James FitzJames Stuart, 1st Duke of Berwick (1670 - 1734) MP

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Birthplace: Moulins, Auvergne, France
Death: Died in Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Cause of death: decapitated by a cannon ball at the siege of Philippsburg during the War of Polish Succession
Occupation: Duke of Berwick, Marshal of France
Managed by: Joanne Margaret Dunham
Last Updated:

About James FitzJames Stuart, 1st Duke of Berwick

Golden Fleece - Knights: Spanish Branch

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

James FitzJames Duke of Berwick Spouse(s) Honora de Burgh Anne Bulkeley Issue James Fitz-James Stuart, 2nd Duke of Berwick Henry James Fitzjames, 2nd Duke of Fitzjames Henriette de Fitzjames François Fitz-James, 3rd Duke of Fitzjames Henry Fitzjames Charles de Fitzjames, 4th Duke of Fitzjames Laure Anne de Fitzjames Marie Emilie de Fitzjames Edouard de Fitzjames Anne Sophie de Fitzjames Anne de Fitzjames Noble family House of FitzJames Father James II of England Mother Arabella Churchill Born 21 August 1670 Moulins, Kingdom of France Died 12 June 1734 James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick Born 21 August 1670 Died 12 June 1734 Allegiance Kingdom of England Stuart-ruled England Kingdom of France Royaume de France Rank Marshal of France

James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, 1st Duke of Fitz-James, 1st Duke of Liria and Jérica (21 August 1670 – 12 June 1734) was an Anglo-French military leader, illegitimate son of King James II of England by Arabella Churchill, sister of the 1st Duke of Marlborough. In 1695 he married Honora de Burke, the daughter of William Burke, 7th Earl of Clanricarde and the widow of the 1st Earl of Lucan, who died in 1698. His second marriage, with Anne Bulkeley, daughter of Henry Bulkeley, took place in 1700.

History

FitzJames was born at Moulins in France before his father's accession to the throne, and was brought up a Roman Catholic and educated in the College of Juilly, the Collège du Plessis, and the Jesuit College of La Flèche. He went into the service of Charles, Duke of Lorraine and was present at the siege of Buda. FitzJames was created Duke of Berwick, Earl of Tinmouth and Baron Bosworth by his father in 1687.[1] He then returned to Hungary and participated at the Battle of Mohács.

Berwick returned to England and was made Governor of Portsmouth. King James made him a Knight of the Garter, but due to the invasion of the Prince of Orange and the subsequent Glorious Revolution, the installation never took place. In the following year, James was overthrown and Berwick went into exile with him, taking an active part in the Irish campaign, including the Battle of the Boyne. After his father's final exile, Berwick served in the French army. He fought at the battles of Steenkerque and Landen. At the latter, Berwick was taken prisoner, but was exchanged for the Duke of Ormonde. Because of his support for his father and service in the French army against England, he was attainted in 1695, and his British peerages forfeit. Philip V of Spain creates James, Duke of Fitz-James in the Peerage of France, after the Battle of Almanza.

As a soldier, Berwick was highly esteemed for his courage, abilities and integrity. As a result of distinguished service in the War of the Spanish Succession, he became a French subject and was appointed a Marshal of France after his successful expedition against Nice in 1706. On 25 April 1707, Berwick won the great and decisive victory of Almanza, where an Englishman at the head of a Franco-Spanish army defeated Ruvigny, a Frenchman at the head of an Anglo-Portuguese-Dutch army. After Almanza, Berwick was created Duque de Liria y Xérica (English: Duke of Liria and Jérica) and Lieutenant of Aragon by Philip V of Spain in 1707, and Duc de Fitz-James (English: Duke of Fitz-James) in the Peerage of France by Louis XIV in 1710. The last great event of the War of the Spanish Succession was the storming of Barcelona by Berwick, after a long siege, on 11 September 1714.

Not long thereafter, Berwick was appointed military governor of the province of Guienne, where he became friendly with Montesquieu. In 1718 he found himself under the necessity of once more entering Spain with an army; and this time he had to fight against Philip V (War of the Quadruple Alliance). Many years of peace followed this campaign, and Berwick was not again called to serve in the field until 1733. In that year he was chosen to lead the Army of the Rhine in the War of the Polish Succession, successfully besieging Kehl in 1733, but was decapitated by a cannon ball at the Siege of Philippsburg, 12 June 1734.

Berwick had children by both his marriages. His descendants were the French Ducs de Fitz-James and the Spanish Duques de Liria and later the Dukes of Alba.

Marriages and children

James FitzJames, Duke of Berwick

James was married twice, first to Lady Honora de Burke or de Burgh, Countess de Lucan on 26 March 1695. They had one child together. children

  • James Francis Fitz-James Stuart, or Jacobo Francisco Fitz-James Stuart, 2nd Duke of Berwick, 2nd Duque de Liria, 2nd Duque de Xérica, (21 October 1696 - 2 June 1738, Naples, Italy). He married Catalina Ventura Colón de Portugal, Duquesa de Veragua, and Duquesa de la Vega, a descendant of Christopher Columbus.
  • He was appointed a Knight of the Golden Fleece in 1714.
  • In 18 April 1700 he was remarried, this time to Anne Bulkeley, with whom he had ten children.

children

  • Henry James Fitzjames, described in France as Jacques de Fitjames, 1st Duke of Fitzjames
  • Henriette de Fitzjames
  • François Fitz-James, 3rd Duke of Fitzjames, Bishop of Soissons
  • Henry Fitzjames, governor of Limousin
  • Charles de Fitzjames, 4th Duke of Fitzjames
  • Laure Anne de Fitzjames
  • Marie Emilie de Fitzjames
  • Edouard de Fitzjames
  • Anne Sophie de Fitzjames
  • Anne de Fitzjames
view all 16

James FitzJames Stuart, 1st Duke of Berwick's Timeline

1670
August 21, 1670
Moulins, Auvergne, France
1695
1695
Age 24
Berwickshire, Scotland
1696
October 21, 1696
Age 26
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines, Île-de-France, France
1700
April 18, 1700
Age 29
Paris, Ile-de-France, France
1702
November 15, 1702
Age 32
France
1705
September 16, 1705
Age 35
France
1709
June 9, 1709
Age 38
France
1711
September 8, 1711
Age 41
France
1712
November 4, 1712
Age 42
1713
1713
Age 42
France