in the Year 337 A.D.," Byzantion , 62(1992), 158ff.

2For a discussion of the succession of the sons of Constantine to the imperial throne, see ibid ., 198ff; for a listing of the sources which discuss the apportionment of the empire among the sons of Constantine and problems with their interpretation, see Michael DiMaio, "Smoke in the Wind: Zonaras' Use of Philostorgius, Zosimus, John of Antioch, and John of Rhodes in his Narrative on the Neo-Flavian Emperors," Byzantion , 58 (1988), 336ff.

3For a complete listing of Constantius' residences during his reign, his movements, and the sources that treat them, see Barnes ( New Empire , 85ff; Athanasius and Constantius , 218ff); Kienast does much the same thing in briefer compass (Dietmar Kienast, Römische Kaisertabelle , [Darmstadt, 1990], 309ff); Seeck's treatment of Constantius' reign remains the classic (O. Seeck, RE 4, s.v. "Constantius (4)," col. 1044ff, although Barnes' Athanasius and Constantius may soon supplant it.

4 Ammianus Marcellinus 21.16.15; Libanius Or. 18. 206-207.

5The revolts of Magnentius and Vetranio are discussed by Barnes, Athanasius and Constantius , 101ff, Wm. Ensslin, RE 14, s.v. "Magnentius (1)," col.445.8ff, and O. Seeck, RE 8.2, s.v. col. 1838ff

For a reconstruction of the Battle of Mursa and the sources that treat it, see DiMaio, Byzantion , 58 (1988), 245ff.

6For a discussion of Gallus' fall from grace and the sources that treat the event, see ibid , 232ff, and idem. , "The Antiochene Connection: Zonaras, Ammianus Marcellinus, and John of Antioch on the Reigns of the Emperors Constantius II and Julian," Byzantion , 50 (1980), 170ff. See also R. N. Mooney, "Gallus Caesar's Last Journey," Classical Philology 53 (1958): 175-177. For a disputed plot of the usurper Magnentius to kill Gallus, see Robert Frakes, "Ammianus Marcellinus and Zonaras on a Late Roman Assassination plot," Historia 46 (1997): 121-128.

7For a listing of sources on Eusebia and her influence on Constantius, see A.H.M. Jones, J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris, PLRE ,s.v. "Eusebia" 1.300-01.

8For a discussion of the rise of Julian and the events leading up to the death of Constantius, see R.C. Blockley, "Constantius Gallus and Julian as Caesars of Constantius II," Latomus , 21 (1972), 445ff; Ilse Müller-Seidel, "Die Usurpation Julians des Abtrünnigen im Lichte seiner Germanenpolitik," HZ , 180 (1955). 227ff; and DiMaio, Zonaras , 329ff.

For a listing of sources on Faustina, see A.H.M. Jones, J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris, PLRE ,s.v. "Faustina" 1.326.

9Extant Books XIV through XXI of Ammianus' Res Gestae treat the reign of Constantius. At least his lost Book XIII did also; see further, Robert Frakes, "Cross-References to the Lost Books of Ammianus Marcellinus," Phoenix 49 (1995): 232-246.

10For a discussion of Constantius' character, see DiMaio and Arnold, Byzantion , 62 (1992), 168ff. For a summary of his virtues and vices, see Ammianus 21.16.1-9

Barnes' Athanasius and Constantius is the locus classicus for any discussion of Constantius' involvement with the Christian faith.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael DiMaio, Jr. and Robert Frakes. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents,including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. -------------------- BIOGRAPHY: b. February 317, Arelate, Viennensis [now Arles, Fr.]

d. 340

Roman emperor from 337 to 340.

The second son of Constantine the Great (ruled 306-337), he was given the title of caesar by his father on March 1, 317. When Constantine the Great died in 337, Constantine II and his brothers, Constans and Constantius II, each adopted the title augustus and divided the empire among themselves. Constantine II became ruler of Britain, Gaul, and Spain. He soon claimed Italy and Africa from Constans and, early in 340, unexpectedly invaded Italy. Penetrating to Aquileia, Constantine was met by the vanguard of the army of Constans and was killed in the ensuing battle.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

BIOGRAPHY: b. Aug. 7, 317, Sirmium, Savia [now Sremska Mitrovica, Yugos.]

d. Nov. 3, 361, Mopsucrenae, Honorias [now in Turkey]

original name FLAVIUS JULIUS CONSTANTIUS , Roman emperor from 337 to 361, who at first shared power with his two brothers, Constantine II (d. 340) and Constans I (d. 350), but who was sole ruler from 353 to 361.

The third son of Constantine I the Great and Fausta, Constantius served under his father as caesar from 323 to 337. When Constantine died on May 22, 337, the troops massacred many of his relatives, allegedly at Constantius' instigation. Constantius then divided the empire with his brothers, taking the eastern provinces (Thrace, Macedonia, Greece, Asia, and Egypt) for himself. Between 338 and 350 he was engaged in inconclusive but extremely bloody warfare with the Persian king Shapur II.

In 350 Constantius returned to Europe to confront two usurpers. Vetranio, commander of the Danube forces, had taken power in Illyricum (now western Yugoslavia); the rest of Europe was seized by the barbarian officer Magnentius, who in 350 executed Constans, the ruler in the West. At Naissus (modern Nis, Yugos.), Constantius persuaded Vetranio to abdicate, and in 351 he crushed Magnentius at Mursa (modern Osijek, Yugos.). During this struggle Constantius appointed his cousin, Gallus Caesar, administrator of the East. But Caesar proved to be a despotic ruler, and in 354 Constantius recalled him and had him executed. After campaigning against the Sarmatian, Suebi, and Quadi tribes on the Danube in 357-358, Constantius returned east to fight Shapur, who had renewed his attacks on the eastern frontier (359). In 361 Constantius was recalled to the West by the revolt of Julian, his caesar in Gaul, but became ill on the way and died.

As an advocate of Arian Christianity, Constantius passed laws against paganism and exiled many Roman Catholic bishops. He drove the influential anti-Arian bishop of Alexandria, Athanasius, into hiding in 356.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. -------------------- http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jdp-fam&id=I11596 -------------------- Occupation: Emperor of Rome -------------------- Reference: http://familytrees.genopro.com/318186/jarleslekt/default.htm?page=toc_families.htm

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Constantius II, Roman Emperor's Timeline

317
August 7, 317
Sirmium, Savia, Mid, Emperor
332
332
Age 14
336
336
Age 18
337
337
Age 19
Flavius, Julius, Constantius
337
Age 19
Flavius, Julius, Constantius
337
Age 19
Flavius, Julius, Constantius
340
340
Age 22
River Alsa, Italy
353
April, 353
Age 35
354
354
Age 36
Rome Italy
359
359
Age 41
Atles