Max Mendel Feilchenfeld

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Max Mendel Feilchenfeld

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Frankfurt, Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany
Death: Died in Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Cause of death: injuries suffered from a fall into an open manhole
Immediate Family:

Son of Falk Feilchenfeld and Bertha Feilchenfeld
Husband of Henrietta Maria Feilchenfeld
Father of Friedrich (Fritz) Wilhelm Feilchenfeld; Otto Fabry Feilchenfeld; Franz Karl Fabry (Feilchenfeld) and Hans Josef Feilchenfeld
Brother of Louis Feilchenfeld; Moritz Feilchenfeld; Wilhelm Feilchenfeld; Julius Feilchenfeld; Hermann Feilchenfeld and 5 others

Occupation: director of Teplitz branch of Boehmische Escompte Bank, 1886 director of this bank in Prague, financial adviser of Karl Wittgenstein, 1898 president of Boehmische Escompte Bank in Vienna
Managed by: Paul Heinegg
Last Updated:

About Max Mendel Feilchenfeld

This portrait of Max Feilchenfeld was painted in Vienna in 1902 by Hungarian artist Philip de Laszlo who had painted the portraits of Emperor Franz Josef in 1899, the German Imperial family in 1900 and Pope Leo XIII in 1900. de Laszlo also painted the portrait of Max's wife Henriette Feilchenfeld, but it has not been located.

He was about 14 years old in 1866 when he was listed as an emigrant from Frankfurt on Oder to what was then Austria in 1866. And he was a bank director and about 25 years old when he was listed as an emigrant from Frankfurt on Oder to Hungary in 1877 [Wolfert, Marion, comp. Brandenburg, Prussia Emigration Records [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2006; Original data: Auswanderungskartei (emigration cards) located at Brandenburgishes Landeshauptarchiv in Potsdam, Germany or Family History Library microfiche #6109219-6109220 (54 total fiches)].


Max was born on 13 July 1852 in Frankfurt on Oder. At the age of 16 he followed his brother to Teplitz-Schonau, Northern Bohemia, where he took a job as office boy in a small bank. At the age of 19 in 1871 he was director of a small local bank in Steyr, Upper Austria. In 1873 he went back to Teplitz, as clerk. He became director of a branch of the Bohemian Escompte Bank in 1877 and married Henriette Scheuer the same year. He became adviser to Karl Wittgenstein, owner of the Teplitz Rolling Mill and one of the most important figures in Austrian economic life--a friend of Andrew Carnegie, with whom he was often compared. Max made his bank the agency through which the Austrian Iron Trust performed its transactions. In 1886 he moved to Prague where he was director of the bank's central office [Vienna newspapers from 1872-1875: Wiener Zeitung, Neues Fremdan-Blatt, Leitmertzer Zeitung and Deutsche Zeitung http://anno.onb.ac.at/anno-suche/#searchMode=complex&text=feilchenfeld


In 1898 he was called by Karl Wittgenstein to Vienna. In 1900 he brought about the merger of his bank with the Niederosesterrische Escompte Gesellschaft and became Chairman of the Board and Vice President of the new bank which was chief agent for Wittgenstein's steel firm. Wittgenstein gave Max a modest share of his steel firm and paid Max 400,000 gilders when he sold the firm.


During the early 1890s he sent his family for the Summer to the Baltics, later the Austrian Alps, and from 1902, as his situation improved, to Switzerland for eight weeks at a hotel in Engadin. (His son Otto owned a large villa on Brioni in 1901, built by Karl Wittgenstein and later demolished to build a summer residence for Tito).


Max purchased the Bilroth home in St. Gilgen in 1904 and hired the renowned architect Albert Pecha to build the famous "villa on the Wofgangsee" from 1904-1906. His son Franz recalled that he spent nearly 1 million kronen on the villa. It was listed as one of the historic gardens of Austria and one of Pecha's finer achievements [Burger, Eva. Historiche Garten Osterreichs: Garten und Parkainiagen von der Renaissance].


After 1907 he became president of the Niederosterreichische Escompte Gesellschaft . He was a very patriotic Austrian and invested his entire fortune in Austrian war bonds which were worthless after the war.


He had retired sometime before 6 June 1922 when he had an accident that led to his death 16 days later. He returned home late at night from a social gathering and fell into an open manhole in front of his house. (The person responsible for guarding the spot had fallen asleep). The incident was reported in the Vienna press. He was buried from the bank building, where thousands of people pressed around to watch the funeral procession.


His friend Georg Gunther, Director General of the Steyr Steel Works, wrote one of Max's obituaries in the Neue Freie Presse on 28 June 1922, praising his kindness, humanity, humor and sunny nature. ---- Wikipedia (translation by Google): Max Feilchenfeld (* 1852, † June 27, 1922 in Vienna) was a banker of the Austrian monarchy.


In the 1890s Max Feilchenfeld headed the Bohemian Escompte Bank and was a close confidant of Karl Wittgenstein, steel magnate who controlled the steel and iron resources in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1899 Wittgenstein invited him to Vienna and appointed him vice president and chairman of the board of the Lower Austrian Escompte Company, chief agent for Wittgenstein's steel firm. The Institute had a pioneering role in Austrian banking, counted among the seven major banks in Vienna in 1910 and sole owner of the Bohemian Escompte Bank and Creditanstalt (Bebca), one of the three largest German-Czech commercial banks. It was thus a leader in the Bohemian iron industry.


The Lower Austrian Escompte Company was engaged in the conversion of unincorporated companies into joint stock companies in the last years of the monarchy, as in the case of Hutter & Schrantz and Bela Egger. After World War I, Max Feilchenfeld was one of the major forces who influenced money supply policy in Vienna [Kurt R. Leube, Preliminary Remarks on Mises in Interwar Vienna, Working Paper No. 34 (2002), p. 15, http://www.icer.it/docs/wp2002/leube34-02.pdf


The Escompte Company had its headquarters in the Kärntner Straße. Built on the site of the former headquarters of the Institute Hofkriegsratsgebäudes at court No. 2.


Max Feilchenfeld was also active as a builder, privately establishing the mighty Villa in St Gilgen am Wolfgangsee. The obituary of the Director General of the Steyr-Werke, then still Austrian Arms Factory society, Georg Günther (in: Neue Freie Presse of 28 June 1922) boasts Feilchenfelds kindness, humanity, his humor and his sunny nature. ------ His name appears in Vienna newspapers, about once per week from 1900-1920. ------ His son Franz, who was very critical of his family, wrote that his father moved up quickly in the banking establishment because of his “intelligence, hard work and exceptionally pleasant nature.” “Thanks to his kindness and selflessness my father was loved by people far beyond the circle of bank colleagues.” “My father’s extreme modesty and his helpfulness, together with his humor and understanding, had won him friends from the most varied walks of life.”

Max died in 1922, leaving his wife Henrietta with the St. Gilgen property. As the Nazis consolidated their control of Austria in the latter part of 1938, they ordered that large properties like St. Gilgen be transferred from Jewish to Aryan ownership. They ordered all Jews out of St. Gilgen:


"As an example of the typically arbitrary procedure reflecting the pseudo-legal foundations of Nazism, there is an important St. Gilgen property, the so-called Villa Billroth. The property once belonged to the famous doctor Billroth, but it was completely rebuilt. By the outbreak of WWI it was in possession of the family of Mrs. Henriette Feilchenfeld. In November, 1938 she received an inquiry from the Nazi administrative district of Salzburg, asking how she would go about "transferring" the property "into Aryan hands." Henriette Feilchenfeld wanted to keep the estate in her family, and so, making use of a deed of gift contract she handed it over to her two minor great-grandaughters Elizabeth and Maria Rulf, who according to the Nuremberg Laws were "second-degree half-breeds." Beginning in December, 1938 Mathias Ebner applied to have the property Aryanized. On Jan. 27, 1939 Henriette Feilchenfeld received a contract of sale from the Property Transfer Office (from a Dr. Mueller [a lawyer]) that said:

"In accordance with section 6 of the Order concerning the recovery of Jewish property, you are required to sell your property at St. Gilgen 87 to Mr. Mathias Ebner, who resides at Kammer on the Attersee, and to conclude with him a bill of sale within a period of eight days [ …] If this deadline passes without anything being done, I will, in keeping with the last paragraph of Section 6 of the above-mentioned Order, make use of the right to appoint a fiduciary." The pressure from the "Aryanization" office was great; for example, on Feb. 22, 1939 the Nazi district administration of Salzburg wrote to Mrs. Feilchenfeld's legal representative […] "St. Gilgen must be set free, without exception, from the Jews. For this reason it (the Nazi Party) also stresses how important it is to de-Judify the Feilchenfeld property. Hence, we request that you impress on Mrs. Feilchenfeld the need to begin negotiating about the sale. Mr. Ebner, residing at the Hotel Kammer on the Attersee is the applicant." Without her knowledge, Mrs. Feilchenfeld's legal representative drew up a contract of sale that was handed in to the Property Transfer Office. When Mrs. Feilchenfeld learned of this, she dismissed her legal representative. With a notification dated dated April 4, 1939 the Property Transfer Office rejected the deed of gift contract between Mrs. Feilchenfeld and her great-granddaughters. In response, she filed a complaint with the Economic Ministry of the Reich. Meanwhile, the Property Transfer Office had documents drawn up about the estimated value of the property. Engineer Adolf Sachse, in his report of August 5, 1939 rated the value of the land and building at 120,000 Reichmarks and the current market value at 66,442 Reichmarks. In the transfer contract there is evidence of a trick: the author of the report has deducted 45% not only of the construction costs but of the value of the land as well in order to arrive at the estimated amount. On March 2, 1940 a further estimate relative to the 85,000 Reichmark sale price was present by Government Building officer Geppert.

In the documents of the Salzburg Property Transfer Office there is a note dated 30 March and April, 1940 [sic]: "Architect Geppert phoned to say that the Feilchenfeld Villa with all its furnishings yields--assuming it functions as a pension with 25 beds over a period of 60 days--3,000-4,000 Reichmarks per year. Since the Villa is a luxury bulding, with a relatively high overhead (?), according to the judgment of Government Building officer Geppert, the sale of the Villa at a price of 85,000 Reichmarks amounts to giving it away."

With the shift to Salzburg of the authorities responsible for the Aryanization process at the end of 1939, a new strategy was pursued. The finance officer of the Nazi administrative district, a man named Lippert, was initially in charge of working out the Aryanization process. On Feb. 13, 1940 he published a contract of sale that, as was usual, appeared in the Deutsche Rechtsanzeiger and the Preussische Staatsanzeiger. Lippert acted as if Henriette Feilchenfeld's place of residence was not known, although her Vienna address--1 Pension Elite, Vienna I, 32 Wipplinger St.--hadn't changed up till then. On February 9, 1940 financial and economic advisor Hans Autor was appointed as fiduciary for the sale; and on April 30, 1940 the sale was concluded between him and the married couple Mathias and Hildegard Ebner.

That contract was officially approved on the same day by the Reich governor in Salzburg. The sale price, the funds for which could only be raised through a loan, was 85,000 Reichmarks. Amusingly enough, the contract of transfer lists the address of the supposedly address-unknown Henriette Feilchenfeld. The wronged owner of the property filed a complaint against the Ebners' acquisition of the right to the estate and against the appointment of the fiduciary for the sale. The only effect of the complaint was that on Jan. 2, 1941 the Economic Ministry of the Reich reversed the approval of the deed of sale and ordered the governor of Salzburg to approve a contract of sale so long as the price was raised to 100,000 Reichmarks.

At the same time the deed of gift to the great-grandchildren was declared invalid. Once more the Reich governor appointed a fduciary for the sale, Dipl. Kfm. Bruno Kreuzhuber, who on Feb. 6, 1941 signed offf on a contract with Hildegard and Mathias Ebner. All the Ebner family had to do was come up with the money.

Henriette Feilchenfeld died in Vienna (i.e., during the war), and her son Otto Feilchenfeld was murdered in the Auschwitz concentration camp."

[Lichtblau, Albert, "Arisierungen", beschlagnahmte Vermögen, Rückstellungen und ..., Part 2, pages 87-90, on google books.

Note that Henrietta's great grandchildren Elisabeth and Maria Rulf are identical to Hans and Mutzi Rulf's children Liesl Seiller Tarbuk and Panto Von Schram.

Paul Heinegg

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Max Mendel Feilchenfeld's Timeline

1852
July 13, 1852
Frankfurt, Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany
1877
1877
Age 24
Teplice, Teplice District, Ústí nad Labem Region, Czech Republic
1878
November 13, 1878
Age 26
Teplice, Teplice, Ústí nad Labem Region, Czech Republic
1879
April 11, 1879
Age 26
Teplice, Teplice District, Ústí nad Labem Region, Czech Republic
1882
June 29, 1882
Age 29
Teplice, Teplice, Ústí nad Labem Region, Czech Republic
1888
May 16, 1888
Age 35
Prague, Czech Republic
1899
1899
Age 46
Salzburg, Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
1902
1902
- 1902
Age 49
Vienna, Vienna, Austria

sitting for portrait painter Philip de Laszio in Vienna in 1902.

1922
June 27, 1922
Age 69
Vienna, Vienna, Austria