Humphrey DeForest Bogart (1899 - 1957) MP

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Nicknames: "Bogie", ""Bogie"", "בוגרט המפרי דפורסט"
Birthplace: New York, New York, New York, USA
Death: Died in Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA
Cause of death: Throat cancer
Occupation: Actor, acteur, actor
Managed by: Ivy Jo Smith
Last Updated:
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Immediate Family

About Humphrey DeForest Bogart

Humphrey DeForest Bogart was American actor who became a preeminent motion picture “tough guy” and was a top box office attraction during the 1940s and '50s. In his performances he projected the image of a worldly wise, individualistic adventurer with a touch of idealism hidden beneath a hardened exterior. Offscreen he gave the carefully crafted appearance of being a cynical loner, granting only minimal concessions to Hollywood conventions. He became a cult hero of the American cinema.

Bogart was the son of a prominent surgeon and a commercial artist. He served in the United States Navy at the end of World War I, and after the war he began a stage career in New York City playing juvenile roles in drawing-room and country-house comedies. By the mid-1920s he had won a leading role in the comedy Cradle Snatchers (1925) and other plays, and the young actor with the distinctive lisp began receiving good notices from critics. He often played the ascot-wearing playboy or country-club fixture who seemingly frolicked through life in dinner jacket and tails, which is the ultimate irony in light of his later screen persona as the hard-bitten, world-weary man of few words. He is reported to have originated the classic line of the mindless society fellow: “Tennis, anyone?”

Bogart's Broadway success led to roles in two film shorts—The Dancing Town (1928) and Broadway's Like That (1930)—and a contract with the Fox Film Corporation. His supporting roles in some 10 films made between 1930 and 1934 failed to make an impact, and the disillusioned Bogart returned to the Broadway stage. He scored his biggest triumph to date as the ruthless killer Duke Mantee in Robert Sherwood's The Petrified Forest (1935). He finally garnered some serious attention in Hollywood when Warner Bros. adapted the play for the screen the following year. Bogart spent the next five years playing numerous supporting roles—mostly gangster types—and occasional leading roles in B-films. His best pictures of this period are such films as Black Legion (1936), Marked Woman (1937), Dead End (1937), The Roaring Twenties (1939), and They Drive by Night (1940).

Two films in 1941 marked the turning point of Bogart's career. In High Sierra he played a killer with a tortured soul and a sense of morality—a departure from the one-dimensional thugs he had portrayed earlier. His performance as detective Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon (1941), John Huston's adaptation of the Dashiell Hammett detective thriller, helped make the film a classic. He followed this with leading roles in such well-regarded films as All Through the Night and Across the Pacific (both 1942) before he was cast in what is perhaps his quintessential screen characterization, that of cabaret owner Rick Blaine in Casablanca (1942). Despite its hurried, chaotic production, begun when the script was only half-finished, Casablanca is one of the best in moviemaking history; it ranked second only to Orson Welles's Citizen Kane (1941) on the American Film Institute's 1999 list of the top 100 American films. Released just after America's entrance into World War II, Casablanca's topicality and sentimental cynicism helped to make it an enormous success. The film won the Oscar for best picture, and Bogart's Oscar-nominated performance secured his newfound status as Warners' top male star.

From this success Bogart went on to compile an impressive list of screen credits. Few actors can match his track record for quality films: To Have and Have Not (1944), The Big Sleep (1946), The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948), Key Largo (1948), In a Lonely Place (1950), The African Queen (1951; Academy Award for best actor), Sabrina (1954), and The Caine Mutiny (1954) are all regarded as screen classics. He seldom appeared in a truly bad picture, and his legend helped such minor films as Sahara (1943), Passage to Marseilles (1944), Dark Passage (1947), Beat the Devil (1953), and The Barefoot Contessa (1954) to achieve cult status.

Bogart's screen persona was that of laconic reserve with the suggestion of complex underlying emotions. It was this duality that distinguished Bogart from other “tough guy” actors, who relied on swagger and bravado to convey their anger with the world; Bogart, conversely, employed cool detachment to suggest world-weariness. He often gave his most ruthless characters a slight hint of decency, whereas the heroes he portrayed often had a dark or vulnerable side. He succeeded in making cynicism an endearing quality.

After three troubled marriages, Bogart found lasting happiness when he wed actress Lauren Bacall in 1945. Their rapport was evident in their memorable onscreen pairings in To Have and Have Not, The Big Sleep, Dark Passage, and Key Largo. They teamed again for a well-received television adaptation of The Petrified Forest (1955) that also starred Henry Fonda and were planning another screen collaboration when Bogart died in 1957.

Although he was a popular actor during the 1940s and '50s, Bogart achieved the status of a legend after his death. In 1999 he was named the top male film star of the 20th century by the American Film Institute.

Humphrey Bogart's hand and foot prints are immortalized in the forecourt of Grauman's Chinese Theater and he has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6322 Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood.

Mini Biography

The son of a moderately wealthy Manhattan surgeon (who was secretly addicted to opium) and a famed magazine illustrator, Humphrey Bogart was educated at Trinity School, New York City, sent to Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, in preparation for medical studies at Yale. He was expelled from Phillips and joined the U.S. Naval Reserve. From 1920 to 1922, he managed a stage company owned by family friend William A. Brady (the father of actress Alice Brady), performing a variety of tasks at Brady's film studio in New York. He then began regular stage performances. Alexander Woollcott described his acting in a 1922 play as inadequate. In 1930, he gained a contract with Fox, his feature film debut in a ten-minute short, Broadway's Like That (1930), co-starring Ruth Etting and Joan Blondell. Fox released him after two years. After five years of stage and minor film roles, he had his breakthrough role in The Petrified Forest (1936) from Warner Bros. He won the part over Edward G. Robinson only after the star, Leslie Howard, threatened Warner Bros. that he would quit unless Bogart was given the key role of Duke Mantee, which he had played in the Broadway production with Howard. The film was a major success and led to a long-term contract with Warner Bros. From 1936 to 1940, Bogart appeared in 28 films, usually as a gangster, twice in Westerns and even a horror film. His landmark year was 1941 (often capitalizing on parts George Raft had stupidly rejected) with roles in classics such as High Sierra (1941) and as Sam Spade in one of his most fondly remembered films, The Maltese Falcon (1941). These were followed by Casablanca (1942), The Big Sleep (1946), and Key Largo (1948). Bogart, despite his erratic education, was incredibly well-read and he favored writers and intellectuals within his small circle of friends. In 1947, he joined wife Lauren Bacall and other actors protesting the House Un-American Activities Committee witch hunts. He also formed his own production company, and the next year made The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948). Bogie won the best actor Academy Award for The African Queen (1951) and was nominated for Casablanca (1942) and as Captain Queeg in The Caine Mutiny (1954), a film made when he was already seriously ill. He died in his sleep at his Hollywood home following surgeries and a battle with throat cancer.

IMDb Mini Biography By: Ed Stephan stephan@cc.wwu.edu

Spouse

Lauren Bacall (21 May 1945 - 14 January 1957) (his death) 2 children

Mayo Methot (21 August 1938 - 10 May 1945) (divorced)

Mary Philips (3 April 1928 - 21 June 1937) (divorced)

Helen Menken (20 May 1926 - 18 November 1927) (divorced)

Trade Mark

Typically played smart, playful, courageous, tough, occasionally reckless characters who lived in a corrupt world, anchored by a hidden moral code.

Almost always played a hard-boiled cynic who ultimately shows his noble side.

Low-key, distinctive nasal voice.

Often wore bow ties.

Roles in film noirs.

Trivia

The older of two children with Lauren Bacall, Stephen H. Bogart, discussed his relationship with Bogie in 1996 book, "Bogart: In Search of My Father".

New York Times reported on 12/25/2000 that "Humphrey Bogart was born on 23 January 1899, but Warner Brothers publicity decided that a Christmas birthday would be far more advantageous because 'a guy born on Christmas can't be all bad.'" However, copies of two 1900 census forms prove this to be incorrect.

Ranked #9 in Empire (UK) magazine's "The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time" list. [October 1997]

Bogart's speech defect (lisping) does not appear in the German dubbings of his voice, which is also lower.

There is some dispute as to how Bogey's lip injury occurred. One story is that when Bogart was in the Navy, a prisoner he was escorting attempted to escape and hit Bogart in the face with his shackles. Bogart, fearing that he would lose his position and be severely punished for letting a prisoner escape, chased down the man and brought him successfully to the Portsmouth Naval Prison. However, because the surgeon who stitched up his face did not do a very good job, Bogart was left with his trademark lisp. Another version has it that he caught a large wood splinter in his lip at the age of 12, but the combat story is more exciting - a legend, indeed.

Named his daughter, Leslie Bogart, "Leslie" to show his gratitude to Leslie Howard, who got him his big break in The Petrified Forest (1936).

Interred at Forest Lawn, Glendale, CA, in the Garden of Memory, Columbarium of Eternal Light (not accessable to the general public).

Played chess by mail with GIs during WWII.

In Key Largo (1948), Bogie takes the helm of a boat called the Santana. In real life, Santana was the name of Bogie's yacht, which he purchased from June Allyson and Dick Powell.

His coffin contains a small, gold whistle, put there by his wife, Lauren Bacall.

Was nicknamed "The Last Century Man" because he was born on Christmas Day 1899 (based on the popular belief that the 19th Century ended in 1899, not 1900 as it really was).

Decades after his death, Bogie made a guest appearance on the TV horror series "Tales from the Crypt" (1989). Footage from several movies was computer enhanced and combined with a voice and body double to allow Bogart to receive top billing for the episode "You, Murderer." Guest starring with "Bogie" were John Lithgow and Isabella Rossellini, performing an eerie (and hilarious) parody of her mother, Ingrid Bergman.

Related to screenwriter Adela Rogers St. Johns; his grandfather and her grandmother were brother and sister.

Distantly related to the late Princess Diana, Princess of Wales, through her American relations.

Ranked #1 on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest screen actors.

Maud Bogart's drawing of her baby Humphrey appeared in a national advertising campaign for Mellin's Baby Food, not as often erroneously reported, for Gerber.

Pictured on a 32¢ US commemorative postage stamp in the Legends of Hollywood series, issued 31 July 1997.

Co-starred not only in Casablanca (1942), the film rated No. 1 on American Film Institute's list of Top 100 U.S. love stories (2002), but in four other films on AFI romance list: The African Queen (1951), ranked at #xx; Dark Victory (1939), ranked at #32; Sabrina (1954),ranked at #54; and To Have and Have Not (1944), ranked at #60.

Starred with his wife Lauren Bacall in the syndicated radio program "Bold Venture" (1951-1952). His character's name was Slate Shannon.

Was of English, Dutch, Spanish and Welsh heritage.

His preferred brand of cigarettes was Chesterfield.

Although usually considered a quiet and accommodating actor by most of his collaborators, he became disliked by William Holden and Billy Wilder during the filming of Sabrina (1954). A good friend before they made the film, Wilder later said that Bogart, near the end of his life, apologized for his behavior on the set and said it was due to his personal problems. Even so, Audrey Hepburn got along with him despite his criticism of her.

At 5'8", he was almost exactly the same height as his beloved wife Lauren Bacall.

He had just turned 57 and weighed only 80 pounds when he died on January 14, 1957.

Off the set, he and Ingrid Bergman hardly spoke during the filming of Casablanca (1942). She said later, "I kissed him, but I never knew him." Years later, after Ingrid Bergman had become involved with Italian director Roberto Rossellini, and borne him a child, he bawled her out for it. "You used to be a great star," he said. "What are you now?" "A happy woman," she replied. Bogart's coolness towards Bergman was later revealed to have been caused by the violent jealousy of his wife at the time, Mayo Methot, whose fears were realized when Bogart entered an affair with future wife Lauren Bacall.

Though a poor student, he was a lifelong reader. He could quote Plato, Pope, Ralph Waldo Emerson and over a thousand lines of Shakespeare. He admired writers, and some of his best friends were screenwriters.

He was voted the Greatest Movie Star of all time by Entertainment Weekly.

Almost all of the roles that made him a star (after a decade of toiling in minor films) were roles he got because George Raft had turned them down, from High Sierra (1941), in which Bogie was first noticed as a viable box office draw, to Casablanca (1942), which made him a true international star. Ironically, after having been overshadowed by Raft the whole first half of his career, Bogart is today by far the better-known star and is considered the superior actor of the two.

His marriage to Lauren Bacall occurred at the Pleasant Valley area of Richland County, Ohio, known as Malabar Farm, the home of Pulitzer Prize-winning author Louis Bromfield (4 miles southeast of Lucas within Monroe Township). The home is now an Ohio State Park.

He had many famous visitors as he grew ill from cancer during the year before he died, including but not limited to Katharine Hepburn, Spencer Tracy, George Cukor, Peter Ustinov, Billy Wilder and Kirk Douglas.

Although Frank Sinatra's Rat Pack had a very different group of members, Bogart was the official founder and leader of the Holmby Hills Rat Pack, as he called them, comprising a group of hard-drinking buddies in Hollywood. Sinatra, a friend, was a member and, when Bogart died in 1957, borrowed the title for his own Rat Pack, which (of course) had Sinatra as their Chairman.

He was voted the 13th Greatest Movie Star of all time by Premiere Magazine.

So as to not look short next to co-stars like Ingrid Bergman and Paul Henreid, through most of the shooting of Casablanca (1942) (and in a few of his other films) Bogart wore platforms under his shoes that added nearly 5 inches of height to his frame.

Is mentioned, along with wife Lauren Bacall, in the hit 1980s song "Key Largo" ("We had it all, just like Bogie and Bacall").

Father: Belmont Bogart (1867-1934), mother: Maud Humphrey (March 30, 1865 in Rochester, NY-1940), sisters: Frances Bogart (1901-?) and Catherine "Kay" Bogart (1903-?).

His performance as Fred C. Dobbs in The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948) is ranked #24 on Premiere Magazine's 100 Greatest Performances of All Time (2006).

His performance as Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon (1941) is ranked #50 on Premiere Magazine's 100 Greatest Performances of All Time (2006).

Thomasville Furniture launched a line of classic furniture which draws inspiration from Bogart's films, known as The Bogart Collection.

His performance as Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon (1941) is ranked #80 on Premiere Magazine's 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time.

His performance as Rick Blaine in Casablanca (1942) is ranked #19 on Premiere Magazine's 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time.

Has three films on the American Film Institute's 100 Most Inspiring Movies of All Time. They are: Dark Victory (1939) at #72, The African Queen (1951) at #48, and Casablanca (1942) at #32.

On June 24th, 2006, a section of West 103rd Street in the Upper West Side of New York City was renamed "Humphrey Bogart Place" in his honor. He had grown up at 245 W. 103rd Street (which is now public housing), and a plaque was put there to commemorate the event.

Is portrayed by Kevin O'Connor in Bogie (1980) (TV).

Is portrayed by Jerry Lacy in Play It Again, Sam (1972).

For years, a 16mm print of the Janet Gaynor/Fredric March version of A Star Is Born (1937) would be screened at the Bogart household each and every Christmas Day (Bogart's birthday) while Bogart would sit watching the film and weeping. Finally, one year, director Richard Brooks, a long-time friend of Bogart's asked him why. "Because," Bogart explained, "I expected a lot more of myself. And I'm never going to get it.".

Frank Sinatra's group of friends known as The Rat Pack was actually originally a group of Bogart's friends, including Sinatra, who enjoyed drinking heavily. They referred to themselves as The Holmby Hills Rat Pack, derived from the Holmby Hills section of Hollywood where the Bogarts lived. The origin of the term The Rat Pack was this: One morning, after a night of heavy drinking by Bogart and his friends, Bogart's wife Lauren Bacall walked into the room, looked at the group and flatly stated, "You look like a God-damned rat pack." Bogart enjoyed the term, and a legend was born.

Like his friends John Huston and Spencer Tracy, Bogart was a heavy smoker and a heavy drinker, allegedly sustaining two packs of Chesterfields a day.

He was involved in a serious automobile accident late in the production of Beat the Devil (1953). Several of his teeth were knocked out in the accident, hindering his ability to speak clearly. Director John Huston hired a young British actor noted for his mimicry skills to re-record some of Bogart's dialog during post-production looping. And although the talent of the young impersonator is such that the difference is undetectable while viewing the film today, it is a young Peter Sellers who provides Bogart's voice during some of the scenes.

He was a friend of the English actor Jack Hawkins, who also suffered from throat cancer nine years after Bogart's death.

In her essay "Humphrey and Bogie," Louise Brooks, who knew Bogart early in his career, said that the role she felt most closely personified Bogart's personality was Dixon "Dix" Steele in In a Lonely Place (1950): "In a film whose title perfectly defined Humphrey's own isolation among people, In a Lonely Place (1950) gave him a role that he could play with complexity because the film character's, the screenwriter's, pride in his art, his selfishness, his drunkenness, his lack of energy stabbed with lightning strokes of violence, were shared equally by the real Bogart.".

He was a close friend of Richard Burton, and once confessed to the Welsh actor that his ambition had always been to act in a Shakespearean play on stage. He regretted that the public probably would not be able to take him seriously in such a role, due to his screen image as the tough guy.

Salary for 1942: $114,125.

In 1952, he campaigned for Democratic Presidential candidate Adlai Stevenson after initially supporting Republican candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower.

All four of his wives were actresses.

Was an outstanding chess player. At a time when many stores had a professional chess player who could be challenged by anyone, Bogie would challenge and win almost every game. The challenger would pay 50 cents. If he won, he got $1.00. Many stores wanted Bogie to turn pro, but he declined because he was making more money as a non-pro. Eventually he did turn pro and would beat 40 or more people a day. (Source: Paul Harvey, Jr.'s, "The Rest of the Story.").

In late 1947, was to be a partner with producer Mark Hellinger in a proposed new company, Mark Hellinger Productions. Bogart invested $25,000 and was contracted to do two films a year. Hellinger owned the rights to Willard Motley's best selling novel "Knock on Any Door". However, Hellinger died in Dec. 1947. The rights to the novel passed to Bogart, and it became the first film of his own new independent production company, Santana Pictures Corporation: Knock on Any Door (1949).

Lauren Bacall once recalled that while John Wayne and Fred Astaire hardly knew her husband Humphrey Bogart at all, they were the first to send flowers and good wishes after Bogart was diagnosed with esophageal cancer in January 1956.

After undergoing a nine-and-a-half hour operation for esophageal cancer on 1 March 1956, Bogart began smoking filtered cigarettes for the first time in his life.

Personal Quotes

The trouble with the world is that it's always one drink behind.

Acting is experience with something sweet behind it.

"It's been misspelt a lot. He decided on it. It's not Bog-ey. He signed with an -ie. And that's good enough for me." -

[On Lauren Bacall] "She's a real Joe. You'll fall in love with her like everybody else."

[attributed last words] "I should never have switched from scotch to martinis."

[On the House Un-American Activities Committee] "They'll nail anyone who ever scratched his ass during the National Anthem."

I came out here with one suit and everybody said I looked like a bum. Twenty years later Marlon Brando came out with only a sweatshirt and the town drooled over him. That shows how much Hollywood has progressed.

A hotdog at the ballpark is better than a steak at the Ritz.

When the heavy, full of crime and bitterness, grabs his wounds and talks about death and taxes in a husky voice, the audience is his and his alone.

[about himself] "Democrat in politics, Episcopalian by upbringing, dissenter by disposition."

I can't say I ever loved my mother, I admired her.

I don't approve of the John Waynes and the Gary Coopers saying 'Shucks, I ain't no actor -- I'm just a bridge builder or a gas station attendant.' If they aren't actors, what the hell are they getting paid for? I have respect for my profession. I worked hard at it.

The only good reason to have money is this: so that you can tell any SOB in the world to go to hell.

I hate funerals. They aren't for the guy who's dead. They're for the guys who are left alive and enjoy mourning.

The whole world is three drinks behind. If everybody in the world would take three drinks, we would have no trouble.

Acting is like sex: you either do it and don't talk about it, or you talk about it and don't do it. That's why I'm always suspicious of people who talk too much about either.

The only thing you owe the public is a good performance.

You're not a star until they can spell your name in Karachi.

I made more lousy pictures than any actor in history.

[On the untrained beefcake stars of the early 1950s, many of them picked up for screen tests from sidewalks and gas stations] "Shout 'gas' around the studios today, and half the young male stars will come running."

Do I subscribe to the [Laurence Olivier] school of acting? Ah, nuts. I'm an actor. I just do what comes naturally.

I don't hurt the industry. The industry hurts itself, by making so many lousy movies - as if General Motors deliberately put out a bad car.

[On Ingrid Bergman] "I didn't do anything I've never done before, but when the camera moves in on that Bergman face, and she's saying she loves you, it would make anybody feel romantic."

[on Warner Brothers] This studio has more suspensions than the Golden Gate Bridge.

[on Katharine Hepburn] She talks at you as though you were a microphone. She lectured the hell out of me on temperance and the evils of drink. She doesn't give a damn how she looks. I don't think she tries to be a character. I think she is one.

[On Bette Davis] Even when I was carrying a gun, she scared the be-jesus out of me.

It is at least worth arguing that there is a modicum of the creative novelist in all of us, and that this absorption with how men get out of difficulties, single-handedly and alone if possible, is the stuff of which we weave the warp and woof of our own better dramatic imaginings.

[while visiting the set of A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)] This guy [Marlon Brando] - he'll be doing Hamlet when the rest of us are selling potatoes.

Salary

Sabrina (1954) $300,000

Deadline - U.S.A. (1952) $17,500/week

The African Queen (1951) $125,000 + 30% of gross

Sirocco (1951) $133,000 + % of gross

To Have and Have Not (1944) $2,750/week

Casablanca (1942) $2,200/week

Men Are Such Fools (1938) $1,100/week

Swing Your Lady (1938) $1,000/week

The Petrified Forest (1936) $750/week

Three on a Match (1932) $750/week

Up the River (1930) $400/week

______________________________________________

Burial: Forest Lawn Cemetery

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humphrey_Bogart

Humphrey Bogart

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bogart in 1946

Born Humphrey DeForest Bogart

December 25, 1899(1899-12-25)

New York City, New York, U.S.

Died January 14, 1957 (aged 57)

Los Angeles, California, U.S.

Occupation Actor

Years active 1921–1956

Spouse(s) Helen Menken (1926–1927)

Mary Philips (1928–1937)

Mayo Methot (1938–1945)

Lauren Bacall (1945–1957)

Official website

Humphrey DeForest Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957)[1][2] was an American actor.

 After trying various jobs, Bogart began acting in 1921 and became a regular in Broadway productions in the 1920s and 1930s. When the stock market crash of 1929 reduced the demand for plays, Bogart turned to film. His first great success was as Duke Mantee in The Petrified Forest (1936), and this led to a period of typecasting as a gangster in B-movies. His breakthrough came in 1941, with High Sierra (1941) and The Maltese Falcon (1941). The next year, his performance as Rick Blaine in Casablanca (1942) raised him to the peak of his profession and at the same time, cemented his trademark film persona, that of the hard-boiled cynic who ultimately shows his noble side. Other successes followed, including To Have and Have Not (1944), The Big Sleep (1946), Dark Passage (1947), and Key Largo (1948), with his wife Lauren Bacall; The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948); The African Queen (1951), for which he won his only Academy Award; Sabrina (1954), and The Caine Mutiny (1954). During a film career of almost thirty years, he appeared in 75 feature films.
 At the time of his death from cancer in 1957, Bogart was one of the most respected figures in American cinema. Since his death, his persona and film performances have been considered as having a lasting impact and have led to him being described as a cultural icon.[3][4] In 1997, Entertainment Weekly magazine named him the number one movie legend of all time. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked him the Greatest Male Star of All Time.

[edit] Early life

Bogart was born in New York City, the first child of Belmont DeForest Bogart (July 1867, Watkins Glen, New York – September 8, 1934, Tudor City apartments, New York, New York) and Maud Humphrey (1867 – 1941). Belmont and Maud were married in June 1898. His father's ancestors were of Dutch, English, and Spanish origin.[5] Bogart is a Dutch name meaning “orchard”.[6] His mother's family were largely of English descent and to a lesser extent Welsh.[7] Bogart's father was a Presbyterian, while his mother was an Episcopalian. Bogart was raised in his mother's faith.[8]

Bogart's birthday has been a subject of controversy. It was long believed that his birthday on Christmas Day 1899, was a Warner Bros. fiction created to romanticize his background, and that he was really born on January 23, 1899, a date that appears in many references. However, this story is now considered baseless: although no birth certificate has ever been found, his birth notice did appear in a Boston newspaper in early January 1900, which supports the December 1899 date, as do other sources, such as the 1900 census.[9]

[edit] Childhood

Bogart's father, Belmont, was a surgeon specializing in heart and lungs. His mother, Maud Humphrey, was a commercial illustrator, who received her art training in New York and France, including study with James McNeill Whistler, and who later became artistic director of the fashion magazine The Delineator. She was a militant suffragette.[10] She used a drawing of baby Humphrey in a well-known ad campaign for Mellins Baby Food.[11] In her prime, she made over $50,000 a year, then a vast sum, far more than her husband who made $20,000 per year.[12] The Bogarts lived in a fashionable Upper West Side apartment, and had an elegant cottage on a fifty-five acre estate in upstate New York on Canandaigua Lake. As a youngster, Humphrey's gang of friends at the lake would put on theatricals.[13]

 Humphrey was the oldest of three children, his two younger sisters were Frances and Catherine Elizabeth (Kay).[11] His parents were very formal, busy in their careers, and frequently fought—resulting in little emotion directed at the children, "I was brought up very unsentimentally but very straightforwardly. A kiss, in our family, was an event. Our mother and father didn’t glug over my two sisters and me."[14] As a boy, Bogart was teased for his curls, his tidiness, the "cute" pictures his mother had him pose for, the Little Lord Fauntleroy clothes she dressed him in—and the name "Humphrey."[15] From his father, Bogart inherited a tendency for needling people, a fondness for fishing, a life-long love of sailing, and an attraction to strong-willed women.[16]

[edit] Education

Typical of New York society parents, the Bogarts sent their son to private schools. Humphrey began school at the Delancy school until fifth grade when he was enrolled in Trinity School.[17] He was an indifferent, sullen student who showed no interest in after-school activities either.[18] Later he went to the prestigious preparatory school Phillips Academy, in Andover, Massachusetts, where he was admitted based on family connections.[19] They hoped he would go on to Yale, but in 1918, Bogart was expelled.[20]

 The details of his expulsion are disputed: one story claims that he was expelled for throwing the headmaster (alternatively, a groundskeeper) into Rabbit Pond, a man-made lake on campus. Another cites smoking and drinking, combined with poor academic performance and possibly some intemperate comments to the staff. It has also been said that he was actually withdrawn from the school by his father for failing to improve his academics, as opposed to expulsion. In any case, his parents were deeply dismayed by the events and their failed plans for his future.[21]

[edit] Navy

Coming up with no other career options, Bogart followed his love for the sea and enlisted in the United States Navy in the spring of 1918. He recalled later, “At eighteen, war was great stuff. Paris! French girls! Hot damn!”[22] Bogart is recorded as a model sailor who spent most of his months in the navy after the Armistice was signed, ferrying troops back from Europe.[23]

[edit] Trademark scar

It was during his naval stint that Bogart may have gotten his trademark scar and developed his characteristic lisp, though the actual circumstances are unclear. In one account, during a shelling of his ship the USS Leviathan, his lip was cut by a piece of shrapnel, although some claim Bogart didn’t make it to sea until after the Armistice was signed. Another version, which Bogart's long time friend, author Nathaniel Benchley, claims is the truth, is Bogart was injured while on assignment to take a naval prisoner to Portsmouth Naval Prison in Kittery, Maine. Supposedly, while changing trains in Boston, the handcuffed prisoner asked Bogart for a cigarette and while Bogart looked for a match, the prisoner raised his hands, smashed Bogart across the mouth with his cuffs, cutting Bogart's lip, and fled. The prisoner was eventually taken to Portsmouth. An alternate explanation is in the process of uncuffing an inmate, Bogart was struck in the mouth when the inmate wielded one open, uncuffed bracelet while the other side was still on his wrist.[24] According to Darwin Porter's Humphrey Bogart: The Early Years, the scar was caused by his father, Belmont, during a terrible argument.

 By the time Bogart was treated by a doctor, the scar had already formed. "Goddamn doctor," Bogart later told David Niven, "instead of stitching it up, he screwed it up." Niven says that when he asked Bogart about his scar he said it was caused by a childhood accident; Niven claims the stories that Bogart got the scar during wartime were made up by the studios to inject glamour. His post-service physical makes no mention of the lip scar even though it mentions many smaller scars, so the actual cause may have come later.[23] When actress Louise Brooks met Bogart in 1924, he had some scarred tissue on his upper lip, which Belmont Bogart may have partially repaired before Bogart went into films in 1930.[21] She believes his scar had nothing to do with his distinctive speech pattern, his "lip wound gave him no speech impediment, either before or after it was mended. Over the years, Bogart practiced all kinds of lip gymnastics, accompanied by nasal tones, snarls, lisps, and slurs. His painful wince, his leer, his fiendish grin were the most accomplished ever seen on film."[25]

[edit] Early career

Bogart returned home to find Belmont was suffering from poor health (perhaps aggravated by morphine addiction), his medical practice was faltering, and he lost much of the family's money on bad investments in timber.[26] During his naval days, Bogart's character and values developed independent of family influence, and he began to rebel somewhat from their values. He came to be a liberal who hated pretensions, phonies, and snobs, and at times he defied conventional behavior and authority, traits he displayed in life and in his movies. On the other hand, he retained their traits of good manners, articulateness, punctuality, modesty, and a dislike of being touched.[27]

 After his naval service, Bogart worked as a shipper and then bond salesman.[28] He joined the Naval Reserve. More importantly, he resumed his friendship with boyhood mate Bill Brady, Jr. whose father had show business connections, and eventually Bogart got an office job working for William A. Brady Sr.'s new company World Films.[29] Bogart got to try his hand at screenwriting, directing, and production, but excelled at none. For a while, he was stage manager for Brady's daughter's play A Ruined Lady. A few months later in 1921, Bogart made his stage debut in Drifting as a Japanese butler in another Alice Brady play, nervously speaking one line of dialog. Several more appearances followed in her subsequent plays.[30] Bogart liked the late hours actors kept, and enjoyed the attention an actor got on stage. He spent a lot of his free time in speakeasies and became a heavy drinker. A bar room brawl during this time might have been the actual cause of Bogart's lip damage, as this coincides better with the Louise Brooks account.[31] As he stated, “I was born to be indolent and this was the softest of rackets”.[28]
 Bogart was raised to believe acting was beneath a gentleman, but he enjoyed stage acting. He never took acting lessons, but was persistent and worked steadily at his craft. He appeared in at least seventeen Broadway productions between 1922 and 1935.[32] He played juveniles or romantic second-leads in drawing room comedies. He is said to have been the first actor to ask "Tennis, anyone?" on stage.[33] Critic Alexander Woollcott wrote of Bogart's early work that he "is what is usually and mercifully described as inadequate."[34] Some reviews were kinder. Heywood Broun reviewing Nerves wrote, “Humphrey Bogart gives the most effective performance…both dry and fresh, if that be possible”.[35] Bogart loathed the trivial, effeminate parts he had to play early in his career, calling them "White Pants Willie" roles.
 Early in his career, while playing double roles in the play Drifting at the Playhouse Theatre in 1922, Bogart met Helen Menken. They were married on May 20, 1926 at the Gramercy Park Hotel in New York City, divorced on November 18, 1927, and remained friends.[36] Later on April 3, 1928, he married Mary Philips at her mother's apartment in Hartford, Connecticut. She, like Menken, had a fiery temper. He met Mary when they appeared in the play Nerves that had a very brief run at the Comedy Theatre in September 1924.
  After the stock market crash of 1929, stage production dropped off sharply, and many of the more photogenic actors headed for Hollywood. Bogart's earliest film role is with Helen Hayes in the 1928 two-reeler The Dancing Town, of which a complete copy has never been found. He also appeared with Joan Blondell in a Vitaphone short in 1930 which was re-discovered in 1963.[37] Bogart then signed a contract with Fox Film Corporation for $750 a week. Spencer Tracy was a serious Broadway actor whom Bogart liked and admired, and they became good friends and drinking buddies. It was Tracy, in 1930, who first called him "Bogey". (Spelled variously in many sources, Bogart himself spelled his nickname "Bogie".)[38] Tracy and Bogart appeared in their only film together in John Ford's early sound film Up the River (1930), with both playing inmates. It was Tracy's film debut.[39] Bogart then performed in The Bad Sister with Bette Davis in 1931, in a minor part.[40]
  Bogart shuttled back and forth between Hollywood and the New York stage from 1930 to 1935, suffering long periods without work. His parents were living separately and Belmont died in 1934 in debt, which Bogart eventually paid off. (Bogart inherited his father's gold ring which he always wore, even in many of his films. At his father's deathbed, Bogart finally told Belmont how much he loved him.)[41] Bogart's second marriage was on the rocks, and he was less than happy with his acting career to date; he became depressed, irritable, and drank heavily.[42]

[edit] The Petrified Forest

  Lauren Bacall, Humphrey Bogart and Henry Fonda in the 1955 television broadcast of Petrified Forest.Bogart starred in the Broadway play Invitation to a Murder at the Theatre Masque, now the John Golden Theatre in 1934. The producer Arthur Hopkins heard the play from off-stage and sent for Bogart to play escaped murderer Duke Mantee in Robert E. Sherwood's new play, The Petrified Forest.[42] Hopkins recalled, “When I saw the actor I was somewhat taken aback, for he was the one I never much admired. He was an antiquated juvenile who spent most of his stage life in white pants swinging a tennis racquet. He seemed as far from a cold-blooded killer as one could get, but the voice (dry and tired) persisted, and the voice was Mantee's”.[43]
  The play had 197 performances at the Broadhurst Theatre in New York in 1935.[44] Leslie Howard though, was the star. A critic for the New York Times Brooks Atkinson said of the play, “a peach… a roaring Western melodrama… Humphrey Bogart does the best work of his career as an actor.”[45] Bogart said the movie, “marked my deliverance from the ranks of the sleek, sybaritic, stiff-shirted, swallow-tailed ‘smoothies’ to which I seemed condemned to life.” However, he was still feeling insecure.[44]
  Warner Bros. bought the screen rights to The Petrified Forest. The studio was famous for its socially realistic, urban, low-budget action pictures: the play seemed like the perfect property for them, especially when the public was presently entranced by real life criminals like John Dillinger and Dutch Schultz.[46] Bette Davis and Leslie Howard were cast, and Howard, who held production rights, made it clear he wanted Bogart to star with him. The studio tested several Hollywood veterans for the Duke Mantee role, and chose Edward G. Robinson, who had greater star appeal and was due to make a film to fulfill his expensive contract. Bogart cabled news of this to Howard, who was in Scotland. Howard cabled reply was, “Att: Jack Warner Insist Bogart Play Mantee No Bogart No Deal L.H.”. When Warner Bros. saw that Howard would not budge, they gave in and cast Bogart.[47] Jack Warner, famous for butting heads with his stars, tried to get Bogart to adopt a stage name, but Bogart stubbornly refused.[48] Bogart never forgot Howard's favor, and in 1952 he named his only daughter, Leslie, after Howard, who had died in World War II. Robert E. Sherwood remained a close friend of Bogart's.

[edit] Early film career

The film version of The Petrified Forest was released in 1936. His performance was called “brilliant”, “compelling”, and “superb.” Despite his success in an “A movie,” Bogart received a tepid twenty-six week contract at $550 per week and was typecast as a gangster in a series of "B movie" crime dramas.[49] Bogart was proud of his success, but the fact that it came from playing a gangster weighed on him. He once said, "I can't get in a mild discussion without turning it into an argument. There must be something in my tone of voice, or this arrogant face—something that antagonizes everybody. Nobody likes me on sight. I suppose that's why I'm cast as the heavy."

  Bogart's roles were not only repetitive, but physically demanding and draining (studios were not yet air-conditioned), and his regimented, tight-scheduled job at Warners was not exactly the “peachy” actor's life he hoped for.[50] However, he was always professional and generally respected by other actors. In those 'B movie' years, Bogart started developing his lasting film persona — the wounded, stoical, cynical, charming, vulnerable, self-mocking loner with a core of honor.
  Bogart's disputes with Warner Brothers over roles and money were similar to those the studio had with other less-than-obedient stars, including Bette Davis, James Cagney, Errol Flynn, and Olivia de Havilland.[51]
 Bogart with James Cagney and Jeffrey Lynn in The Roaring Twenties (1939), the last film Bogart and Cagney made together.The studio system, then at its most entrenched, usually restricted actors to one studio, with occasional loan-outs, and Warner Bros. had no interest in making Bogart a top star. Shooting on a new movie might begin days or only hours after shooting on the previous one was completed. Any actor who refused a role could be suspended without pay. Bogart disliked the roles chosen for him, but he worked steadily: between 1936 and 1940, Bogart averaged a movie every two months, sometimes even working on two simultaneously, as movies were not generally shot sequentially. Amenities at Warners were few compared to those for their fellow actors at MGM. Bogart thought that Warner wardrobe department was cheap, and often wore his own suits in his movies. In High Sierra, Bogart used his own pet dog called Zero to play his character's dog "Pard."
  The leading men ahead of Bogart at Warner Bros. included not just such classic stars as James Cagney and Edward G. Robinson, but also actors far less well-known today, such as Victor McLaglen, George Raft and Paul Muni. Most of the studio's better movie scripts went to these men, and Bogart had to take what was left. He made films like Racket Busters, San Quentin, and You Can't Get Away With Murder. The only substantial leading role he got during this period was in Dead End (1937), while loaned to Samuel Goldwyn, where he portrayed a gangster modeled after Baby Face Nelson.[52] He did play a variety of interesting supporting roles, such as in Angels with Dirty Faces (1938) (in which he got shot by James Cagney). Bogart was gunned down on film repeatedly, by Cagney and Edward G. Robinson, among others. In Black Legion (1937), for a change, he plays a good man caught up and destroyed by a racist organization, a movie Graham Greene called “intelligent and exciting, if rather earnest”.[53]
  In 1938, Warner Bros. put him in a "hillbilly musical" called Swing Your Lady as a wrestling promoter; he later apparently considered this his worst film performance.[54] In 1939, Bogart played a mad scientist in The Return of Doctor X. He cracked: "If it'd been Jack Warner's blood…I wouldn't have minded so much. The trouble was they were drinking mine and I was making this stinking movie."
  Dark Victory (1939) was one of the last films in which he played a supporting role.Mary Philips, in her own sizzling stage hit A Touch of Brimstone (1935), refused to give up her Broadway career to come to Hollywood with Bogart. After the play closed, however, she went to Hollywood, but insisted on continuing her career (she was still a bigger star than he was) and they decided to divorce in 1937.[55] On August 21, 1938, Bogart entered into a disastrous third marriage, with actress Mayo Methot, a lively, friendly woman when sober, but paranoid when drunk. She was convinced that her husband was cheating on her. The more she and Bogart drifted apart, the more she drank, got furious and threw things at him: plants, crockery, anything close at hand. She even set the house on fire, stabbed him with a knife, and slashed her wrists on several occasions. Bogart for his part needled her mercilessly and seemed to enjoy confrontation. Sometimes he turned violent. The press accurately dubbed them "the Battling Bogarts".[56] "The Bogart-Methot marriage was the sequel to the Civil War", said their friend Julius Epstein. A wag observed that there was "madness in his Methot". During this time, Bogart bought a motor launch, which he named "Sluggy" after his nickname for his hot-tempered wife. Despite his proclamations that "I like a jealous wife", "we get on so well together (because) we don’t have illusions about each other", and "I wouldn't give you two cents for a dame without a temper", it became a highly destructive relationship.[57]
  In California in the 1930s, Bogart bought a 55-foot (17 m) sailing yacht, the "Santana", from actor Dick Powell. The sea was his sanctuary[58] and he loved to sail around Catalina Island. He was a serious sailor, respected by other sailors who had seen too many Hollywood actors and their boats. About 30 weekends a year, he went out on his boat. He once said: "An actor needs something to stabilize his personality, something to nail down what he really is, not what he is currently pretending to be."
  He had a lifelong disgust for the pretentious, fake or phony, as his son Stephen told Turner Classic Movies host Robert Osborne in 1999. Sensitive yet caustic, and disgusted by the inferior movies he was performing in, Bogart cultivated the persona of a soured idealist, a man exiled from better things in New York, living by his wits, drinking too much, cursed to live out his life among second-rate people and projects.
  Bogart rarely saw his own films and avoided premieres. He did not participate in the Hollywood gossip game or cozy up to the newspaper columnists, nor engage in phony politeness and admiration of his peers or in behind the scenes back-stabbing. He even protected his privacy with invented press releases about his private life to satisfy the curiosity of the newspapers and the public.[59] When he thought an actor, director or a movie studio had done something shoddy, he spoke up about it and was willing to be quoted. He advised Robert Mitchum that the only way to stay alive in Hollywood was to be an "againster". As a result, he was not the most popular of actors and some in the Hollywood community shunned him privately to avoid trouble with the studios.[60] But the Hollywood press, unaccustomed to candor, was delighted. Bogart once said, "All over Hollywood, they are continually advising me 'Oh, you mustn't say that. That will get you in a lot of trouble' when I remark that some picture or writer or director or producer is no good. I don't get it. If he isn't any good, why can't you say so? If more people would mention it, pretty soon it might start having some effect."

[edit] Rise to stardom

[edit] High Sierra

High Sierra, a 1941 movie directed by Raoul Walsh, had a screenplay written by Bogart's friend and drinking partner, John Huston, adapted from the novel by W.R. Burnett (Little Caesar, etc.).[61] Both Paul Muni and George Raft turned down the lead role, giving Bogart the opportunity to play a character of some depth. The film was Bogart's last major film playing a gangster (his final gangster role was in The Big Shot in 1942). Bogart worked well with Ida Lupino, and her relationship with him was a close one, provoking jealousy from Bogart's wife Mayo.[62]

  The film cemented a strong personal and professional connection between Bogart and Huston. Bogart admired and somewhat envied Huston for his skill as a writer. Though a poor student, Bogart was a lifelong reader. He could quote Plato, Pope, Ralph Waldo Emerson and over a thousand lines of Shakespeare. He subscribed to the Harvard Law Review.[63] He admired writers, and some of his best friends were screenwriters, including Louis Bromfield, Nathaniel Benchley and Nunnally Johnson. Bogart enjoyed intense, provocative conversation and stiff drinks, as did Huston. Both were rebellious and liked to play childish pranks. John Huston reported being easily bored during production, and admired Bogart (who also got bored easily off camera) not just for his acting talent but for his intense concentration on the set.[64]

[edit] The Maltese Falcon

   Bogart as Sam Spade in The Maltese FalconRaft turned down the male lead in John Huston's directorial debut The Maltese Falcon (1941), due to its being a cleaned up version of the pre-Production Code The Maltese Falcon (1931), his contract stipulating that he did not have to appear in remakes. The original novel, written by Dashiell Hammett, was first published in the pulp magazine Black Mask in 1929. It was also the basis for another movie version, Satan Met a Lady (1936).[65] Complementing Bogart were co-stars Sydney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre, Elisha Cook, Jr., and Mary Astor as the treacherous female foil.[66]
 Bogart's sharp timing as private detective Sam Spade was praised by the cast and director as vital to the quick action and rapid-fire dialog.[63] The film was a huge hit and for Huston, a triumphant directorial debut. Bogart was unusually happy with it, remarking, "it is practically a masterpiece. I don’t have many things I’m proud of… but that's one".[67]

[edit] Casablanca

Bogart gained his first real romantic lead in 1942's Casablanca, playing Rick Blaine, the hard-pressed expatriate nightclub owner, hiding from the past and negotiating a fine line between Nazis, the French underground, the Vichy prefect and unresolved feelings for his ex-girlfriend. The film was directed by Michael Curtiz, produced by Hal Wallis and featured a strong cast, including Ingrid Bergman, Claude Rains, Sydney Greenstreet, Paul Henreid, Conrad Veidt, Peter Lorre and Dooley Wilson.

  Sydney Greenstreet and Bogart in Casablanca.In real life, Bogart played tournament chess, one level below master level and often played with crew members and cast off the set. It was reportedly his idea that Rick Blaine be portrayed as a chess player, which also served as a metaphor for the sparring relationship of the characters played by Bogart and Rains in the movie. However, Paul Henreid proved to be the best player.[68]
 The on-screen magic of Bogart and Bergman was the result of two actors doing their very best work, not any real-life sparks, though Bogart's perennially jealous wife assumed otherwise. Off the set, the co-stars hardly spoke during the filming, where normally she had a reputation for affairs with her leading men.[69] Because Bergman was taller than her leading man, Bogart had 3-inch (76 mm) blocks attached to his shoes in certain scenes.[69] She reportedly said later, "I kissed him but I never knew him."[70] Years later, after Bergman had taken up with Italian director Roberto Rossellini, and bore him a child, Bogart confronted her. "You used to be a great star", he said, "What are you now?" "A happy woman," she replied.
 Casablanca won the 1943 Academy Award for Best Picture. Bogart was nominated for the Best Actor in a Leading Role, but lost out to Paul Lukas for his performance in Watch on the Rhine. Still, for Bogart, it was a huge triumph. The film vaulted him from fourth place to first in the studio's roster, finally exceeding James Cagney, and more than doubling his salary to over $460,000 per year by 1946, making him the highest paid actor in the world.[71]

[edit] Bogart and Bacall

Bogart and Bacall interviewed during World War II.Bogart met Lauren Bacall while filming To Have and Have Not (1944), a very loose adaptation of the Ernest Hemingway novel. The movie has many similarities with Casablanca — the same enemies, the same kind of hero, even a piano player sidekick (this time Hoagy Carmichael).

  When they met, Bacall was nineteen and Bogart was forty-five. He nicknamed her "Baby." She had been a model since she was sixteen and had acted in two failed plays. Bogart was drawn to Bacall's high cheekbones, green eyes, tawny blond hair, and lean body, as well as her poise and earthy, outspoken honesty.[72] Reportedly he said, “I just saw your test. We’ll have a lot of fun together”.[73] Their physical and emotional rapport was very strong from the start, and the age difference and different acting experience also created the additional dimension of a mentor-student relationship. Quite contrary to the Hollywood norm, it was his first affair with a leading lady.[74] Bogart was still miserably married and his early meetings with Bacall were discreet and brief, their separations bridged by ardent love letters.[75] The relationship made it much easier for the newcomer to make her first film, and Bogart did his best to put her at ease by joking with her and quietly coaching her. He let her steal scenes and even encouraged it. Howard Hawks, for his part, also did his best to boost her performance and her role, and found Bogart easy to direct.[76]
  Hawks at some point began to disapprove of the pair. Hawks considered himself her protector and mentor, and Bogart was usurping that role. Hawks fell for Bacall as well (normally he avoided his starlets, and he was married). Hawks told her that she meant nothing to Bogart and even threatened to send her to Monogram, the worst studio in Hollywood. Bogart calmed her down and then went after Hawks. Jack Warner settled the dispute and filming resumed.[77] Out of jealousy, Hawks said of Bacall: "Bogie fell in love with the character she played, so she had to keep playing it the rest of her life."[78]

[edit] The Big Sleep

Just months after wrapping the film, Bogart and Bacall were re-united for their second movie together, the film noir masterpiece The Big Sleep, based on the novel by Raymond Chandler, again with script help from William Faulkner. Chandler thoroughly admired Bogart's performance: "Bogart can be tough without a gun. Also, he has a sense of humor that contains that grating undertone of contempt."[79]

  Bogart was still torn between his new love and his sense of duty to his marriage. The mood on the set was tense, the actors both emotionally exhausted as Bogart tried to find a way out of his dilemma. Once again, the dialogue was full of sexual innuendo supplied by Hawks, and Bogart is convincing and enduring as private detective Philip Marlowe. In the end, the film was very successful, though some critics found the plot confusing and overly complicated.[80]

[edit] Marriage

Divorce proceedings were initiated by February 1945. Bogart and Bacall then married in a small ceremony at the country home of Bogart's close friend, Pulitzer Prize-winning author Louis Bromfield at Malabar Farm in Lucas, Ohio on May 21, 1945.

Bogart and Bacall moved into a $160,000 white brick mansion in an exclusive neighborhood in Holmby Hills.The marriage proved to be a happy one, though there were the normal tensions due to their differences. He was a homebody and she liked nightlife. He loved the sea; it made her sick. Bacall allowed Bogart lots of weekend time on his boat as she got seasick.[81] Bogart's drinking sometimes inflamed tensions.[82]

Lauren Bacall gave birth to Stephen Humphrey Bogart on January 6, 1949. Stephen was named after Bogart's character's nickname in To Have and Have Not, making Bogart a father at 49.[83] Stephen would go on to become a best-selling author and biographer, later hosting a television special about his father on Turner Classic Movies. They had their second child, Leslie Howard Bogart on August 23, 1952, a girl named after British actor Leslie Howard, who had been killed in World War II.[84]

[edit] Later career

The enormous success of Casablanca redefined Bogart's career. For the first time, Bogart could be cast successfully as a tough, strong man and, at the same time, as a vulnerable love interest. Despite Bogart's elevated standing, he did not yet have a contractual right of script refusal, so when he got weak scripts, he dug in his heels, and locked horns again with the front office, as he did on the film Conflict (1943).[85] Though he submitted to Jack Warner on that picture, he successfully turned down God is My Co-Pilot (1945).[86] During part of 1943 and 1944, Bogart went on USO and War Bond tours accompanied by Mayo, enduring arduous travels to Italy and North Africa, including Casablanca.[71]

[edit] The Treasure of the Sierra Madre

Riding high in 1947 with a new contract which provided some script refusal rights and the right to form his own separate production company, Bogart reunited with John Huston for The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, a stark tale of greed involving three gold prospectors played out in the dusty back country of Mexico. Absent any love story or a happy ending, it was deemed a risky project.[87] Bogart later said of co-star (and John Huston's father) Walter Huston, "He's probably the only performer in Hollywood to whom I’d gladly lost a scene".[88]

The film was grueling to make, and was done in summer for greater realism and atmosphere.[89] James Agee wrote, "Bogart does a wonderful job with this character…miles ahead of the very good work he has done before”. John Huston won the Academy Award for direction and screenplay and his father won Best Supporting Actor, but the film had mediocre box office results. Bogart complained, “An intelligent script, beautifully directed—something different—and the public turned a cold shoulder on it".[90]

[edit] The House Un-American Activities Committee

Bogart, a liberal Democrat,[91] organized a delegation to Washington, D.C., called the Committee for the First Amendment during the height of McCarthyism, against the House Un-American Activities Committee's harassment of Hollywood screenwriters and actors. He subsequently wrote an article "I'm No Communist" in the March 1948 edition of Photoplay magazine in which he distanced himself from The Hollywood Ten in order to counter the negative publicity that resulted from his appearance. Bogart wrote: "The ten men cited for contempt by the House Un-American Activities Committee were not defended by us."[92]

[edit] Santana Productions

In addition to being offered better, more diverse roles, he started his own production company in 1948, Santana Productions, named after his private sailing yacht. (Santana was also the name of the yacht featured in the 1948 film Key Largo).[93] Jack Warner was reportedly furious at this, even though it was in Bogart's contract, fearing that other stars would do the same and major studios would lose their power. The studios, however, were already under a lot of pressure, not just from free-lancing actors like Bogart, James Stewart, Henry Fonda and others (who also saved taxes as independents), but also from the eroding impact of television and from anti-trust laws which were breaking up theater chains.[94]

Under Bogart's Santana Productions, which released through Columbia Pictures, Bogart starred in Knock on Any Door (1949), Tokyo Joe (1949), In a Lonely Place (1950), Sirocco (1951) and Beat the Devil (1954). While the majority of his films lost money at the box office (the main reason for Santana's end), at least two of them are still remembered today; In a Lonely Place is now recognized as a masterpiece of film noir. Bogart plays embittered writer Dixon Steele, who has a history of violence and becomes a suspect in a murder case at the same time that he falls in love with a failed actress, played by Gloria Grahame. Many Bogart biographers and actress/writer Louise Brooks agree that the role is the closest to Bogart's real self and is considered among his best performances.[95] She wrote that the film “gave him a role that he could play with complexity, because the film character's pride in his art, his selfishness, drunkenness, lack of energy stabbed with lightning strokes of violence were shared by the real Bogart”. The character even mimics some of Bogart's personal habits, including twice ordering Bogart's favorite meal of ham and eggs.[96]

Beat the Devil, his last film with his close friend and favorite director John Huston, also enjoys a cult following. Co-written by Truman Capote, the movie is a parody of The Maltese Falcon, and is a tale of an amoral group of rogues chasing an unattainable treasure, in this instance uranium.[97]

Bogart sold his interest in Santana to Columbia for over $1 million in 1955.[98]

[edit] The panda incident

Bogart and his friend Bill Seeman arrived at the El Morocco Club in New York City after midnight in 1950. Bogart and Seeman sent someone to buy two 22-pound stuffed pandas because, in a drunken state, they thought the pandas would be good company.[99] They propped up the bears in separate chairs, and began to drink. Two young women saw the stuffed animals. When one woman picked one up, she quickly ended up on the floor. The other woman tried to do the same and wound up in the same position.[99]

The next morning Bogart was awakened by a city official who served him a summons for assault. Knowing a media frenzy was imminent, he met the media unshaven and in pajamas. He told the press he remembered grabbing the panda and "this screaming, squawking young lady. Nobody got hurt, I didn't sock anybody; if girls were falling on the floor, I guess it was because they couldn't stand up."[100] At the same time Time reported the alleged victim had three marks from the alleged assault and "she explained that they were swelling and contusions."[99] Club spokesperson Leonard MacBain stated, "No blows were exchanged, it was just one of those things."[99]

The following Friday, after the woman admitted to touching the panda, "Magistrate John R. Starkey ruled that Bogart had been defending his property, said he suspected the actor had been mousetrapped in the cause of club publicity, and dismissed the case."[101]

[edit] The African Queen


Bogart in The African QueenBogart starred with Katharine Hepburn in the movie The African Queen in 1951, again directed by his friend John Huston. The novel was overlooked and left undeveloped for fifteen years until producer Sam Spiegel and Huston bought the rights. Spiegel sent Katharine Hepburn the book and she suggested Bogart for the male lead, firmly believing that “he was the only man who could have played that part”.[102] Huston's love of adventure, a chance to work with Hepburn, and Bogart's earlier successes with Huston convinced Bogart to leave the comfortable confines of Hollywood for a difficult shoot on location in the Belgian Congo in Africa. Bogart was to get 30 percent of the profits and Hepburn 10 percent, plus a relatively small salary for both. The stars met up in London and announced the happy prospect of working together.

Bacall came for the duration (over four months), leaving their young child behind, but the Bogarts started the trip with a junket through Europe, including a visit with Pope Pius XII.[103] Later, the glamor would be gone and she would make herself useful as a cook, nurse, and clothes washer, for which Bogart praised her, “I don’t know what we’d have done without her. She Luxed my undies in darkest Africa”.[104] Just about everyone in the cast came down with dysentery except Bogart and John Huston, who subsisted on canned food and alcohol. Bogart explained: "All I ate was baked beans, canned asparagus and Scotch whisky. Whenever a fly bit Huston or me, it dropped dead."[105] The teetotaling Hepburn, in and out of character, fared worse in the difficult conditions, losing weight, and at one time, getting very ill. Bogart resisted Huston's insistence on using real leeches in a key scene where Bogart has to drag the boat through a shallow marsh, until reasonable fakes were employed.[106] In the end, the crew overcame illness, soldier ant invasions, leaking boats, poor food, attacking hippos, bad water filters, fierce heat, isolation, and a boat fire to complete a memorable film.[107]

The African Queen was the first Technicolor film in which Bogart appeared. Remarkably, he appeared in relatively few color films during the rest of his career, which continued for another five years. (His other color films included The Caine Mutiny, The Barefoot Contessa, We're No Angels, and The Left Hand of God.)

The role of Charlie Allnutt won Bogart his only Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role in 1951. Bogart considered his performance to be the best of his film career.[108] He had vowed to friends that if he won, his speech would break the convention of thanking everyone in sight. He advised Claire Trevor when she had been nominated for Key Largo to “just say you did all yourself and don’t thank anyone”. But when Bogart won the Academy Award, which he truly coveted despite his well-advertised disdain for Hollywood, he said “It's a long way from the Belgian Congo to the stage of this theatre. It's nicer to be here. Thank you very much…No one does it alone. As in tennis, you need a good opponent or partner to bring out the best in you. John and Katie helped me to be where I am now”. Despite the thrilling win and the recognition, Bogart later commented, “The way to survive an Oscar is never to try to win another one...too many stars…win it and then figure they have to top themselves...they become afraid to take chances. The result: A lot of dull performances in dull pictures”.[109]

[edit] Final roles


from the The Treasure of the Sierra Madre trailer (1948)Bogart dropped his asking price to get the role of Captain Queeg in Edward Dmytryk's The Caine Mutiny, then griped with some of his old bitterness about it.[110] For all his success, he was still his melancholy old self, grumbling and feuding with the studio, while his health was beginning to deteriorate.

Bogart gave a bravura performance as Captain Queeg, an unstable naval officer, in many ways an extension of the character he had played in The Maltese Falcon, Casablanca, and The Big Sleep—the wary loner who trusts no one—but with none of the warmth or humor that made those characters so appealing. Like his portrayal of Fred C. Dobbs in The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, Bogart played a paranoid, self-pitying character whose small-mindedness eventually destroyed him. Three months before the film's release, Bogart as Queeg appeared on the cover of Time magazine, while on Broadway Henry Fonda was starring in the stage version (in a different role), both of which generated strong publicity for the film.[111]

In Sabrina, Billy Wilder, unable to secure Cary Grant, chose Bogart for the role of the older, conservative brother who competes with his younger playboy sibling (William Holden) for the affection of the Cinderella-like Sabrina (Audrey Hepburn). Bogart was lukewarm about the part, but agreed to it on a handshake with Wilder, without a finished script, and with the director's assurances to take good care of Bogart during the filming.[112] But Bogart got on poorly with his director and co-stars. He also complained about the script, which was written on a last-minute, daily basis, and that Wilder favored Hepburn and Holden on and off the set. The main problem was that Wilder was the opposite of his ideal director, John Huston, in both style and personality. Bogart told the press that Wilder was “overbearing” and “is the kind of Prussian German with a riding crop. He is the type of director I don’t like to work with…the picture is a crock of crap. I got sick and tired of who gets Sabrina”.[113] Wilder said, “We parted as enemies but finally made up”. Despite the acrimony, the film was successful. The New York Times said of Bogart, “he is incredibly adroit...the skill with which this old rock-ribbed actor blend the gags and such duplicities with a manly manner of melting is one of the incalculable joys of the show”.[114]

The Barefoot Contessa, directed by Joseph Mankiewicz in 1954 and filmed in Rome, Italy, gave Bogart one of his subtlest roles. In this Hollywood back-story movie, Bogart again is the broken-down man, this time the cynical director-narrator who saves his career by making a star of a flamenco dancer Ava Gardner, modeled on the real life of Rita Hayworth. Bogart was uneasy with Gardner because she had just split from “rat-pack” buddy Frank Sinatra and was carrying on with a bullfighter. Bogart told her, “Half the world's female population would throw themselves at Frank's feet and here you are flouncing around with guys who wear capes and little ballerina slippers”. He was also annoyed by her inexperienced performance. Later, she credited him with helping her. Bogart's performance was generally praised as the strongest part of the film.[115] During the filming, while Bacall was home, Bogart resumed his discreet affair with Verita Peterson, his long-time studio assistant whom he took sailing and enjoyed drinking with. But when Bacall suddenly arrived on the scene discovering them together, Bacall took it quite well. She extracted an expensive shopping spree from him and the three traveled together after the shooting.[116]

Bogart could be generous with actors, particularly those who were blacklisted, down on their luck, or having personal problems. During the filming of The Left Hand of God (1955), he noticed his co-star Gene Tierney having a hard time remembering her lines and also behaving oddly. He coached Tierney, feeding her lines. He was familiar with mental illness (his sister had bouts of depression), and Bogart encouraged Tierney to seek treatment, which she did.[117][118] He also stood behind Joan Bennett and insisted on her as his co-star in We're No Angels when a scandal made her persona non grata with Jack Warner.[119]

In 1955, he made three films: We're No Angels (dir. Michael Curtiz), The Left Hand of God (dir. Edward Dmytryk) and The Desperate Hours (dir. William Wyler). Mark Robson's The Harder They Fall (1956) was his last film.

[edit] Television work

Bogart rarely appeared on television. However, he and Lauren Bacall appeared on Edward R. Murrow's Person to Person. Bogart was also featured on The Jack Benny Show. The surviving kinescope of the live Benny telecast features Bogart in his only TV sketch comedy outing. Bogart and Bacall also worked together on an early color telecast, in 1955, an NBC adaptation of The Petrified Forest for Producers' Showcase; only a black and white kinescope of the live telecast has survived.

[edit] Radio work

Bogart performed radio adaptations of some of his best known films, such as Casablanca and The Maltese Falcon. He also recorded a long-running radio series called Bold Venture with Lauren Bacall.

[edit] Filmography

Main article: Humphrey Bogart filmography

[edit] The Rat Pack

Bogart was a founding member of the Rat Pack. In the spring of 1955, after a long party in Las Vegas with Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland, her husband, Sid Luft, Mike Romanoff and wife Gloria, David Niven, Angie Dickinson and others, "Lauren Bacall surveyed the wreckage of the party" and declared, "You look like a god damn rat pack."[120]

Romanoff's in Beverly Hills was where the Rat Pack became "official". "Sinatra was named Pack Leader. Betty [Bacall] was named Den Mother, Bogie was Director of Public Relations, and Sid Luft was Acting Cage Manager."[101] When asked by columnist Earl Wilson what the purpose of the group was, Bacall responded "to drink a lot of bourbon and stay up late."[120]

[edit] Chess

Bogart was an excellent chess player, almost of master strength. Before he made any money from acting, he would hustle players for dimes and quarters, playing in New York parks and at Coney Island. The chess scenes in Casablanca had not been in the original script, but were put in at his insistence. A chess position from one of his correspondence games appears in the movie, although the image is a little blurred. He achieved a draw in a simultaneous exhibition given in 1955 at Beverly Hills by the famous chess Grandmaster Samuel Reshevsky and also played against George Koltanowski in San Francisco in 1952 (Koltanowski played blindfolded but still won in 41 moves).[121]

Bogart was a United States Chess Federation tournament director and active in the California State Chess Association, and a frequent visitor to the Hollywood chess club. In 1945, the cover of the June-July issue of Chess Review showed Bogart playing with Charles Boyer, as Lauren Bacall (who also played) looks on. In June 1945, in an interview in the magazine Silver Screen, when asked what things in life mattered most to him, he replied that chess was one of his main interests. He added that he played chess almost daily, especially between film shootings. He loved the game all his life.[122]

[edit] Death


Humphrey Bogart's star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.By the mid-1950s, Bogart's health was failing. Once, after signing a long-term deal with Warner Bros., Bogart predicted with glee that his teeth and hair would fall out before the contract ended. That sent a fuming Jack Warner to his lawyers. Bogart had formed a new production company and had plans for a new film Melville Goodwin, U.S.A., in which he would play a general and Bacall a press magnate. His persistent cough and difficulty eating became too serious to ignore and he dropped the project. The film was re-named Top Secret Affair and made with Kirk Douglas and Susan Hayward.[123]

Bogart, a heavy smoker and drinker, contracted cancer of the esophagus. He almost never spoke of his failing health and refused to see a doctor until January 1956. A diagnosis was made several weeks later and by then removal of his esophagus, two lymph nodes and a rib on March 1, 1956 was too late to halt the disease, even with chemotherapy.[124] He underwent corrective surgery in November 1956 after the cancer had spread.

Katharine Hepburn and Spencer Tracy came to see him. Frank Sinatra was also a frequent visitor. Bogart was too weak to walk up and down stairs. He valiantly fought the pain and tried to joke about his immobility: "Put me in the dumbwaiter and I'll ride down to the first floor in style." Hepburn, in an interview, described the last time she and Spencer Tracy saw Bogart (the night before he died):

Spence patted him on the shoulder and said, "Goodnight, Bogie." Bogie turned his eyes to Spence very quietly and with a sweet smile covered Spence's hand with his own and said, "Goodbye, Spence." Spence's heart stood still. He understood.[125]

Bogart had just turned 57 and weighed 80 pounds (36 kg) when he died on January 14, 1957 after falling into a coma. He died at 2:25 a.m. at his home at 232 Mapleton Drive in Holmby Hills, California. His simple funeral was held at All Saints Episcopal Church with musical selections played from Bogart's favorite composers, Johann Sebastian Bach and Claude Debussy. It was attended by some of Hollywood's biggest stars including: Katharine Hepburn, Spencer Tracy, David Niven, Ronald Reagan, James Mason, Danny Kaye, Joan Fontaine, Marlene Dietrich, Errol Flynn, Gregory Peck, and Gary Cooper, as well as Billy Wilder and Jack Warner. Bacall had asked Spencer Tracy to give the eulogy, but Tracy was too upset, so John Huston gave the eulogy instead, and reminded the gathered mourners that while Bogart's life had ended far too soon, it had been a rich one.

Himself, he never took too seriously—his work most seriously. He regarded the somewhat gaudy figure of Bogart, the star, with an amused cynicism; Bogart, the actor, he held in deep respect…In each of the fountains at Versailles there is a pike which keeps all the carp active; otherwise they would grow overfat and die. Bogie took rare delight in performing a similar duty in the fountains of Hollywood. Yet his victims seldom bore him any malice, and when they did, not for long. His shafts were fashioned only to stick into the outer layer of complacency, and not to penetrate through to the regions of the spirit where real injuries are done...He is quite irreplaceable. There will never be another like him."[126]

Katharine Hepburn said:

He was one of the biggest guys I've ever met. He walked straight down the center of the road. No maybes. Yes or no. He liked to drink. He drank. He liked to sail a boat. He sailed a boat. He was an actor. He was happy and proud to be an actor. He'd say to me, "Are you comfortable? Everything okay?" He was looking out for me.

His cremated remains are interred in Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery, Glendale, California. Buried with him is a small gold whistle, which he had given to his future wife, Lauren Bacall, before they married. In reference to their first movie together, it was inscribed: "If you want anything, just whistle."[127]

Humphrey Bogart's hand and foot prints are immortalized in the forecourt of Grauman's Chinese Theater and he has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6322 Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood.

[edit] Tributes

After his death, a "Bogie Cult" formed at the Brattle Theatre in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as well as Greenwich Village, New York and in France, which contributed to his spike in popularity in the late 1950s and 1960s.

Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless (1960) was the first film to pay tribute to Bogart. Later, in Woody Allen's comic tribute to Bogart Play It Again, Sam (1972), Bogart's ghost comes to the aid of Allen's bumbling character, a movie critic with woman troubles and whose "sex life has turned into the 'Petrified Forest'".

In 1997, the United States Postal Service featured Bogart in its "Legends of Hollywood" series.

[edit] Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Humphrey Bogart 

Bogart is credited with five of the American Film Institute's top 100 quotations in American cinema, the most by any actor:

5th: "Here's looking at you, kid" – Casablanca

14th: "The stuff that dreams are made of." – The Maltese Falcon

20th: "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship." – Casablanca

43rd: "We'll always have Paris." – Casablanca

67th: "Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she walks into mine." – Casablanca

[edit] In popular culture

Humphrey Bogart's life has spurred the imaginations of many writers and others:

The Fedora variation the "Bogart" was named for the actor, who was also the hat's first wearer.

The film Friday the 13th (1980 film) features Mark Nelson as Ned who does an impression of Bogart, uttering the line "You know, you're beautiful when you're angry, sweetheart," at approximately 00:18:55 in the film.

Two Bugs Bunny cartoons featured Humphrey Bogart:

In Slick Hare (1947), Bogart orders rabbit in a Hollywood restaurant. Told that they don't have rabbit, he becomes insistent, leading waiter Elmer Fudd to try (unsuccessfully as usual) to serve Bugs as the meal. Bogart finally gives up, saying: "Baby will just have to have a ham sandwich." – "Baby" being Bacall's nickname. Bugs, upon hearing the name, immediately presents himself and goes completely ga-ga over Bacall, who looks on with amusement.

Bugs decides to take a baby penguin back to the South Pole in 8 Ball Bunny (1950). At intervals, "Fred C. Dobbs" (Bogart's character in Treasure of the Sierra Madre) appears and asks Bugs to "help a poor American down on his luck" – a line Bogart says a number of times in the film to John Huston, playing an American "gringo".

In V. S. Naipaul's Miguel Street (1959), a character renames himself "Bogart" after Casablanca is shown in Trinidad.[128]

Bogart is featured in one of Woody Allen's comic movies, Play It Again, Sam (1972), which relates the story of a young man obsessed by his persona.

Issue #70 of the US The Phantom (1977) comic book is known as the "Bogart" issue, as the story stars Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall, Sydney Greenstreet, Peter Lorre and Claude Rains and is a mixture of Casablanca, The African Queen, The Maltese Falcon and The Treasure of the Sierra Madre.

The Man With Bogart's Face (1981) movie starred Bogart lookalike Robert Sacchi.

The comic book series The Bogie Man features a mental patient who believes that he's an amalgam of various Bogart film characters.

The slang term "bogarting" refers to taking an unfairly long time with a cigarette, drink, et cetera, that is supposed to be shared (e.g., "Don't bogart that joint!"). It derives from Bogart's style of cigarette smoking, with which he left his cigarette dangling from his mouth rather than withdrawing it between puffs.[129]

[edit] See also

Bogart-Bacall syndrome

[edit] References

[edit] Notes

^ Ontario County Times birth announcement, 10 January 1900.

^ Birthday of Reckoning.

^ Michael Sragow (January 16, 2000). "SPRING FILMS/REVIVALS; How One Role Made Bogart Into an Icon". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A07E7DB163AF935A25752C0A9669C8B63. Retrieved February 22, 2009.

^ "100 Icons of the Century - Humphrey Bogart". Variety (magazine)|. October 16, 2005. http://www.variety.com/index.asp?layout=variety100&content=jump&jump=icon&articleID=VR1117930697. Retrieved February 22, 2009.

^ Rootsweb.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 5.

^ Rootsweb.

^ "The religious affiliation of Humphrey Bogart." Adherents.com.

^ The 1900 census for the household of Belmont Bogart lists his son Humphrey as having a birth date in December 1899. There are also three different censuses attesting to his birth date in December 1899. His last wife, actress Lauren Bacall, always maintained that December 25 was his true birth date. See Bogart: Urban Legends.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 6–7.

^ a b Meyers 1997, p. 8.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 6.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 10–11.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 9–10.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 9.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 22.

^ Hyams 1975, p. 12.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 12.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 13.

^ Wallechinsky and Wallace 2005, p. 9.

^ a b Meyers 1997, pp. 18-19.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 19.

^ a b Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 27.

^ Citro, Sceurman, Mark and Moran 2005, pp. 240–241.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 29.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 28.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 22, 31.

^ a b Meyers 1997, p. 23.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 24, 31.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 29–31.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 35.

^ Humphrey Bogart at the Internet Broadway Database.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 28.

^ Time Magazine, June 7, 1954.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 33.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 36.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 39–39.

^ letter from Bogart to John Huston displayed in documentary John Huston: The Man, the Movies, the Maverick (1989).

^ Meyers 1997, p. 41.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 41.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 48.

^ a b Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 45.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 49.

^ a b Meyers 1997, p. 51.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 46.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 52.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 52–54.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 57.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 60–61.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 56.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 54.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 69.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 67.

^ Lax, Eric. Audio commentary for Disc One of the 2006 three-disc DVD special edition of The Maltese Falcon.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 62–63.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 78, 91-92.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 81.

^ Interview with John Huston.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 76.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 86-87.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 119.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 128.

^ a b Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 127.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 115.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 123.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 125.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 131.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 198.

^ a b Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 201.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 196.

^ a b Meyers 1997, p. 151.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 166.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 165.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 258.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 166–167.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 173–174.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 263–264.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 168.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 289.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 180.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 185.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 188–191.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 422.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 464.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 214.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 164.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 337.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 343.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 227.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 229–230.

^ Porter 2003, p. 9.

^ "I'm No Communist." Photoplay March 1948.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 236.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 235.

^ In a Lonely Place at Rotten Tomatoes.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 240–241.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 471.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 243.

^ a b c d Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 428.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 429.

^ a b Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 430.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 439.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 248.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 249.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 444.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 447.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 444–445.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 258.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 259–260.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 480.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 279–280.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 281.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 283.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 495.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 288–290.

^ Meyers 1997, pp. 291–292.

^ Gene Tierney: A Shattered Portrait. The Biography Channel, 03/26/99.

^ Tierney and Herskowitz 1978, pp. 164–165.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 294.

^ a b Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 504.

^ http://www.chessgames.com/player/humphrey_bogart.html

^ http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Lab/7378/bogart.htm

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, pp. 509–510.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 510.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 516.

^ Sperber and Lax 1997, p. 518.

^ Meyers 1997, p. 315.

^ V. S. Naipaul and the Plight of the Dispossessed by William L. Sachs.

^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, referenced at http://www.wordorigins.org/index.php/site/comments/bogart/

[edit] Bibliography

Bacall, Lauren. By Myself. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1979. ISBN 0-394-41308-3.

Bogart, Stephen Humphrey. Bogart: In Search of My Father. New York: Dutton, 1995. ISBN 0-525-93987-3.

Bogart, Humphrey. "I'm no communist" Photoplay Magazine, March 1948.

Citro, Joseph A.,Mark Sceurman and Mark Moran.Weird New England. New York: Sterling, 2005. ISBN 1-40273-330-5.

Halliwell, Leslie.Halliwell's Film, Video and DVD Guide. New York: Harper Collins Entertainment, 2004. ISBN 0-00-719081-6.

Hepburn, Katharine. The Making of the African Queen. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1987. ISBN 0-394-56272-0.

Hill, Jonathan and Jonah Ruddy. Bogart: The Man and the Legend. London: Mayflower-Dell, 1966.

"Humphrey Bogart (cover story)." Time Magazine, June 7, 1954.

Hyams, Joe. Bogart and Bacall: A Love Story. New York: David McKay Co., Inc., 1975. ISBN 0-44691-228-X.

Hyams, Joe. Bogie: The Biography of Humphrey Bogart. New York: New American Library, 1966 (later editions renamed as: Bogie: The Definitive Biography of Humphrey Bogart). ISBN 0-45109-189-2.

Meyers, Jeffrey. Bogart: A Life in Hollywood. London: Andre Deutsch Ltd., 1997. ISBN 0-233-99144-1.

Michael, Paul. Humphrey Bogart: The Man and his Films. New York: Bonanza Books, 1965. No ISBN.

Porter, Darwin. The Secret Life of Humphrey Bogart: The Early Years (1899-1931). New York: Georgia Literary Association, 2003. ISBN 0-9668030-5-1.

Pym, John, ed. "Time Out" Film Guide. London: Time Out Group Ltd., 2004. ISBN 1-904978-21-5.

Sperber, A.M. and Eric Lax. Bogart. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1997. ISBN 0-68807-539-8.

Tierney, Gene with Mickey Herskowitz.Self-Portrait. New York: Peter Wyden, 1979. ISBN 0-883261-52-9.

Wallechinsky, David and Amy Wallace. The New Book of Lists. Edinburgh, Scotland: Canongate, 2005. ISBN 1-84195-719-4.

Youngkin, Stephen D. The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2005, ISBN 0-813-12360-7.

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Humphrey Bogart 

Humphrey Bogart at the Internet Broadway Database

Humphrey Bogart at the Internet Movie Database

Humphrey Bogart at Allmovie

Humphrey Bogart at the TCM Movie Database

Humphrey Bogart at Find a Grave

Bogie Online: The online resource for Humphrey Bogart fans

Humphrey Bogart player profile at ChessGames.com

Modern Drunkard: Three Drinks Ahead With Humphrey Bogart

caricature of Humphrey Bogart

The Fundamental Rules Apply

Genealogy of Humphrey Bogart

Bogart: Behind the Legend (documentary)

Verita Thompson:Humphrey Bogart's Secret Mistress

Bibliography

Bold Venture radio show (32 episodes)

Tribute to Humphrey Bogart

[hide]v • d • eAcademy Award for Best Actor


Gary Cooper (1941) · James Cagney (1942) · Paul Lukas (1943) · Bing Crosby (1944) · Ray Milland (1945) · Fredric March (1946) · Ronald Colman (1947) · Laurence Olivier (1948) · Broderick Crawford (1949) · José Ferrer (1950) · Humphrey Bogart (1951) · Gary Cooper (1952) · William Holden (1953) · Marlon Brando (1954) · Ernest Borgnine (1955) · Yul Brynner (1956) · Alec Guinness (1957) · David Niven (1958) · Charlton Heston (1959) · Burt Lancaster (1960)

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Humphrey Bogart (1899-1957)

American Actor

In 1999, the American Film Institute named Humphrey DeForest Bogart the "Greatest Male Star of All Time". Bogart played in such movies as "The Maltese Falcon", "The Big Sleep", "Casablanca", and "The Caine Mutiny".

From Wikipedia:

Humphrey DeForest Bogart (December 25, 1899 – January 14, 1957)[1][2] was an American actor and cultural icon. In 1997, Entertainment Weekly magazine named him the number one movie legend of all time. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked "Bogie" the greatest male star.

After trying various jobs, Bogart began acting in 1921 and became a regular in Broadway productions in the 1920s and 1930s. When the stock market crash of 1929 reduced the demand for plays, Bogart also turned to film. His first great success was as Duke Mantee in The Petrified Forest. He had been acclaimed for his performance in the play, and his friend Leslie Howard saw to it that he reprised his role in the 1936 film version. Despite rave reviews, Bogart was typecast as a gangster in B-movies. His breakthrough came in 1941, with High Sierra (though he still played a criminal) and The Maltese Falcon. The next year, his performance in Casablanca finally raised him to the peak of his profession and at the same time, cemented his trademark film persona, that of the hard-boiled cynic who ultimately shows his noble side. Other triumphs followed, including To Have and Have Not (1944), The Big Sleep (1946), and Key Largo (1948), opposite his wife Lauren Bacall; The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948); The African Queen (1951), for which he won his only Academy Award (for Best Actor); and The Caine Mutiny (1954). Altogether, he appeared in 75 feature motion pictures.

Early life

Bogart was born in New York City, the oldest child of Belmont DeForest Bogart (b. July 1867 in Watkins Glen, New York - d. September 8, 1934 in Tudor City apartments, New York, New York) and Maud Humphrey (1867–1941). Belmont and Maud were married in June 1898. His father's ancestors were of Dutch, English, and Spanish origin.[3] Bogart is a Dutch name meaning “orchard”.[4] His mother's were largely of English descent and to a lesser extent Welsh.[5] Bogart's father was a Presbyterian, while his mother was an Episcopalian. Bogart was raised in his mother's Episcopal church.[6]

Bogart's birthday has been a subject of controversy. It was long believed that his birthday on Christmas Day 1899, was a Warner Bros. fiction created to romanticize his background, and that he was really born on January 23, 1899, a date that appears in many references. However, this story is now considered baseless: although no birth certificate has ever been found, his birth notice did appear in a Boston newspaper in early January 1900, which supports the December 1899 date, as do other sources.[7]

[edit] Childhood

Bogart's father, Belmont, was a surgeon specializing in heart and lungs. His mother, Maud Humphrey, was a commercial illustrator, who received her art training in New York and France, including study with James McNeill Whistler, and who later became artistic director of the fashion magazine The Delineator. She was a militant suffragette.[8] She used a drawing of baby Humphrey in a well-known ad campaign for Mellins Baby Food.[9] In her prime, she made over $50,000 a year, then a vast sum, far more than her husband who made $20,000 per year.[10] The Bogarts lived in a fashionable Upper West Side apartment, and had an elegant cottage on a fifty-five acre estate in upstate New York on Canandaigua Lake. As a youngster, Humphrey's gang of friends at the lake would put on theatricals.[11]

Humphrey was the oldest of three children, his two younger sisters were Frances and Catherine Elizabeth (Kay).[9] His parents were very formal, busy in their careers, and frequently fought—resulting in little emotion directed at the children, “I was brought up very unsentimentally but very straightforwardly. A kiss, in our family, was an event. Our mother and father didn’t glug over my two sisters and me.”[12] As a boy, Bogart was teased for his curls, his tidiness, the "cute" pictures his mother had him pose for, the Little Lord Fauntleroy clothes she dressed him in—and the name "Humphrey."[13] From his father, Bogart inherited a tendency for needling people, a fondness for fishing, a life-long love of sailing, and an attraction to strong-willed women.[14]

[edit] Education

Typical of New York society parents, the Bogarts sent their son to private schools. Humphrey began school at the Delancy school until fifth grade when he was enrolled in Trinity School.[15] He was an indifferent, sullen student who showed no interest in after-school activities either.[16] Later he went to the prestigious preparatory school Phillips Academy, in Andover, Massachusetts, the oldest prep school in America, where he was admitted based on family connections.[17] They hoped he would go on to Yale, but in 1918, Bogart was expelled.[18]

The details of his expulsion are disputed: one story claims that he was expelled for throwing the headmaster (alternatively, a groundskeeper) into Rabbit Pond, a man-made lake on campus. Another cites smoking and drinking, combined with poor academic performance and possibly some intemperate comments to the staff. It has also been said that he was actually withdrawn from the school by his father for failing to improve his academics, as opposed to expulsion. In any case, his parents were deeply dismayed by the events and their failed plans for his future.[19]

[edit] Navy

Coming up with no other career options, Bogart followed his love for the sea and enlisted in the United States Navy in the spring of 1918. He recalled later, “At eighteen war was great stuff. Paris! French girls! Hot damn!”[20] Bogart is recorded as a model sailor who spent most of his months in the navy after the Armistice was signed, ferrying troops back from Europe.[21]

[edit] Trademark scar

It was during his naval stint that Bogart may have gotten his trademark scar and developed his characteristic lisp, though the actual circumstances are hazy. One account is during a shelling of his ship the USS LeviathanTemplate:WP Ships USS instances his lip was cut by a piece of shrapnel, although some claim Bogart didn’t make it to sea until after the Armistice was signed. Another version, which Bogart's long time friend, author Nathaniel Benchley, claims is the truth, is Bogart was injured while on assignment to take a naval prisoner to Portsmouth Naval Prison in New Hampshire. Supposedly, while changing trains in Boston, the handcuffed prisoner asked Bogart for a cigarette and while Bogart looked for a match, the prisoner raised his hands, smashed Bogart across the mouth with his cuffs, cutting Bogart's lip, and fled. The prisoner was eventually taken to Portsmouth. An alternate explanation is that while in the process of uncuffing an inmate, Bogart was struck in the mouth when the inmate wielded one open, uncuffed bracelet while the other side was still on his wrist.[22] According to Darwin Porter's Humphrey Bogart: The Early Years, the scar was caused by his father, Belmont, during a terrible argument. It is likely that the truth will never be known.

Nevertheless, by the time Bogart was treated by a doctor, the scar had already formed. "Goddamn doctor", Bogart later told David Niven, "instead of stitching it up, he screwed it up." In fact, Niven says that when he asked Bogart about his scar he said it was caused by a childhood accident; Niven claims the stories that Bogart got the scar during wartime were made up by the studios to inject glamour. His post-service physical makes no mention of the lip scar even though it mentions many smaller scars, so the actual cause may have come later.[21]When actress Louise Brooks met Bogart in 1924, he had some scarred tissue on his upper lip, which Belmont Bogart may have partially repaired before Bogart went into films in 1930.[19] She believes his scar had nothing to do with his distinctive speech pattern, his "lip wound gave him no speech impediment, either before or after it was mended...Over the years, Bogart practiced all kinds of lip gymnastics, accompanied by nasal tones, snarls, lisps, and slurs. His painful wince, his leer, his fiendish grin were the most accomplished ever seen on film."[23]

[edit] Early career

Bogart returned home to find Belmont was suffering from poor health (perhaps aggravated by morphine addiction), his medical practice was faltering, and he lost much of the family's money on bad investments in timber.[24] During his naval days, Bogart's character and values developed independent of family influence, and he began to rebel somewhat from their values. He came to be a liberal who hated pretensions, phonies, and snobs, openly befriended many people of minorities regardless of race, creed, or sexual orientation, and at times he defied conventional behavior and authority, traits he displayed in life and in his movies. On the other hand, he retained their traits of good manners, articulateness, punctuality, modesty, and a dislike of being touched.[25]

After his naval service, Bogart worked as a shipper and then bond salesman.[26] He joined the Naval Reserve. More importantly, he resumed his friendship with boyhood mate Bill Brady, Jr. whose father had show business connections, and eventually Bogart got an office job working for William A. Brady Sr.'s new company World Films.[27] Bogart got to try his hand at screen writing, directing, and production, but excelled at none. For a while, he was stage manager for Brady's daughter's play A Ruined Lady. A few months later in 1921, Bogart made his stage debut in Drifting as a Japanese butler in another Alice Brady play, nervously speaking one line of dialog. Several more appearances followed in her subsequent plays.[28] Bogart liked the late hours actors kept, and enjoyed the attention an actor got on stage. He spent a lot of his free time in speakeasies and became a heavy drinker. A bar room brawl during this time might have been the actual cause of Bogart's lip damage, as this coincides better with the Louise Brooks account.[29] As he stated, “I was born to be indolent and this was the softest of rackets”.[26]

Bogart was raised to believe acting was beneath a gentleman, but he enjoyed stage acting. He never took acting lessons, but was persistent and worked steadily at his craft. He appeared in at least seventeen Broadway productions between 1922 and 1935.[30] He played juveniles or romantic second-leads in drawing room c ---

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Humphrey Bogart's Timeline

1899
December 25, 1899
New York, New York, New York, USA
1926
May 20, 1926
Age 26
New York, NY, USA
1927
November 18, 1927
Age 27
1928
April 3, 1928
Age 28
Hartford, CT, USA
1938
August 21, 1938
Age 38
Beverly Hills, Los Angeles, California, United States
1938
Age 38
1945
May 21, 1945
Age 45
Malabar Farm, Lucas, Ohio, United States
1952
August 23, 1952
Age 52
1957
January 14, 1957
Age 57
Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA