Louis XVIII, roi de France et Navarre

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Louis XVIII Stanislas Xavier de Bourbon, roi de France et Navarre

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Versailles, France
Death: Died in Paris, Île-de-France, France
Place of Burial: Basilica of St Denis, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Louis, dauphin de France and Maria Josepha von Sachsen, dauphine de France
Husband of Marie-Josephine de Savoie
Partner of Zoé Talon, comtesse du Cayla
Brother of Stillborn Son de France; Marie Zéphyrine de France; Louis Joseph Xavier de Bourbon, duc de Bourgogne; de France; Xavier de France, duc d'Aquitaine and 6 others
Half brother of Auguste d'Adonville and Marie Thérèse de France

Occupation: Comte de Provence puis Roi de France (1814-1824), King of France 1795-1824 (de jure), 1814-March 1815 & July 1815-1824 (de facto), Kung i Frankrike 1814-24, Petit-fils de France, King of France & Navarre
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Louis XVIII, roi de France et Navarre

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XVIII_of_France (open link for English version; also below after French version)

Louis XVIII, né Louis Stanislas Xavier, fut roi de France de 1814 à sa mort en 1824. Né le 17 novembre 1755 à Versailles, il est le quatrième fils du dauphin Louis-Ferdinand et de sa seconde épouse Marie-Josèphe de Saxe; Il est le frère cadet de Louis Auguste, futur Louis XVI et le frère aîné de Charles-Philippe, futur Charles X. Il est le petit-fils de Louis XV.

Petit-fils de France, il est d’abord titré « comte de Provence ». Tout comme son frère aîné, il passe son enfance au château de Versailles. Il y reçoit une éducation solide, comme le veut son rang. Il reçoit ensuite le palais du Luxembourg, auquel il fit de gros travaux.

Louis XVIII meurt le 16 septembre 1824 à Paris, sans descendance, et est inhumé à la basilique Saint-Denis. Son frère, le comte d’Artois, chef des ultras, lui succède sous le nom de Charles X.

Sommaire

1 Épouse

2 Maîtresses, favorite et favoris

3 Le rapprochement avec le Languedoc

4 Émigré

4.1 Les années 1804-1807

4.2 Les années 1808-1812

4.3 Le mandat de Mgr de La Fare

5 La Restauration

6 Notes et références

7 Sources

8 Liens externes


Épouse 

1771 Marie-Joséphine de Savoie, la « reine velue » (1753–1810) connue pour ses amours lesbiennes, fille du roi Victor-Amédée III de Sardaigne et de Marie-Antoinette Ferdinande d’Espagne (elle-même arrière-petite-fille du roi Louis XIV de France par la branche paternelle). Elle est la sœur de Marie-Thérèse (†1805), épouse du roi Charles X de France, frère cadet de Louis XVI et de Louis XVIII.

Maîtresses, favorite et favoris

Anne Nompar de Caumont la Force, comtesse de Balbi

Louise de Polastron

Zoé Talon, comtesse de Baschi et du Cayla (1785-1850)

Le comte puis duc d’Avaray

Le duc de Blacas

Élie, duc Decazes et de Glucksbierg

Le rapprochement avec le Languedoc 

Son état de frère du Roi ne l'empêche pas de critiquer la politique de celui-ci. Mécontent et inquiet de la politique royale, il cherche à se tailler dans la province de Languedoc un fief, et ainsi se ménager une action directe et distincte de celle de son royal ainé. En 1775, il sollicite en vain le titre de gouverneur du Languedoc. Il avait même acheté l'année précédente le Comté de l'Isle-Jourdain qui lui assurait par la forêt de Bouconne, accès et influence jusque dans Toulouse. Au printemps 1777, un voyage l'amène à Toulouse. Il assiste le 21 juin, à une séance de l'Académie des Jeux Floraux et entend la lecture de trois odes. En son honneur, les parlementaires de la ville organisent une réception chez le Comte de Riquet-Caraman. Il s'embarque ensuite au Port Saint-Sauveur et continue son périple sur le Canal du Midi. À chaque étape, les auberges et maisons sont décorées suivant les ordres des Caraman-Riquet, concessionnaires du Canal. La décoration de la maison du receveur du canal à Agde est tout particulièrement soignée pour la réception de Monsieur.

Émigré 

Après avoir agité la Cour de Louis XVI en facilitant la chute des ministres réformateurs Turgot, Necker, Calonne, il réclame pour le Tiers le doublement du nombre de députés aux États Généraux. Le dérapage de ces derniers le pousse à « émigrer » le 20 juin 1791, en même temps que son frère aîné Louis XVI, qui lui fut arrêté à Varennes (leur benjamin, le comte d’Artois, futur Charles X, avait quitté la France dès le lendemain de la prise de la Bastille).

Il se réfugie ainsi à Bruxelles puis Coblence, capitale de l’Électorat de Trêves, dont un de ses oncles maternels est l’archevêque et le souverain. Il rencontre l’empereur Léopold II et lui inspire la déclaration de Pillnitz d’août 1791 qui galvanise la Révolution française. Il refuse de reconnaître l’autorité du roi et se voit déchu de ses droits de prince du sang par la Législative en janvier 1792. Il tente de rentrer en France à la tête d’une armée de 14 000 hommes mais doit rebrousser chemin après la bataille de Valmy et se réfugie à Hamm en Westphalie. En 1793, ayant appris l’exécution de son frère aîné, il se proclame « régent » pour le dauphin, qui demeure aux mains des révolutionnaires à Paris, et le proclame « Louis XVII ». À la déclaration de la mort de l’enfant, en 1795, il devient dépositaire de la couronne de France et prend le nom de Louis XVIII, mais l’avènement de Napoléon détruit une nouvelle fois ses espérances.

Les années 1804-1807

En 1804, à la suite de plaintes de Napoléon, le roi de Prusse Frédéric-Guillaume se résout à se séparer d’hôtes aussi incommodes que compromettants; Louis XVIII et tous les émigrés composant sa petite cour reçurent l’ordre de quitter immédiatement le territoire prussien. Ce fut à Kalmar que cet ordre parvint au prétendant. Louis XVIII y rencontra le comte d’Artois, son frère qu’il n’avait pas vu depuis près de douze ans, une certaine froideur ayant toujours existé entre eux. L’entrevue de Kalmar ne les rapprocha pas ; ils se quittèrent après dix-sept jours de conférences, assez mécontents l’un de l’autre : le futur Charles X reprit le chemin de Londres et Louis revint attendre à Riga la réponse du Cabinet de Saint-Pétersbourg à propos d’un nouvel asile sur le sol russe. Le nouvel Empereur, Alexandre Ier de Russie, qui succédait à son père le tsar Paul Ier, donna une suite favorable à sa demande et il revint à Mittau (Lettonie actuelle) où une minuscule cour d'une centaine de derniers fidèles dont le vieux marquis de Beaucorps le suivirent[1].

Une fois réinstallé dans sa demeure, Louis XVIII rédigea son dernier manifeste public pendant son séjour à l’étranger. La proclamation qu’il avait envoyée à Pichegru, quelques semaines avant le 18 fructidor, ne contenait que des promesses de réforme à l’ancienne Monarchie (Lois fondamentales du royaume de France). Il se décida, cette fois, à accepter nettement la Révolution et ses suites. Non seulement il admettait l’amnistie entière pour tous les votes antérieurs à 1804, ainsi que l’engagement de conserver à chaque Français ses grades, ses emplois et ses pensions ; il garantissait, en outre, la liberté et l’égalité pour les personnes, le maintien de toutes les propriétés et la protection de tous les intérêts sans exception.

Au sein de la mer Baltique, en face et sous la protection du ciel, fort de la présence de notre frère, de celle du duc d’Angoulême, notre neveu, de l’assentiment des autres princes de notre sang, qui tous partagent nos principes et sont pénétrés des mêmes sentiments qui nous animent, nous le jurons ! jamais on ne nous verra rompre le nœud sacré qui unit nos destinées aux vôtres, qui nous lie à vos familles, à vos cœurs, à vos consciences ; jamais nous ne transigerons sur l’héritage de nos pères, jamais nous n’abandonnerons nos droits. Français ! Nous prenons à témoin de ce serment le Dieu de saint Louis, celui qui juge toutes les justices !

Donné à Mittau, le 2 décembre de l’an de grâce 1804, et de notre règne le dixième.

Signé : Louis.

(A noter que sur tous les documents officiels, Louis XVIII se considéra roi depuis 1795 et fit le décompte des années de son règne en conséquence. Néanmoins, juridiquement, il ne sera pas roi avant la Restauration en 1814.)

Cette déclaration, imprimée à Hambourg, au nombre de dix mille exemplaires, fut répandue sur tout le continent et envoyée en France, par la poste, à toutes les autorités constituées, ainsi qu’aux plus notables habitants de chaque département.

Le second séjour à Mittau du prétendant ne dura que trois ans. Les défaites d’Austerlitz, d’Eylau et de Friedland, obligèrent le tsar à devenir l’allié de Napoléon. Alexandre laissa entendre à Louis XVIII que sa présence à Mittau en Courlande pourrait gêner son nouvel allié. Louis XVIII comprit qu’il devait chercher un nouvel asile. Il n’avait plus à choisir qu’entre le Nouveau Monde et l’Angleterre. Il se décida pour l’hospitalité britannique. Vers le milieu d’octobre 1807, depuis Göteborg en Suède, il avertit le comte d’Artois de sa prochaine arrivée, ce qui n’était pas pour lui plaire. Les confidents du comte réussirent à persuader un des membres du Cabinet britannique, Lord Canning (1770-1827), qu’il était nécessaire, dans l’intérêt même du gouvernement britannique d’éloigner Louis XVIII de Londres et de le confiner en Écosse. Le Royaume Uni était à cette époque la seule puissance qui fut encore en lutte avec la France impériale et elle refusait à Louis XVIII le titre de roi, en lui signifiant qu’à aucune époque le rétablissement de sa famille, n’avait semblé moins plausible. Après de longues tractations Louis XVIII accepta de débarquer en Angleterre, en tant que simple particulier sous le nom de comte de L'Isle-Jourdain (que ses contemporains transformeront en « comte de Lille »…) et en promettant de ne pas faire d’action politique.

Les années 1808-1812

Louis XVIII avait fixé sa résidence à Gosfield Hall à la fin de 1807; il ne quitta ce château qu’au bout de quatre ans, au commencement de 1811, peu de temps après la mort de Marie-Joséphine de Savoie, sa femme, décédée le 13 novembre 1810. Il vint alors habiter Hartwell House propriété du baronnet sir Henry Lee dans le comté de Buckingham, près de Londres. Ses revenus, à cette époque, s’élevaient à 600 000 francs environ (soit 4,8 millions d’euros) que lui payaient le gouvernement britannique et la cour du Brésil. Mais il devait mener un train de vie réduit puisque cette somme était répartie entre ses protégés, les agents dans les différentes cours d’Europe (pour être au courant des politiques menées) et que la guerre entraînait une inflation de prix qui n’étaient pas, au départ, bas. Lors des Cent-Jours il se réfugia à Gand, d’où le jeu de mot : « Notre Père de Gand » !

Le mandat de Mgr de La Fare

En 1795, Louis XVIII confia à Mgr de La Fare, ancien évêque de Nancy (1752 - † 1829), la direction de ses intérêts auprès de la cour de Vienne. Il le constitua également son correspondant dans toute cette partie de l’Europe, fonction qu’il remplit durant vingt ans. Il fut en même temps chargé d’autres missions pour l’ensemble de la famille royale.

En 1807, toutes les communications du continent avec l’Angleterre étaient interdites : personne ne pouvait plus recourir à Londres pour y toucher du gouvernement britannique leurs pensions alimentaires. L’évêque reçut, à l’insu de Louis XVIII, la mission d’ordonnancer et de vérifier le paiement de ces pensions pour assurer la subsistance de ses compatriotes, ce qui lui valut la disgrâce du prétendant. Les versements étaient faits par la banque du Baron J.J. de Boesner, banquier de Vienne et aussi par des banques de Gênes, au profit de la famille royale, les princes et princesses de France et notamment Messeigneurs les ducs d’Angoulême et de Berry pour l’entretien de leurs Maisons et la solde des militaires de leur armée.

Mgr de La Fare exerça cet emploi fastidieux et ingrat jusqu’à l’époque du retour de Louis XVIII dans ses États, à la Restauration.

La Restauration

Au fur et à mesure des guerres napoléoniennes, et spécialement à partir de 1810, les coalisés semblent reprendre l’avantage, éveillant en lui l’espérance du retour. Après la défaite de Napoléon, en 1814, les coalisés réunis au Congrès de Vienne hésitent encore sur le successeur à choisir à Napoléon. Désireux d’installer sur le trône de France un allié, mais aussi un chef légitime, ils hésitent entre Louis XVIII, dont l’impopularité est problématique, l’« Aiglon », fils de Napoléon, mais aussi le maréchal Bernadotte ou encore Eugène de Beauharnais, voire une république. Talleyrand emporte finalement l’opinion des Alliés en faveur de Louis XVIII.


Porté par les Coalisés, le 24 avril 1814, il débarque à Calais. Octroyant une Charte constitutionnelle restaurant la monarchie à ses sujets, il devient roi de France. Les termes "octroyer" et "roi de France" sont importants en droit, puisqu’ils signifient que la souveraineté appartient au roi, et non au peuple ou à la nation (c’est lui qui octroie la Charte aux Français et non les Français qui décident d’une constitution ; contrairement à un roi des Français qui serait roi parce que les Français l’ont mis sur le trône, un roi de France est souverain de droit divin). Il nie donc la théorie révolutionnaire de la souveraineté nationale, voire de la souveraineté populaire.


Une "robe à dix-huit remplis" portée par une royaliste, 1815.Lors des Cent-Jours, il tente d’organiser avec la noblesse la résistance à Napoléon. Son échec le conduit à s’exiler de nouveau. Seule la défaite de Waterloo le réinstalle sur le trône de France.

Son règne est consacré à la lourde tâche de concilier les héritages révolutionnaires et napoléoniens avec ceux de l’Ancien Régime. Il défend ces derniers (il nomme ainsi, comme aumônier de la Cour, monseigneur Jean-Louis d'Usson de Bonnac, un des derniers évêques d’Ancien Régime survivants et surtout l’un des premiers à avoir refusé de prêter serment à la Révolution, ainsi qu’à avoir refusé de démissionner comme l’exigeait Napoléon), sans pour autant accéder aux excès de ses propres partisans, les ultras. Il mit un point d’honneur à toujours constituer un ministère issu de la majorité parlementaire, ce à quoi rien ne le contraignait.

Ses opposants demeurent trop faibles et divisés pour menacer en quoi que ce soit la position royale. Il dissout ainsi une première Chambre ultra en 1816 (la célèbre Chambre introuvable). Une autre vague de contestation commence avec la mort de son neveu duc de Berry, fils du comte d’Artois. Louis XVIII apparaît comme un roi modéré, menant une vie bourgeoise, sans fastes excessifs, trop fades aux yeux de certains. D’autres n’oublient pas que c’est un émigré, ramené sur le trône de France par des étrangers.


Cependant, malgré cette apparente faiblesse, il a réussi non seulement à maintenir un équilibre entre ultras et libéraux, mais aussi à ramener la prospérité dans une nation épuisée par les dernières guerres napoléoniennes. Louis XVIII avait donc une certaine force de caractère et il pouvait d’ailleurs être à l’occasion capable de traits d’humour féroces, comme le montre l’anecdote suivante :

Parmi les prérogatives du roi de France, figurait la capacité d’anoblir tout sujet méritant. Louis XVIII se trouvait ainsi assiégé par une horde de quémandeurs qui estimaient à tort ou à raison être de bons candidats à l’anoblissement. Parmi ceux-ci, l’un des plus acharnés, au moins par le nombre de libelles qu’il déposait régulièrement, était un philosophe nommé Antoine Quatremère. Pour calmer un peu ces quémandeurs et leur donner une bonne leçon, Louis XVIII décida d’accorder au sieur Quatremère un titre et la particule associée (le "de"), mais à la condition expresse qu’il la porte après son nom et non pas avant ! Le pauvre philosophe s’en tira comme il put, en achetant une terre près du village de Quincy et en ajoutant ce nom à la fin du sien.[réf. nécessaire]

On a cité une anecdote similaire concernant le publiciste Genoud, qui insistait pour être rassuré sur le fait que sa lettre d’anoblissement mentionnerait bien une particule devant son nom. Louis XVIII répondit à son entourage « Eh bien ! puisqu’il veut tant une particule, on va lui en mettre une devant et une derrière ! » et le solliciteur se fit anoblir sous le nom de Monsieur de Genoude.[réf. nécessaire]

Louis XVIII souffrait d’une goutte qui empira avec les années et lui rendait tout déplacement extrêmement difficile à la fin de son règne. Dans ses dernières années, le roi était souvent déplacé en fauteuil roulant dans ses appartements. À cause de cette maladie il ne put être sacré roi de France, car il n’aurait pu supporter le cérémonial du sacre des rois de France.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XVIII_of_France

Louis XVIII of France

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Louis XVIII

King of France and of Navarre

Louis XVIII, in his coronation robes, by Antoine Jean Gros

Reign De jure 8 June 1795 –

16 September 1824

De facto 11 April 1814 –

20 March 1815; then

8 July 1815 –

16 September 1824

Coronation none

Predecessor Napoleon I

De facto and by law predecessor as Emperor of the French.

Legitimate predecessor was Louis XVII

Successor Charles X

Spouse Princess Marie Josephine Louise of Savoy

Full name

Louis Stanislas Xavier de France

Father Louis, Dauphin of France

Mother Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony

Born 17 November 1755(1755-11-17)

Palace of Versailles, France

Died 16 September 1824 (aged 68)

Paris, France

Burial Basilica of St Denis, France

Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier de France; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 to 1824, omitting the Hundred Days in 1815. Louis XVIII spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, due to the French Revolution, and was exiled again in 1815, for 100 days, upon the return of Napoleon Bonaparte from Elba. During exile he lived in several countries, including Prussia, the United Kingdom and Russia.[1]

The French Republic abolished the monarchy and deposed King Louis XVI on 21 September 1792.[2] Although the monarchy had been disestablished, Louis XVIII succeeded his nephew, Louis XVII, as titular King, when the latter died in prison in June 1795.[3]

For 23 years, revolution and war excluded the Bourbon line from the throne of France until 1814, when coalition armies captured Paris from Napoleon Bonaparte. Louis XVIII was restored to what he and other Royalists considered his rightful place. Louis XVIII ruled as King for slightly less than a decade, during the so-called Bourbon Restoration period. The Bourbon Restoration was a constitutional monarchy (unlike the Ancien Régime, which was absolute). As a constitutional monarchy, Louis XVIII's royal prerogative was reduced substantially by the Charter of 1814, France's new constitution.

Louis had no children; therefore, upon his death, the crown passed to his younger brother, Charles, comte d’Artois.[4] Louis XVIII was the last French monarch to die while reigning.

Contents

[show]

   * 1 Early life
   * 2 At his brother's court
         o 2.1 The outbreak of the French Revolution
   * 3 Exile
         o 3.1 The early years
         o 3.2 1796 – 1807
         o 3.3 England
   * 4 Bourbon Restoration
         o 4.1 Restoration I
         o 4.2 Hundred days
         o 4.3 1815 – 1824
         o 4.4 Death
   * 5 Ancestors
   * 6 In fiction
   * 7 References
         o 7.1 Notes
         o 7.2 Sources
   * 8 External links

[edit] Early life

Louis Stanislas Xavier was born on 17 November 1755 in the Palace of Versailles, the son of Louis, Dauphin of France, and his wife, Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony. He was the grandson of the reigning King Louis XV, and as such, a Petit-fils de France. Louis Stanislas was christened Louis Stanislas Xavier six years after his birth, in accordance with Bourbon family tradition, being nameless before his baptism. The name of Louis was bestowed because it was typical of a Prince of France; Stanislas after his great-grandfather King Stanisław Leszczyński of Poland; and Xavier for Saint Francis Xavier. His mother's family held Francis Xavier as one of their patron saints.[5]

At the time of his birth, Louis Stanislas was fourth in line to the throne of France, behind his father, the Dauphin (or crown prince), and his two elder brothers, Louis Joseph Xavier, duc de Bourgogne and Louis Auguste, duc de Berry.

The former died after a horrific illness in 1761, leaving Louis Auguste as heir apparent in the next generation until the Dauphin's own premature death in 1765. The two deaths elevated Louis Stanislas to second in the line of succession, while Louis Auguste, acquired the title of Dauphin.[6]

Louis Stanislas found comfort in his governess, the comtesse de Marsan, as he was her favourite out of all her charges (Louis Stanislas' brothers and sisters).[7] Louis Stanislas was taken away from his beloved governess when he turned seven, the age generally acknowledged as the end of infancy and the beginning of boyhood. Women could not govern a boy after they attained this age, so the role was then assumed by a male, known as a governor, duc de la Vauguyon, a friend of his father's.

The comte de Provence and his brother Louis Auguste, duc de Berry, depicted in 1757 by François-Hubert Drouais.

Louis Stanislas was an intelligent boy, excelling in classics and literature. His education was of the same quality and consistency as that of his older brother, Louis Auguste, despite the fact that Louis Auguste was heir and Louis Stanislas was not.[7] Louis Stanislas' education was quite religious in nature, several of his teachers being ecclesiastics. Vauguyon drilled into young Louis Stanislas and his brothers the way he thought princes should "know how to withdraw themselves, to like to work," and "to know how to reason correctly".

In April 1771, Louis Stanislas's education was formally concluded, and his own independent household was established,[8] which astounded contemporaries with its extravagance: in 1773, the number of servants reached 390.[9] In the same month his household was founded, Louis was granted several titles by his grandfather, Louis XV: duc d'Anjou, comte du Maine, comte de Perche and comte de Senoches.[10]

On 14 May 1771, Louis Stanislas married Princess Marie Josephine Louise of Savoy. Marie Joséphine (as she was known in France) was a daughter of the then Prince and Princess of Piedmont, future king Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia.

A luxurious ball followed the wedding on 20 May.[11] The new comtesse de Provence (Louis bore the courtesy title comte de Provence) was considered to be ugly, tedious and ignorant of the court at Versailles. Louis Stanislas was repulsed by his new wife, as was his brother the comte d'Artois, who married her sister, Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy. The marriage remained unconsummated; biographers disagree about the reason, maintaining that it was due to Louis Stanislas' alleged impotence (according to biographer Antonia Fraser) or his unwillingness to sleep with his wife, due to her poor personal hygiene. She never brushed her teeth, plucked her eyebrows, or used any perfumes.[12] At the time of his marriage, Louis Stanislas was obese and waddled instead of walked. He never exercised and continued to eat enormous amounts of food.[13]

Despite the fact that Louis Stanislas was not infatuated with his wife, he boasted that the two enjoyed vigorous conjugal relations — such declarations were held in low esteem by courtiers at Versailles. He also proclaimed his wife to be pregnant, merely to spite Louis Auguste and his wife Maria Antonia, Archduchess of Austria, who had not yet consummated their marriage.[14] The Dauphin and Louis Stanislas did not enjoy a harmonious relationship, and often quarrelled,[15] as did their wives.[16] Louis Stanislas impregnated his wife in 1774, having conquered his aversion to Marie Joséphine. However, the pregnancy ended in a miscarriage.[17]

On 27 April 1774, Louis XV fell ill after having contracted smallpox, and died the following 4 May.[18]

[edit] At his brother's court

Louis Stanislas,comte de Provence, during the reign of Louis XVI of France.

Marie Joséphine, comtesse de Provence, Louis Stanislas' wife, by Jean-Baptiste-André Gautier d'Agoty, 1775.

The Dauphin, Louis Auguste, succeeded his grandfather as King Louis XVI.[19] Louis Stanislas longed for political influence. He attempted to gain admittance to the King’s council in 1774, ultimately failing. Louis Stanislas was left in a political limbo that he called "a gap of 12 years in my political life".[20] Louis XVI granted Louis Stanislas revenues from the Duchy of Alençon in December 1774. The duchy was given to enhance Louis Stanislas' prestige, however his appanage turned over only 300,000 livres (livres were the currency of France from Charlemagne, to the Revolution) per annum. This much lower than it had been at its peak in the fourteenth century.[10] Louis Stanislas also embarked on a tour of France in 1774. He toured with his sister Madame Clotilde to meet her bridegroom Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Piedmont, heir to the throne of Sardinia, at Chambéry. In 1775, Louis Stanislas visited Lyon and his spinster aunts, Madame Adélaïde and Madame Victoire, while they were enjoying the waters at Vichy.[9] Louis Stanislas took more tours of France than anyone else in the royal family, who rarely left the Île-de-France. The four provincial tours that Louis Stanislas took before the year 1791 amounted to a total of three months.[21]

On 5 May 1778, Dr. Lassonne confirmed Marie Antoinette's pregnancy.[22] On 19 December 1778, the Queen gave birth to a daughter, who was named Marie-Thérèse Charlotte de France, and given the honorific title Madame Royale. The birth of a girl came as a relief to the comte de Provence, who kept his position as heir to Louis XVI, since Salic Law excluded women from acceding to the throne of France.[23][24] However, Louis Stanislas was not heir to the throne much longer. He was dislodged from the position when Marie Antoinette gave birth to a long wished-for son, Louis Joseph, on 22 October 1781. Louis Stanislas and his youngest brother, the comte d’Artois, served as godfathers by proxy for the Holy Roman Emperor, the Queen’s brother.[25] In 1780, a new lady, Anne Nompar de Caumont de La Force, comtesse de Balbi, entered the service of Marie Joséphine. Contemporaries judged the comtesse de Balbi to be witty and amusing, though also poorly educated and, some thought, rude. Louis Stanislas soon fell in love with his wife's new lady-in-waiting, and installed her as his mistress,[26] which resulted in Marie Joséphine's and Louis Stanislas' already small affection for each other to cool entirely.[27] Louis Stanislas commissioned a pavilion for his mistress on a parcel that became known as the Parc Balbi, near the Pièce d’Eau des Suisses and the Potager du Roi at Versailles.[28]

Louis Stanislas lived a quiet and sedentary lifestyle at this point, not having a great deal to do since his self-proclaimed political exclusion in 1774. He kept himself occupied with his vast library of over 11,000 books at Balbi's pavilion. There he read for several hours each morning.[29] However, Louis Stanislas racked up astronomical debts, and when he asked Louis XVI to pay off his debt of 10 million livres in the early 1780s, Louis XVI obliged.[30] Louis Stanislas slid further down the line of succession when Marie Antoinette gave birth to her second son, Louis Charles, in March 1785.[31]

An Assembly of Notables (the members consisted of magistrates, mayors, nobles and clergy) was convened in February 1787 to ratify the financial reforms sought by the Controller-General of Finance Charles Alexandre de Calonne. This provided Louis Stanislas, who abhorred the radical reforms proposed by Calonne, the opportunity he had long been waiting for to establish himself in politics.[32] The reforms proposed a new property tax,[33] and new elected provincial assemblies that would have a say in local taxation.[34] Calonne's proposition was rejected outright by the notables, and, as a result, Louis XVI dismissed him. The Archbishop of Toulouse, Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne, acquired Calonne's ministry. Brienne attempted to salvage Calonne's reforms, but ultimately failed to convince the notables to approve them. A frustrated Louis XVI dissolved the assembly.[35]

Louis had a venture in hard-paste porcelain, which was called "Porcelaine de Monsieur", 1780.

Brienne's reforms were then submitted to the Parlement de Paris in the hopes that they would be approved. (A parlement was responsible for ratifying the King’s edicts. Each province had its own parlement, but the parlement de Paris was the most significant of all.) The Parlement de Paris refused to accept Brienne’s proposals, and pronounced that any new taxation would have to be approved by an Estates-General (the nominal parliament of France). Louis XVI and Brienne took a hostile stance against the parlement's rejection, and Louis XVI had to implement a Lit de justice (which automatically registered an edict in the Parlement de Paris) to ratify the desired reforms. On 8 May, Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil and Goislard de Montsabert, two of the leading members of the Parlement de Paris were arrested. There was rioting in Brittany, Provence, Burgundy and Béarn in reaction to their arrest. This unrest was engineered by local magistrates and nobles, who enticed the people to revolt against the Lit de Justice, which was quite unfavourable to the nobles and magistrates. The clergy also joined the provincial cause, and condemned Brienne's tax reforms. Brienne conceded defeat in July and agreed to calling the Estates-General to meet in 1789. He resigned from his post in August and was replaced by the Swiss magnate Jacques Necker.[36]

In November 1788, a second Assembly of Notables was convened by Jacques Necker, to consider the makeup of the next Estates-General.[37] The Parlement de Paris recommended that the Estates should be the same as they were at the last assembly, in 1614 (this would mean that the clergy and nobility would have more representation than the Third Estate).[38] The notables rejected the "dual representation" proposal. Louis Stanislas was the only notable to vote to increase the size of the Third Estate.[39] Necker disregarded the notables' judgment, and convinced Louis XVI to grant the extra representation — Louis duly obliged on 27 December.[40]

[edit] The outbreak of the French Revolution

Main article: French Revolution

The Estates-General were convened in May 1789 to ratify financial reforms.[41] Louis Stanislas favoured a stalwart position against the Third Estate and its demands for tax reform. On 17 June, the Third Estate declared itself a National Assembly, an Assembly not of the Estates, but of the People.

Louis Stanislas urged the King to act strongly against the declaration, while the King's popular minister, Jacques Necker, intended to compromise with the new assembly. Louis XVI was characteristically indecisive. On 9 July, the assembly declared itself a National Constituent Assembly, that would give France a Constitution. On 11 July, Louis XVI dismissed Jacques Necker, which led to widespread rioting across Paris. On 12 July, the sabre charge of Charles-Eugène de Lorraine, prince de Lambesc's cavalry regiment, the Royal-Allemand, on a crowd gathered at the Tuileries gardens, sparked the Storming of the Bastille two days later.[42][43]

On 16 July, the comte d’Artois left France with his wife and children, along with many other courtiers.[44] Artois and his family took up residence in Turin, the capital city of his father-in-law’s Kingdom of Sardinia, with the Condé family.[45]

Louis Stanislas decided to remain at Versailles.[46] When the royal family plotted to abscond from Versailles to Metz, Louis Stanislas advised the King not to leave, to which the latter duly agreed.[47]

The royal family was ripped away from their Palace at Versailles, the day after the 5 October 1789 women's march on Versailles.[48] In Paris, the Comte and his wife lodged in the Luxembourg Palace, while the rest of the royal family stayed in the Tuileries Palace.[49] In March 1791, the National Assembly created a law outlining the regency of Louis Charles in case his father died while he was still too young to reign. The law created the potential regency as follows: Louis Charles' nearest male relative in France (presently the comte de Provence Louis Stanislas), and after him, the regency would be given to the duc d’Orléans, and if he were unavailable, the regency would go to election.[50]

The comte de Provence and his wife fled to the Austrian Netherlands in conjunction with the royal family’s failed Flight to Varennes in June 1791.[51]

[edit] Exile

[edit] The early years

When the comte de Provence arrived in the Low Countries, he proclaimed himself de facto regent of France. Louis Stanislas was exploiting a document that he and Louis XVI had written[52] before the latter's failed escape to Varennes. The document gave Louis Stanislas the regency in the event of his brother's death, or inability to perform his role as King. Louis Stanislas would join the other princes-in-exile at Coblenz soon after his escape. It was there that the comte d’Artois, the Condés and the comte de Provence, proclaimed that their objective was to invade France. Louis XVI was greatly annoyed by his brothers' behaviour. Provence sent emissaries to various European courts asking for financial aid, soldiers, and munition. Artois secured a castle for the court in exile in the Electorate of Trier, where their maternal uncle, Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony, was the Archbishop-Elector. Louis Stanislas' rallying bore fruit when the rulers of Prussia and Austria gathered at Dresden. They released the Declaration of Pillnitz in August 1791, which urged Europe to intervene in France if Louis XVI or his family were threatened. Provence's endorsement of the declaration was not well received in France, by the people, or by Louis XVI.[53]

In January 1792, the Legislative Assembly declared that all the émigrés were traitors to France. Their property and titles were confiscated.[54] The monarchy of France was abolished by the National Convention on 21 September 1792.[55]

Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. This left his young son, Louis Charles, as titular King Louis XVII of France. The princes-in-exile proclaimed Louis Charles "King Louis XVII". Louis Stanislas now unilaterally declared himself regent for his nephew, who was too young to be head of the House of Bourbon (since the French monarchy had been abolished for several months, Louis XVII never actually ruled, and any claim to regency would have been in name only.)[56]

Young Louis XVII's reign did not last long as he died in June 1795, survived by his sister Marie-Thérèse Charlotte de France, Madame Royale. On 16 June, the princes-in-exile declared the comte de Provence "King Louis XVIII". The new King accepted their declaration soon after.[57] Louis XVIII busied himself drafting a manifesto in response to Louis XVII's death. The manifesto, known as "The Declaration of Verona" was Louis XVIII's attempt to introduce the French people to his politics (after all, he had just been declared King by the exiles). The Declaration of Verona beckoned France back into the arms of the monarchy, "which for fourteen centuries was the glory of France".[16]

Louis XVIII negotiated Marie-Thérèse’s release from her Paris' prison in 1795. Louis XVIII desperately wanted Marie-Thérèse to marry her first cousin, Louis Antoine, duc d’Angoulême, the son of the comte d'Artois. Louis XVIII deceived his niece by telling her that her parents' last wishes were for her to marry Louis Antoine, and Marie-Thérèse duly agreed to her uncle-king's wishes.[58]

Louis XVIII was forced to abandon Verona when Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the Republic of Venice.[59]

[edit] 1796 – 1807

Jelgava Palace, Louis XVIII's residence from 1798 to 1801, and from 1804 to 1807.

Louis XVIII had been vying for the custody of his niece Marie-Thérèse since her release from the Temple Tower in December 1795. Louis succeeded when Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor agreed to relinquish custody of Marie-Thérèse in 1796. She had been staying in Vienna with her Habsburg relatives since January 1796.[59] Louis XVIII moved to Blankenburg in Duchy of Brunswick [Braunschweig] after his departure from Verona. He lived in a modest two-bedroom apartment over a shop.[60] Louis XVIII was forced to leave Blankenberg when King Frederick William II of Prussia died. In light of this, Marie-Thérèse decided to wait a while longer before reuniting with her uncle.[61]

In 1798, Emperor Paul I of Russia offered Louis the use of Jelgava Palace in Courland (now Latvia). Paul I also guaranteed Louis's safety and bestowed upon him a generous pension,[60] however, the Emperor later disregarded this allowance.[62] Marie-Thérèse finally joined Louis XVIII at Jelgava in 1799.[63] In the winter of 1798–1799, Louis XVIII wrote a biography on Marie Antoinette, titled Réflexions Historiques sur Marie Antoinette. King Louis attempted to recreate the court life of Versailles at Jelgava, where many old courtiers lived, reestablishing all the court ceremonies, including the lever and coucher (these ceremonies were for waking and bedding respectively).[64]

Marie-Thérèse married her cousin Louis Antoine on 9 June 1799, at Jelgava Palace. Louis XVIII ordered his wife to attend the marriage proceedings in Courland without her long-time friend (and rumoured lover) Madame de Gourbillon. Queen Marie Joséphine lived apart from her husband in Schleswig Holstein. Louis XVIII was trying desperately to display to the world a united family front. The Queen refused to leave her friend behind and drama ensued, rivalling the wedding in notoriety.[65] Louis XVIII knew that his nephew Louis Antoine was not compatible with Marie-Thérèse. Despite this, he still rallied for their marriage, which proved to be quite unhappy and produced no children.[66]

Louis XVIII attempted to strike up a correspondence with Napoleon Bonaparte (First Consul of France) in 1800. Louis XVIII besought Bonaparte to restore the Bourbons to their throne, but the future emperor was immune to Louis's requests and continued to consolidate his position as ruler of France.[67]

Louis XVIII encouraged his niece to write her memoirs, as he wished them to be used as Bourbon propaganda. Louis also used the diaries of Louis XVI' final attendants in the same way, in 1796 and in 1803.[64] In January 1801, Tsar Paul told Louis XVIII that he could no longer live in Russia. The court at Jelgava was so low on funds that they had to auction some of their possessions to afford the journey out of Russia. Marie-Thérèse even sold a diamond necklace that the Emperor Paul had given her as a wedding gift.[62]

Marie-Thérèse convinced Queen Louise of Prussia to give her family refuge in Prussian territory. Louise consented, but the Bourbons were forced to assume pseudonyms. With Louis XVIII using the title Comte d'Isle (named after his estate in Languedoc), he and his family assumed residence in Warsaw in the Lazienki Palace from 1801 to 1804, after an arduous voyage from Jelgava.[68] It was very soon after their arrival that they learned of the death of Paul I. Louis hoped that Paul's successor, Alexander I of Russia, would repudiate his father's banishment of the Bourbons. Louis XVIII then intended to set off to the Neapolitan court. The comte d’Artois asked Louis to send his son, Louis Antoine, and daughter-in-law, Marie-Thérèse, to him in Edinburgh. Louis was distressed by Artois' request, as Louis Antoine and his wife were all that he had, while Charles had an allowance from King George III of Great Britain. Louis XVIII's court in exile was being spied on by French police.[69] Louis greatly valued his niece's advice.[70] The court-in-exile was being financed by interest owed from Francis II on valuables his aunt, Marie Antoinette, had removed from France. The comte d'Artois in England also sent money. They had to cut their expenses significantly.[71]

In 1803, Napoleon tried to force Louis XVIII to renounce his right to the throne of France, but Louis refused.[72] In May 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte declared himself Emperor of the French. Louis XVIII and his nephew departed for Sweden in July for a Bourbon family conference, where Louis XVIII, the comte d’Artois, and the duc d'Angoulême issued a statement condemning Napoleon's decision to declare himself emperor.[73] The King of Prussia issued a proclamation saying that Louis XVIII would have to leave Prussian territory, which meant leaving Warsaw. Alexander I of Russia invited Louis XVIII to resume residence in Jelgava. Louis XVIII had to live under less generous conditions than those enjoyed under Paul I, and he intended to embark for England as soon as possible.[74]

Louis XVIII created another policy in 1805; a declaration that was far more liberal than his former ones. It repudiated his Declaration of Verona, promised to abolish conscription, keep Napoleon I's administrative and judicial system, reduce taxes, eliminate political prisons, and guarantee amnesty to everyone who did not oppose a Bourbon Restoration. The opinions expressed in the declaration were largely those of the comte d’Avaray (Louis's best friend in exile).[75]

Louis XVIII was forced once again to leave Jelgava when Alexander of Russia informed him that his safety could not be guaranteed on continental Europe. In July 1807, Louis boarded a Swedish frigate to Stockholm, bringing with him only the duc d'Angoulême. Louis did not stay in Sweden for long, and arrived in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England, in November 1807. He took up residence in Gosfield Hall, leased to him by the Marquess of Buckingham[76]

[edit] England

Hartwell House, Louis XVIII's court-in-exile from 1808 until the Restoration.

Louis brought his wife and Queen, Marie Joséphine, from the continent in 1808. Louis's stay at Gosfield Hall did not last long, and he moved to Hartwell House in Buckinghamshire, where over one hundred courtiers were housed.[77] The King paid £500 in rent each year to the proprietor, Sir George Lee. The Prince Regent of the United Kingdom was very charitable to the exiled Bourbons, granting them permanent asylum and giving them extremely generous allowances.[78]

The comte d'Artois did not join the court-in-exile in Hartwell, continuing his frivolous life in London. Louis' friend the comte d'Avaray left Hartwell for Madeira in 1809, and died there in 1811. Louis replaced Avaray with the Comte de Blacas. Louis XVIII's wife, Queen Marie Joséphine, died on 13 November 1810.[79] That same winter, Louis suffered a particularly severe case of gout, which was a recurring problem for him at Hartwell, and he had to be put in a wheelchair.[80]

Napoleon I embarked on an invasion of Russia in 1812. This war would prove to be the turning point in his fortunes, as the expedition failed miserably and Napoleon was forced to retreat with an army in tatters.

In 1813, Louis XVIII issued another declaration while at Hartwell. "The Declaration of Hartwell" was more liberal than his "Declaration of 1805", asserting that all those who served Napoleon or the Republic would not have repercussions for their acts, and that the original owners of the Biens nationaux (lands confiscated from the nobles and clergy during the Revolution) were to be compensated for their losses.[81]

Allied troops entered Paris on 31 March 1814.[82] Louis was, however, unable to walk, and so sent the comte d'Artois to France in January 1814. Louis XVIII issued letters patent appointing Artois Lieutenant General of the Kingdom in the event of the Bourbons being restored. Napoleon I abdicated on 11 April, five days after his Senate had invited the Bourbons to re-assume the throne of France.[83]

[edit] Bourbon Restoration

Main article: Bourbon Restoration

Allégorie du retour des Bourbons le 24 avril 1814 : Louis XVIII relevant la France de ses ruines, by Louis-Philippe Crépin

[edit] Restoration I

The comte d'Artois ruled as Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom, until his brother's arrival in Paris on 3 May. Upon his return, the King displayed himself to his subjects by creating a procession through the city. He took up residence in the Tuileries Palace the same day. His niece, the duchesse d'Angoulême, fainted at the sight of the Tuileries.[84]

Napoleon's senate called Louis XVIII to the throne on the condition that he would accept the new constitution, which entailed recognition of the Republic and the Empire, a bicameral parliament elected every year, and the tri-colour flag of the aforementioned regimes.[85] Louis XVIII opposed the senate's constitution, and stated that he was "disbanding the current senate in all the crimes of Bonaparte, and appealing to the French people". The senatorial constitution was burned in a theatre in royalist Bordeaux, and the Municipal Council of Lyon voted for a speech that defamed the senate.[86]

The armies occupying Paris demanded that Louis XVIII implement a constitution.[87] The Charter of 1814 that Louis created entailed all that Saint-Ouen wished for and more: Freedom of Religion, a legislature composed of the Chamber of Deputies[88] and the Chamber of Peers,[89] the press would enjoy a degree of freedom, the biens nationaux,[90] would remain in the hands of their current owners.[91] The constitution had 76 articles. Taxation was to be voted on by the chambers.

Catholicism was the official religion of France. To be eligible for election to the Chamber of Deputies, one had to pay over 1,000 francs per year in tax, and be over the age of forty. The King appointed peers to the Chamber of Peers on a hereditary basis, or for life at his discretion. Deputies were elected every five years, with one fifth of them up for election each year.[92] There were 90,000 citizens eligible to vote.[93]

Louis XVIII signed the Treaty of Paris on 30 May 1814. The treaty gave France her 1792 borders, which extended east of the Rhine. She had to pay no war indemnity, and the occupying armies of the Sixth Coalition withdrew instantly from French soil. These generous terms would be reversed in the next Treaty of Paris after the Hundred Days (Napoleon's return to France in 1815).[94]

It did not take Louis XVIII long to go back on one of his many promises. He and his Controller-General of Finance Baron Louis were determined not to let the exchequer fall into deficit (there was a 75 million franc debt inherited from Napoleon I), and took fiscal measures to ensure this. Louis XVIII assured the French that the unpopular tax on tobacco, wine and salt would be abolished when he was restored, but he failed to do so, which led to rioting in Bordeaux. Expenditure on the army was slashed in the 1815 budget — in 1814, the military had accounted for 55% of government spending.[95]

Gold Coin of Louis XVIII, struck 1815

Obverse: (French) LOUIS XVIII, ROI DE FRANCE, in English: "Louis XVIII, King of France" Reverse: (French) PIECE DE 20 FRANCS, 1815, in English: "20 Franc Piece, 1815."

Louis XVIII admitted the comte d'Artois and his nephews, the duc d'Angoulême, and the duc de Berry into the King's council in May 1814, upon its establishment. The council was informally headed by the Prince de Talleyrand.[96] Louis XVIII took a large interest in the goings-on of the Congress of Vienna (set up to redraw the map of Europe after Napoleon's demise). Talleyrand represented France at the proceedings. Louis was horrified by Prussia's intention to annex the Kingdom of Saxony, to which he was attached because his mother was born a Saxon princess, and he was also concerned that Prussia would dominate Germany. He also wished the Duchy of Parma to be restored to the Parmese Bourbons, and not to Empress Marie Louise of France, as was being suggested by the Allies.[97] Louis also protested the Allies' inaction in Naples, where he wanted the Napoleonic usurper Joachim Murat removed in favour of the Neapolitan Bourbons, who had ruled for centuries.

On behalf of the Allies, Austria agreed to send a force to the Two Sicilies to depose Murat in February 1815, when it became apparent that Murat corresponded with Napoleon I, which was explicitly forbidden by a recent treaty. Murat never actually wrote to Napoleon, but Louis, intent on restoring the Neapolitan Bourbons at any cost, forged the correspondence, and subsidised the Austrian expedition with 25 million francs.[98]

Louis XVIII succeeded in getting the Neapolitan Bourbons restored immediately. Parma was bestowed upon Empress Marie Louise for life, and the Parmese Bourbons were given the Duchy of Lucca until the death of Marie Louise.

[edit] Hundred days

Main article: Hundred Days

Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.

On 26 February 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte escaped his island prison of Elba and embarked for France. He arrived with about 1,000 troops near Cannes on 1 March. Louis XVIII was not particularly worried by Bonaparte's excursion, as such small numbers of troops could be easily overcome. There was, however, a major underlying problem for the Bourbons: Louis XVIII had failed to purge the military of its Bonapartist troops. This led to mass desertions from the Bourbon armies to Bonaparte's. Furthermore, Louis XVIII could not join the campaign against Napoleon in the south of France because he was suffering from another case of gout.[99] Minister of War Marshall Soult dispatched Louis Philippe d'Orléans, the comte d'Artois and Marshall MacDonald to apprehend Napoleon.[100]

Louis XVIII's underestimation of Bonaparte proved disastrous. On 19 March, the army stationed outside Paris defected to Bonaparte, leaving the city vulnerable to attack.[101] That same day, Louis XVIII quit the capital with a small escort at midnight. Louis decided to go first to Lille, and then crossed the border into the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, staying in Ghent.[102] Other leaders, most prominently Alexander I of Russia, debated that in case of a second victory over the French Empire, the First Prince of the Blood Louis Philippe d'Orléans should be proclaimed king instead of Louis XVIII.[103]

However, Napoleon did not rule France again for very long, suffering a decisive defeat at the hands of the Duke of Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo on 15 June. Leaders came to the consensus that Louis XVIII should be restored to the throne of France.[104]

[edit] 1815 – 1824

Louis XVIII in robes du sacre by François Gérard.

Old Bumblehead the 18th trying on the Napoleon Boots – or, Preparing for the Spanish Campaign, by George Cruikshank, mocked the French Intervention in Spain.

The Royal Family. From left to right: Charles, comte d'Artois, Louis XVIII, Marie Caroline, duchesse de Berry, Marie Thérèse, duchesse d'Angoulême, Louis Antoine, duc d'Angoulême and Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry.

Louis XVIII returned to France promptly after Napoleon's defeat, to ensure his second restoration "in baggage train of the enemy", i.e. with Wellington's troops.[105] The Duke of Wellington used King Louis' person to open up the route to Paris, as some fortresses refused to surrender to the Allies, but agreed to do so for their King. King Louis arrived at Cambrai on 26 June, where he released a proclamation stating that all those who served the Emperor in the Hundred Days would not be persecuted, except for the "instigators". It was also acknowledged that Louis XVIII's government might have made mistakes during the First Restoration.[106] On 29 June, a deputation of five from the Chamber of Deputies and the Chamber of Peers approached Wellington about putting a foreign Prince on the throne of France. Wellington rejected their pleas outright, declaring that "[Louis XVIII is] the best way to preserve the integrity of France".[107] Wellington ordered the deputies to espouse King Louis' cause.[108] Louis XVIII entered Paris on 8 July to a boisterous reception: the Tuileries Palace gardens were thronged with bystanders, and, according to the Duke of Wellington, the acclamation of the crowds there were so loud that evening, that he could not converse with the King.[109]

Louis XVIII's role in politics from the Hundred Days onward was voluntarily diminished, he resigned most of his duties to his council. He and his ministry embarked on a series of reforms through the summer of 1815. The King's council, an informal group of ministers that advised Louis XVIII, was dissolved and replaced by a tighter knit privy council, the "Ministère de Roi". Artois, Berry and Angoulême were purged from the new "ministère", and Talleyrand was appointed as the first Président du Conseil, i.e. Prime Minister of France.[110] On 14 July, the ministry dissolved the units of the army deemed "rebellious". Hereditary peerage was re-established to Louis' behest by the ministry.[111]

In August elections for the Chamber of Deputies returned unfavourable results for Talleyrand. The ministry wished for moderate deputies, but the electorate voted almost exclusively for ultra-royalists, resulting in the Chambre introuvable. The duchesse d'Angoulême and the comte d'Artois pressured King for the dismissal of his obsolete ministry. Talleyrand tendered his resignation on 20 September. Louis XVIII chose Armand-Emmanuel du Plessis, duc de Richelieu to be his new Prime Minister. Richelieu was chosen because he was accepted by Louis' family and the reactionary Chamber of Deputies.[112]

Anti-Napoleonic sentiment was high in Southern France, and this was prominently displayed in the White Terror. The White Terror saw the purge of all important Napoleonic officials from government, and the execution of others. The people of France committed barbarous acts against some of these officials. Guillaume Marie Anne Brune (a Napoleonic marshal) was savagely assassinated, and his remains thrown into the Rhône River.[113] Louis XVIII deplored such illegal acts, but vehemently supported the prosecution of those marshals that helped Napoleon I in the Hundred Days.[114][115] Louis XVIII’s government executed Napoleon's Marshal Ney, Prince de la Moskowa, in December 1815 for treason. His confidants the Marquis de Bonnay and the Duc de la Chatre advised him to inflict firm punishments on the “traitors”.

The King was reluctant to shed blood, and this greatly irritated the ultra-reactionary chamber of deputies, who felt that Louis XVIII was not executing enough.[116] The government issued a proclamation of amnesty to the “traitors” in January 1816, but the trials that had already begun were finished in due course. That same declaration also banned any member of the House of Bonaparte from owning property in, or entering, France.[117] It is estimated that between 50,000 – 80,000 officials were purged from the government during what was known as the Second White Terror.[118]

In November 1815, Louis XVIII’s government had to sign another Treaty of Paris, formally ending Napoleon’s hundred days. The previous treaty had been quite favourable to France, but this one took a hard-line. France’s borders were retracted to their extent at 1790. France had to pay for an army to occupy her, for at least five years, at a cost of 150 million francs per year. France also had to pay a war indemnity of 700 million francs to the allies.[119]

In 1818, the Chambers passed a military law, which increased the size of the army by over 100,000. In October of the same year, Louis XVIII’s foreign minister, the Duc de Richelieu, succeeded in convincing the powers to withdraw their armies early, in exchange for a sum of over 200 million francs.[120]

Louis XVIII chose many centrist cabinets, as he wanted to appease the populace. Much to the dismay of his brother, the ultra-royalist comte d’Artois,[121] he always dreaded the day he would die, believing that his brother, and heir, Artois, would abandon the centrist government for an ultra-royalist autocracy, which would not bring favourable results.[122]

King Louis disliked the First Prince of the Blood, Louis-Philippe d'Orléans, and took every opportunity to snub him.[123] King Louis' nephew, the duc de Berry, was assassinated at the Paris Opera, on 14 February 1820. The royal family was grief-stricken[124] and Louis XVIII broke an ancient tradition to attend his nephew's funeral, as previous Kings of France could not have any association with death.[125]

Berry was the only member of the family thought to be able to beget children. His wife gave birth to a posthumous son in September Henri, duc de Bordeaux.[124] The future of the Bourbons as kings of France was in still doubt. The Chamber of Deputies proposed amending the Salic law to allow the Duchesse d’Angoulême to accede to the throne.[126] On 12 June 1820, the Chambers ratified legislation that increased the number of deputies from 258 to 430. The extra deputies were to be elected by the wealthiest quarter of the population in each department. These individuals now effectively had two votes.[127] Around the same time as the “law of the two votes”, Louis XVIII began to receive visits every Wednesday from a lady named Zoé Talon, comtesse du Cayla, and ordered that nobody should disturb him while he was with her. It was rumoured that he inhaled snuff from her breasts,[128] which earned her the nickname of tabatière (snuffbox).[129] In 1823, France embarked on a military intervention in Spain, where a revolt had occurred against the King Ferdinand VII. France succeeded in crushing the rebellion,[130] which the duc d’Angoulême headed.[131]

[edit] Death

Louis XVIII's grave, at the Basilica of St Denis, Paris.

Louis XVIII's health began to fail in spring 1824. He was suffering from obesity, gout and gangrene, both dry and wet, in his legs and spine. Louis died on 16 September 1824, surrounded by the extended royal family and some government officials. He was succeeded by his youngest brother, the comte d’Artois, as Charles X.[132]

Louis XVIII was the only French monarch of the 19th century to die while still ruling. He was interred at the Basilica of St Denis, the necropolis of French kings.

In fiction

Louis XVIII appears briefly in the novel The Count of Monte Cristo, by Alexandre Dumas. The comte de Provence was portrayed by Sebastian Armesto in the 2006 film Marie Antoinette, a biographical film written and directed by Sofia Coppola, based on the book, Marie Antoinette: The Journey by Lady Antonia Fraser. In contradiction with historical facts, he is portrayed in the film as having a son. In the 1970 film Waterloo, Louis XVIII was portrayed by Orson Welles.

[edit] References

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Fraser, Antonia, Marie Antoinette: The Journey, ORION, London 2002, ISBN 978-0-7538-1305-8, p. 532.
  2. ^ Hibbert, Christopher, The French Revolution, Penguin Books (London), 1982, ISBN 978-0-14-004045-9, pp. 331-332
  3. ^ Nagel, Susan, Marie-Thérèse: Child of Terror Bloomsbury, USA, Reprint Edition 2008, ISBN 1-59691-057-7, pp. 152-153
  4. ^ Fraser, 532
  5. ^ Mansel, 10
  6. ^ Fraser, 41
  7. ^ a b Mansel, 11
  8. ^ Mansel, 12
  9. ^ a b Mansel, 20
 10. ^ a b Mansel, 24
 11. ^ Mansel, 3
 12. ^ Mansel, 13-14
 13. ^ Fraser, 114
 14. ^ Fraser, 115
 15. ^ Fraser, 120
 16. ^ a b Mansel, 111
 17. ^ Mansel, 14-15
 18. ^ Fraser, 136-138
 19. ^ Fraser, 143
 20. ^ Mansel, 16
 21. ^ Mansel, 21
 22. ^ Castelot, André, Madame Royale, Librairie Académique Perrin, Paris, 1962, p. 15, ISBN 2-262-00035-2, (French).
 23. ^ Fraser, 199
 24. ^ Fraser, 201
 25. ^ Fraser, 221 – 223
 26. ^ Mansel, 28
 27. ^ Mansel, 30
 28. ^ Mansel, 29
 29. ^ Mansel, 34
 30. ^ Fraser, 178
 31. ^ Fraser, 224  –225
 32. ^ Hibbert, p 38
 33. ^ Mansel, 40
 34. ^ Mansel, 41
 35. ^ Hibbert, 39
 36. ^ Hibbert, 40
 37. ^ Mansel, 44
 38. ^ Hibbert, 329
 39. ^ Mansel, 45
 40. ^ Hibbert, 44
 41. ^ Fraser, 326
 42. ^ Le Petit Robert 2, Dictionnaire universel des noms propres, Dictionnaires Le Robert, Paris, 1988, p. 1017.
 43. ^ Lever, Evelyne, Louis XVI, Fayard, Paris, 1985, p. 508.
 44. ^ Fraser, 338
 45. ^ Nagel, 65
 46. ^ Fraser, 340
 47. ^ Fraser, 342
 48. ^ Fraser, 357
 49. ^ Fraser, 361–362
 50. ^ Fraser, 383
 51. ^ Fraser, 412
 52. ^ Nagel, 113
 53. ^ Nagel 113 – 114
 54. ^ Nagel, 118
 55. ^ Hibbert, 180
 56. ^ Nagel, 136
 57. ^ Nagel, 152–153
 58. ^ Nagel, 165
 59. ^ a b Nagel, 190
 60. ^ a b Nagel, 203
 61. ^ Nagel, 201
 62. ^ a b Nagel, 216
 63. ^ Nagel, 206
 64. ^ a b Nagel, 213
 65. ^ Nagel, 210–211
 66. ^ Nagel, 208
 67. ^ Mansel, 128
 68. ^ Nagel 218–219
 69. ^ Nagel, 220
 70. ^ Nagel, 221
 71. ^ Nagel, 222
 72. ^ Nagel, 223
 73. ^ Nagel, 227 - 228
 74. ^ Nagel, 228–229
 75. ^ Mansel, 119
 76. ^ Nagel, 233–234
 77. ^ Nagel, 235
 78. ^ Nagel, 243
 79. ^ Nagel, 241
 80. ^ Mansel, 147
 81. ^ Mansel, 162
 82. ^ Price, Munro, The Perilous Crown, Pan Books, 2 May 2008,ISBN 978-0-330-42638-1, p. 143
 83. ^ [1], [2]
 84. ^ Price, 113
 85. ^ Mansel, 175
 86. ^ Mansel, 176
 87. ^ Price, 52
 88. ^ The Chamber of Deputies is comparable to the House of Commons. To have the right to vote for the Chamber of Deputies, one had to be an adult male and pay 300 francs a year in tax.
 89. ^ The Chamber of Peers was the upper house of the legislature, and was akin to the UK House of Lords.
 90. ^ The biens nationaux were estates and goods, including art works, that the Republic confiscated from the clergé, noblesse and émigrés during the Revolution. Those who lost their estate and/or other valuables would later be compensated in the reign of Louis XVIII’s brother, Charles X.
 91. ^ Price, 53
 92. ^ Price, 54
 93. ^ Price, 55
 94. ^ Price, 69
 95. ^ Mansel, 190
 96. ^ Mansel, 192
 97. ^ Mansel, 196
 98. ^ Mansel, 197
 99. ^ Price, 75
100. ^ Mansel, 222
101. ^ Price, 79
102. ^ Price, 80
103. ^ Price, 81
104. ^ Price, 82 – 83
105. ^ Price, 83
106. ^ Mansel, 253
107. ^ Mansel, 254
108. ^ Mansel, 255
109. ^ Mansel, 256
110. ^ Mansel, 260
111. ^ Mansel, 261
112. ^ Mansel, 266
113. ^ Lever, Évelyne, Louis XVIII, Fayard, Paris, 1988, p. 417.
114. ^ Price, 84
115. ^ Mansel, 424
116. ^ Mansel, 425
117. ^ Mansel, 426
118. ^ Mansel, 427
119. ^ Price, 89
120. ^ Price, 95-96
121. ^ Price, 93
122. ^ Price, 94
123. ^ Price, 98
124. ^ a b Price, 106-107
125. ^ Mansel, 194
126. ^ Nagel, 287
127. ^ Price, 108
128. ^ Price, 109
129. ^ Lever, Louis XVIII, 537
130. ^ Price, 110
131. ^ Nagel
132. ^ Nagel, 297–298

[edit] Sources

   * Lever, Évelyne, Louis XVIII, Fayard, Paris, 1988. (paperback, ISBN 2-213-7801-01 (French)
   * Mansel, Philip. Louis XVIII. Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1999 (paperback, ISBN 0-7509-2217-6).

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Louis XVIII of France

   * Louis XVIII at NNDB.COM
   * Quotes of Louis XVIII

This page was last modified on 21 July 2010 at 12:51. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XVIII_of_France -------------------- Ludvig XVIII (17. marraskuuta 1755 – 16. syyskuuta 1824) oli Ranskan ja Navarran kuningas vuosina 1814–1824 lukuun ottamatta Napoleonin hetkellistä paluuta valtaan vuonna 1815. Hän oli Bourbon-sukua ja ensimmäinen Ranskan vallankumouksen jälkeisistä kolmesta Ranskan kuninkaasta.

Ludvig XVIII, eli Louis-Stanislas-Xavier, oli vallankumousta edeltäneen kuninkaan Ludvig XVI:n veli. Hän pakeni maasta vallankumouksen pyörteissä 1791 ja asui Westfalenissa kun Ludvig XVI teloitettiin 1793.

Napoleonin kukistuttua Ludvig XVIII nousi vuonna 1814 Napoleonin vastustajien tuella Ranskan hallitsijaksi, mutta hän joutui hyväksymään kuninkaan valtaoikeuksia vahvasti karsineen perustuslain. Ludvigin valtaanpaluu aloitti Ranskassa Bourbon-restauraatioksi kutsutun ajan.Ludvig XVIII kuoli 16. syyskuuta 1824 ja häntä seurasi hänen veljensä Kaarle X.

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Louis XVIII, roi de France et Navarre's Timeline

1755
November 17, 1755
Versailles, France
1755
Provence - Louis Stanislas Xavier Comte de Provence
1771
May 14, 1771
Age 15
Versailles, Seine-Et-Oise, France
1824
September 16, 1824
Age 68
Paris, Île-de-France, France
1824
Age 68
Basilica of St Denis, France
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