Olaf Sithricsson, King of Dublin & York

Is your surname Sithricsson?

Research the Sithricsson family

Olaf Sithricsson, King of Dublin & York's Geni Profile

Share your family tree and photos with the people you know and love

  • Build your family tree online
  • Share photos and videos
  • Smart Matching™ technology
  • Free!

Share

Related Projects

Olaf "Cuarán" Sithricsson, King of Dublin and York

Also Known As: "Olafr Sigtryggsson", "Olav", "Anlaib", "Anlaf", "Amlaíb mac Sitric", "Kvaran", "Olaf Cuaran Bent Shoe Dublin York"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: York, United Kingdom
Death: Died in Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland
Place of Burial: Isle of Iona, Scotland
Immediate Family:

Son of Sitric Caech ua imair, King of Dublin and York, rí Dubgall y Finngall and NN Sithric's first wife of York
Husband of Dúnlaith ingen Muirchertach and Gormflaith ingen Murchada O'Faelain
Father of Glúniairn; Gyda of Dublin Sigtrygsdotter; Harald mac Amlaíb of Dublin, Dublin; Dubgilla Olafsdottir; Sitric I, King of Dublin and 3 others
Brother of Gothfrith Gofraid Sitricsson King Of Dublin and Harald, King of Limerick

Occupation: King of Dublin & York, KING OF YORK AND DUBLIN
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Olaf Sithricsson, King of Dublin & York

Olaf (Anlaf), son of Sithric of Dublin and York and his first (unknown) wife. Seven children, see below.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amla%C3%ADb_Cuaran

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/IRELAND.htm#OlafSihtricsondied981B

OLAF [Anlaf] Sihtricson (-Iona [978/80]). He was accepted as OLAF King of York by the Northumbrians in 927 after the death of his father, and was supported by his uncle Guthfrith who came from Dublin. However, Æthelstan invaded Northumbria and expelled Olaf who joined his father's former associates in Ireland[1171]. Florence of Worcester records that "Northhymbrenses" chose "regem Northmannorum Anlafum" as king, undated but dateable to [941] from the context[1172]. Siimeon of Durham records that "the son of Sihtric named Onlaf reigned over the Northumbrians" in 941 but was driven out in 943[1173]. He lost the territories gained by Olaf Guthfrithson to Edmund King of Wessex in 942, and he was driven out of York and deposed in favour of his cousin Rægnald. He returned to Northumbria in 944, reasserting himself as king in opposition to Rægnald, but he was expelled by Edmund King of Wessex later that year[1174]. Simeon of Durham records that King Edmund expelled "king…Anlaf the son of Sihtric and [king] Reignold the son of Guthferth" from Northumbria in 944[1175]. Florence of Worcester records that Eadmund King of Wessex expelled "duos reges, Anlafum regis…Sihtrici filium, et Reignoldum Guthferthi filium" from Northumbria, undated but dateable to [944] from the context[1176]. He returned to York once more in 949, expelling King Erik "Blodøks/Blood-axe", but was finally driven out in his turn by Erik in 952. King of Dublin 941/43, 945/49 and 953/981.

- KINGS of DUBLIN.

OLAF [Anlaf] Sihtricsson, son of SIHTRIC King of York & his first wife --- (-Iona [978/80]). He was accepted as King of York by the Northumbrians in 927 after the death of his father, and was supported by his uncle Guthfrith who came from Dublin. However, Æthelstan invaded Northumbria and expelled Olaf, who joined his father's former associates in Ireland[1036]. He joined his cousin at York in 940 and was elected King of York[1037]. Simeon of Durham records that "the son of Sihtric named Onlaf reigned over the Northumbrians" in 941 but was driven out in 943[1038]. He lost the territories gained by Olaf Guthfrithson to Edmund King of Wessex in 942, and he was driven out of York and deposed in favour of his cousin Rægnald. He returned to Northumbria in 944, reasserting himself as king in opposition to Rægnald, but he was expelled by Edmund King of Wessex later that year[1039]. Simeon of Durham records that King Edmund expelled "king…Anlaf the son of Sihtric and [king] Reignold the son of Guthferth" from Northumbria in 944[1040]. He returned to York once more in 949, expelling King Erik "Blodøks/Blood-axe", but was finally driven out in his turn by Erik in 952. King of Dublin 941/43, 945/49 and 953/981. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Olaf son of Sitric high-king over the Foreigners of Dublin” died in Iona in [978/79] after being defeated by “Mael-Sechnaill the Great”[1041], the battle being dated between 978 and 980 in different sources (see below).

m firstly (after 952) as her second husband, ---, widow of DOMNALL, daughter of ---. Her marriages are confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which record that “MaelSechnaill son of Domnall and Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf, son of MaelSechnail´s mother” defeated “Domnall Clóen, son of Lorcán, and Imar of Waterford” in [981/82][1042].

m secondly as her first husband, GORMLAITH, daughter of MURCHAD MacFinn King of Leinster & his wife --- (-1030). She married secondly Brian Boru, and thirdly, as his [third] wife, Maelsechnaill King of Ireland. The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad son of Fland” mother of “Sitric son of Olaf king of the Foreigners and of Donnchad son of Brian king of Munster”[1043]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith daughter of Murchadh son of Finn, mother of the king of the foreigners Sitric, Donnchadh son of Brian king of Munster, and Conchobhar son of Maeleachlainn king of Teamhair”[1044].

Olaf & his [first] wife had two children:

1. RAGNALL (-killed in battle Temair [978/80]). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 980 of "Ragnall son of Amlaíb" at the battle of Temair[1045]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ragnhall son of Amhlaeibh heir to the sovereignty of the foreigners” was killed in 978 in “the battle of Teamhair”[1046]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall, son of Olaf, crownprince of the Foreigners” was killed in battle by “Mael Sechnaill the Great, son of Domnall, son of Donnchad, son of Fland” at “Tara” in [978/79][1047].

[m ---. The name of Ragnall´s wife is not known. Ragnall & his wife had [one possible child]:

2. --- “Glun iaraind/Iron knee” (-murdered [987/89]). The Annals of Tigernach record that “MaelSechnaill son of Domnall and Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf, son of MaelSechnail´s mother” defeated “Domnall Clóen, son of Lorcán, and Imar of Waterford” in [981/82][1048]. King of Dublin. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 989 of "Glún Iarn king of the foreigners…killed when drunk by his own slave"[1049]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf king of the Foreigners” was killed “by his own slave…Colbain” in [987/88][1050]. m ---. The name of his wife is not known. One child:

a) GILLA Ciaráin (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014). The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that “Gilla Ciarráin son of Glún Iairn, heir designate of the foreigners” was killed in the battle[1051].

Olaf & his [second] wife had one child:

3. SIHTRIC (-1042). King of Dublin. The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc son of Amlaíb was expelled from Áth Cliath" in 994[1052]. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Imhar came to Ath-Cliath after Sitric, son of Amblaeibh” in 994[1053]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall was killed by the Leinstermen, Imar again fled, and Sitric reigned in his place” in [993/94][1054]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Sitriuc son of Olaf king of the Foreigners” plundered “into Ulster…Cell Cleithe and Inis Cumscraig” in [1000/01][1055]. Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd Jarl of Orkney went to Ireland “five years after the Battle of Svoldur” to support “King Sigtrygg Silk-Beard” against “King Brian of Ireland”, and left “his elder sons in charge of the earldom”, but was killed in the battle in which King Brian was killed[1056]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Amlaíb king of the foreigners" went to Rome in 1028[1057].

m ---. The name of Sihtric´s wife is not known. Sihtric & his wife had six children:

a) ARTALACH (-killed in battle Glenn Mama 30 Dec [996/97]). The Annals of Tigernach name “Artalach son of Sitric and Harald son of Olaf, and Cuilen son of Erigen” among those killed in battle in [996/97] by “Mael Sechlainn and Brian son of Kennedy” at “Glenn Mama”[1058].

b) OLAF (-killed in battle 1013). The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb son of Sitriuc…the son of the king of the foreigners and Mathgamain son of Duibgilla son of Amlaíb" were killed in 1013 by “Cathal son of Donnchad son of Dub dá Bairenn”[1059].

c) --- “Glun iaraind/Iron knee” (-killed 1031). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Iron-knee son of Sitric” was killed by “the (folk of) the south of Bregia” in 1031[1060].

m ---. The name of his wife is not known. One child:

i) son . The Annals of Tigernach record that “Gofraidh son of Sitric” was killed in Wales “by the son of Iron-Knee” in 1036[1061].

d) OLAF ([after 1013]-murdered 1034). The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb son of Sitriuc king of the foreigners was held prisoner by Mathgamain ua Riacáin king of Brega" in 1029 and ransomed for "1,200 cows and six score Welsh horses and sixty ounces of gold…"[1062]. He was presumably born after the death of his brother Olaf in 1013, unless one or other of these sons was illegitimate. The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb son of Sitriuc was killed by the Saxons on his way to Rome"[1063]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Olaf son of Sitric was killed by Englishmen as he was going to Rome” in 1034[1064].

m ---. The name of Olav´s wife is not known. Olav & his wife had one child:

i) SIHTRIC (-killed in battle Isle of Man 1073). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1073 of "Sitriuc son of Amlaib and two grandsons of Brian…killed in Man”[1065].

e) GODFRID (-killed Wales 1036). The Annals of Tigernach record that “Gofraidh son of Sitric” was killed in Wales “by the son of Iron-Knee” in 1036[1066].

f) RAGNHILD . m CYNAN ap Iago, son of IAGO ap Idwal King of Gwynedd & his wife --- (-1060). He was exiled to Ireland.

Olaf & his [---] wife had four children:

4. HARALD (-killed in battle Glenn Mama 30 Dec [996/97]). The Annals of Ulster record that "Aralt son of Amlaíb" was killed in battle at Glenn Mama "III Kal Jan" 999[1067]. The Annals of Tigernach name “Artalach son of Sitric and Harald son of Olaf, and Cuilen son of Erigen” among those killed in battle in [996/97] by “Mael Sechlainn and Brian son of Kennedy” at “Glenn Mama”[1068].

m ---. The name of Harald´s wife is not known. Harald & his wife had one child:

a) IMAR (-1054). King of Dublin. The Annals of the Four Masters record that “the son of Aralt was expelled by the foreigners” in 1046 and “the son of Raghnall was elected king”[1069]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Imar son of Harald” slaughtered “Ragnall Húa Eochada” in “Rathlin of the Ulaid”[1070]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1054 of "Ímar son of Aralt, king of the foreigners"[1071].

m ---. The name of Imar´s wife is not known. Imar & his wife had one child:

i) GODFRID (-1095). King of Dublin. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Goffraidh, son of Harald´s son” became king of Dublin in 1091[1072]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1095 of "Gofraidh Meranach, king of the foreigners"[1073]. The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1095 of “Gobfraidh rex Dormanorom”[1074].

5. DUBGAL (-killed in battle Clontarf 1014). The Annals of Ulster record that "Dubgall son of Amlaíb" was killed in battle at Clontarf in 1014[1075].

6. GYDA . Snorre records the betrothal and marriage of Olaf Trygvason to "a queen called Gyda…a sister of Olaf Kvaran who was king of Dublin in Ireland [who] had been married to a great earl in England" after whose death "she was at the head of his dominions"[1076]. In a later passage, Snorre refers to "King Olaf Kvaran" as his wife's father[1077].

m firstly ---. m secondly (in England 988) as his second wife, OLAV Trygveson, son of TRYGVE Olavsson [Norway] & his wife Åstrid Eiriksdatter (posthumously [968][1078]-drowned Øresund o. b. Svold, near Rügen 9 Sep [1000]). He imposed himself as OLAV I King of Norway in [995].

7. MAELMAIRE (-1021). The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1021 of “Maelmaire daughter of Amhlaeibh, wife of Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall”[1079].

m as his third wife, MAELSECHNAILL King of Ireland, son of DOMNALL & his wife --- ([949/50]-Cró Inis of Lough Ennell 2 Sep 1022).

-----------------------------------

Amlaíb mac Sitric (c. 926?–981; Old Norse Óláfr Sigtryggsson), commonly called Amlaíb Cuarán, in Old Norse Óláfr kváran, was a 10th century Norse-Gael who was king of York and king of Dublin. His byname, cuarán, is usually translated as "sandal". His name appears in a variety of anglicized forms, including Olaf Cuaran and Olaf Sihtricson, particularly in relation to his short-lived rule in York.[1] He was the last of the Uí Ímair to play a major part in the politics of Britain and Ireland.

Amlaíb was twice, perhaps three times, ruler of York and Northumbria and twice ruler of Dublin and its dependencies. His reign over these territories spanned some forty years. He was a renowned warrior and a ruthless pillager of churches, but ended his days in respectable retirement at Iona Abbey. Born when the Uí Ímair ruled over large areas of Britain and Ireland, by his death the kingdom of Dublin was a minor power in Irish politics. At the same time, Dublin became a major centre of trade in Atlantic Europe and mastery over the city and its wealth became the supreme prize for ambitious Irish kings.

In death Amlaíb was the prototype for the character Havelok the Dane. In life he was a patron of Irish poets and Scandinavian skalds who wrote verses praising their paymaster. Amlaíb was married at least twice, and had many children who married into Irish and Scandinavian royal families. His descendants were kings in the Isle of Man and the Hebrides until the 13th century.

Background

The earliest records of attacks by Vikings in Britain or Ireland are at the end of the eighth century. The monastery on Lindisfarne, in the kingdom of Northumbria, was sacked on 8 June 793, and the monastery of Iona in the kingdom of the Picts was attacked in 795 and 802. In Ireland Rathlin Island, off the north-east coast, was the target in 795, and so too was St Patrick's Island on the east coast in 798. Portland in the kingdom of Wessex in south-west Britain was attacked during the reign of King Beorhtric of Wessex (ruled from 786 to 802).[2]

These raids continued in a sporadic fashion throughout the first quarter of the ninth century. During the second quarter of the century the frequency and size of raids increased and the first permanent Viking settlements (called longphorts in Ireland) appeared.[3]

Origins

Main article: Uí Ímair

The Ímar from whom the Uí Ímair were descended is generally presumed to be that Ímar (English pronunciation Ivar): "king of the Northmen of all Britain and Ireland", whose death is reported by the Annals of Ulster in 873. Whether this Ímar is to be identified with the leader of the Great Heathen Army, or with Ivarr the Boneless, is less certain.[4]

Amlaíb Cuarán was probably a great-grandson of Ímar. There is no contemporary evidence setting out the descent from Ímar to his grandsons, but it may be that the grandsons of Ímar recorded between 896 and 934—Amlaíb Cuarán's father Sitriuc (d. 927), Ragnall (d. 921), Gofraid (d. 934), Ímar (d. 904) and Amlaíb (d. 896)—were brothers rather than cousins.[5] Amlaíb's father Sitriuc first appears in the record in 917 when he seized Dublin, a settlement which had probably been under the control of an Irish king since the expulsion of the previous Viking rulers in 902.[6]

Sitriuc ruled Northumbria until his death in 927. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records his marriage to King Æthelstan's sister at Tamworth on 30 January 926. According to some late sources, such as the chronicler John of Wallingford, Amlaíb was the son of Sitriuc and this West Saxon princess.[7] Sitriuc's other sons included Gofraid (died 951), king of Dublin, Aralt (died 940), ruler of Limerick, and, less certainly, Sichfrith and Auisle, listed among those killed at the battle of Brunanburh in 937 by the Annals of Clonmacnoise.[8] A daughter of Sitriuc named Gytha is said in the Heimskringla to have married Norwegian pirate king Olaf Tryggvason, but she was probably a daughter of Amlaíb Cuarán.[9]

Following Sitriuc's death, Amlaíb may have become king in York for a short time,[10] but if he did it came to an end when Æthelstan took over the kingdom of Northumbria and defeated Sitriuc's brother Gofraid. According to William of Malmesbury, Amlaíb fled to Ireland while his uncle Gofraid made a second unsuccessful attempt to gain control of York.[11] In 937 an attack on Æthelstan's kingdom by Gofraid's son Amlaíb, assisted by Constantín mac Áeda, the king of Alba, and Owen, the king of Strathclyde, ended in defeat at the battle of Brunanburh.[12] William of Malmesbury wrote that Amlaíb was present at Brunanburh and spied out the English camp the night before the battle disguised as a skald.[13]

King Æthelstan died in 939 and his successor, his half-brother Edmund, was unable to keep control of York. Amlaíb mac Gofrith, ruling in Dublin, crossed to Britain where he was accepted as king of the Northumbrians. He died in 941, shortly after sacking the church of Saint Baldred at Tyninghame, struck dead by the saint's power according to the Historia de Sancto Cuthberto.[14]

York

Amlaíb Cuarán's career began in 941, following the death of his cousin Amlaíb mac Gofrith, when he became co-ruler of York, sharing power with his cousin Ragnall son of Gofraid. According to the Annals of Clonmacnoise, Amlaíb had been in Britain since 940, having left another son of Gofraid, Blácaire, as ruler of Dublin.[15]

Amlaíb and Ragnall ruled in York until 944. The dating of events in period between the death of Æthelstan and the expulsion of Amlaíb and Ragnall is uncertain as the various versions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle are in conflict. It appears that after Æthelstan's died, not only did Edmund lose control of Northumbria, but that the Five Burghs of the Mercian Danelaw also pledged themselves to Amlaíb mac Gofrith.[16] One of the Amlaíbs stormed Tamworth according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle:

   Here Olaf broke down Tamworth and a great slaughter fell on either side, and the Danes had the victory and led much war-booty away with them. Wulfrun was seized in the raid. Here King Edmund besieged King Olaf and Archbishop Wulfstan in Leicester, and he might have controlled them had they not escaped from the stronghold in the night.[17]

It is not clear when in the period between 940 and 943 these events took place, and as a result historians disagree as to whether they concern Amlaíb mac Gofrith or Amlaíb Cuarán.[18]

Edmund reconquered the Five Burghs in 942, an event celebrated in verse by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The Chronicle reports the baptism of Amlaíb, with King Edmund becoming his godfather.[19] This need not mean that Amlaíb was not already a Christian, nor would such a baptism have permanently committed him to Christianity, as such baptisms were often political acts. Alfred the Great, for example, had sponsored the baptism of Christian Welsh king Anarawd ap Rhodri.[20] Amlaíb was expelled from the kingship of York in 944. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that "King Edmund conquered all Northumbria and caused to flee away two kings [or "royally-born men"], Olaf and Rægnald".[21] It is possible that rivalry between Amlaíb and Ragnall contributed to their fall.[22] Æthelweard's history reports that Amlaíb was deposed by a coup led by Wulfstan, Archbishop of York, and an unnamed Mercian ealdorman.[23]

Congalach and Ruaidrí

Scandinavian settlements in 10th century Ireland

After being driven out of Northumbria, Amlaíb returned to Ireland while Ragnall may have been killed at York.[24] The Uí Ímair in Ireland had also suffered in 944 as Dublin was sacked that year by the High King of Ireland Congalach Cnogba, whose power base lay in Brega, north of Dublin on the lower reaches of the River Boyne. The following year, perhaps as a result of the sack of Dublin, Amlaíb's cousin Blácaire was driven out and Amlaíb replaced him as ruler of Dublin. Amlaíb was allied with Congalach and may have gained power with his assistance.[25]

Congalach and Amlaíb fought against Ruaidrí ua Canannáin, a rival for the High Kingship who belonged to the Cenél Conaill, based in modern County Donegal. In 945 the two defeated part of Ruaidrí's army in Conaille Muirtheimne (modern County Louth) and the following year Amlaíb raided Kilcullen in the province of Leinster. In 947 Ruaidrí routed Congalach and Amlaíb at Slane. Losses among the Dublin men were heavy, with many drowning while fleeing the battle. This defeat appears to have lost Amlaíb his kingship, as the annals record that Blácaire not Amlaíb was the leader of the Dublin forces in the following year. Blácaire was killed in 948 by Congalach, and was succeeded by Amlaíb's brother Gofraid.[26]

York again

The course of events in Northumbria while Amlaíb was in Ireland is uncertain. While Edmund certainly controlled Northumbria after Amlaíb was expelled and Ragnall killed, he may soon after have lost control of the north to a Scandinavian king named Eiríkr, usually identified with Eric Bloodaxe.[27] If Erik did rule in Northumbria before Edmund's death, it was only for a short time. Edmund was killed in 946, and succeeded by his brother Eadred. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Eadred "reduced all the land of Northumbria to his control; and the Scots granted him oaths that they would do all that he wanted".[28] The Northumbrian submission to Eadred led to a meeting with the notables of York led by Archbishop Wulfstan in 947, but the following year King Erik was back ruling Northumbria and Eadred laid waste to the southern parts of the kingdom— Ripon is mentioned as a particular target—to force the Northumbrians to expel Erik, which they did.[29]

The following year, 949, by which time Blacáire was dead and Amlaíb's brother ruling in Dublin, the Northumbrians invited Amlaíb to rule in York.[30] His return to England may have been with Eadred's agreement.[31] That year Máel Coluim mac Domnaill, the king of Alba, raided Northumbria as far south as the River Tees, capturing many slaves and much loot. Whether this invasion was directed against Amlaíb, or perhaps intended to support him by plundering only northern Northumbria which may have been outwith his control, is uncertain. A second invasion from the north in 952, this time an alliance including Máel Coluim's Scots and also Britons and Saxons, was defeated. Again, whether this was aimed against Amlaíb, who was deposed in 952 and replaced by Erik, or was mounted against King Erik in support of Amlaíb, is unclear. Erik's reign was short and the Viking kingdom of York was definitively incorporated into the kingdom of the English on his death in 954. Amlaíb returned to Ireland, never again to rule in York.[32]

From Dublin to Iona

In 951, while Amlaíb was in Britain his brother Gofraid died in Dublin of disease.[33] Congalach's rival Ruaidrí was also dead, leaving Amlaíb's former ally as undisputed High King and thus a serious threat to Dublin and the south-eastern Irish kingdom of Leinster. This threat was perhaps what led to Congalach's death in an ambush at Dún Ailinne (modern County Kildare) or at Tech Guigenn in the region of the River Liffey while collecting tribute in Leinster in 956.[34] The main beneficiary was the brother of Amlaíb's new wife Dúnflaith, Domnall ua Néill, who became the next High King of Ireland. The marriage linked Amlaíb not only to the northern Uí Néill kindred of Cenél nEógain, but also to the southern Clann Cholmáin as he was now stepfather to Dúnflaith's young son Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill.[35]

In the early 960s Amlaíb Cuarán probably faced a challenge from the sons of his cousin Amlaíb mac Gofrith. In 960 the Annals of Ulster report that Cammán, son of Amlaíb mac Gofrith, was defeated at an unidentifiable place named Dub. Two years later one Sitriuc Cam—Cam means crooked or twisted and Cammán is simply the hypocoristic form of this byname, so that Sitriuc Cam and Cammán are presumed to be the same person—was defeated by the Dubliners led by Amlaíb Cuarán and the Leinstermen while raiding in Leinster. Amlaíb Cuarán was wounded in the battle but Sitriuc fled to his ships. Sitriuc and his brothers appear to have raided Munster after this, but disappear from the record soon afterwards and do not appear to have returned to Ireland.[36]

Amlaíb's activities in the early 960s seem largely to have been limited to occasional raids in Leinster. He attacked Kildare in 964, and it was a target again in 967 when Muiredach mac Faeláin, abbot of Kildare, a member of Uí Dúnlainge kindred which ruled Leinster, was killed by Amlaíb and Cerball mac Lorcáin, a kinsman of Muiredach's. Another raid south in 964 ended in a heavy defeat for Amlaíb near Inistogue (modern County Kildare) at the hands of the Osraige.[37]

Until the late 960s Domnall ua Néill, Congalach's successor as would-be High King, was occupied with enemies close to home, and in Connacht and Munster, and did not intervene in Leinster or the hinterlands of Dublin. Having defeated these, in 968 he marched south and plundered Leinster, killing several notables, and laid siege to Dublin for two months. While Domnall did not take the port, he carried off a great many cattle. Amlaíb, allied with the king of Leinster Murchad mac Finn, retaliated by attacking the abbey of Kells in 969. A pursuit by ua Néill's allies was defeated near Ardmulchan (County Meath).[38]

In 970 Domnall ua Néill and his allies attacked Amlaíb's new-found ally, Congalach's son Domnall, the king of Brega. Domnall mac Congalaig was married to a daughter of Amlaíb, perhaps at about this time. Churches in Brega, including Monasterboice and Dunleer, guarded by Amlaíb's soldiers, were a particular target of the raids. Domnall of Brega and Amlaíb fought against Domnall ua Néill's northern army at Kilmona in modern County Westmeath. Domnall's army, which included allies from Ulaid was defeated, and Ardgal mac Matudáin, king of Ulaid, and Cináed mac Crongilla, king of Conaille Muirtheimne, were among those killed. The battle at Kilmona did not end the war in the midlands. Monasterboice and Dunleer were burned after the battle and fighting spread to the lands of Clann Cholmáin the following year when Domnall ua Néill's enemies there drove him out, only for him to return with an army and ravage both Mide and the lands around Dublin before marching south to attack Leinster. This campaign appears to have established Domnall ua Néill as effective overlord of the midlands and Leinster for some years.[39]

In 977, in unknown circumstances, Domnall ua Néill's sons Congalach and Muirchertach were killed and Amlaíb is given credit for their deaths by the annals. Domnall made no effort to avenge the deaths, retiring to the monastery at Armagh where he died in 980. The Dubliners campaigned against Leinster the late 970s. The overking of Leinster, Úgaire mac Túathail, was captured in 976. He was evidently ransomed or released as he was killed, along with Muiredach mac Riain of Uí Cheinnselaig of south Leinster, fighting against the Dubliners in 978 at Belan (County Kildare). Úgaire's successor Domnall Claen was little more fortunate, being captured by the Dubliners the following year.[40]

Following the death of High King Domnall ua Néill, Amlaíb's stepson Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill claimed the title. Amlaíb's former ally Domnall son of Congalach had died in 976, removing one potential rival, and ss Amlaíb had killed two of Domnall ua Néill's sons he may have cleared the way for Máel Sechnaill to take power. If so, it was unlikely to be by design. Máel Sechnaill had become king of Mide and head of Clann Cholmáin in 975 and had inaugurated his reign with an attack on his stepfather when he burned "Thor's Wood" outside Dublin. In 980 Máel Sechnaill had the support of the Leinstermen when he faced Amlaíb's sons—Amlaíb himself was by now an old man—near the hill of Tara. The Dubliners too had allies as the Irish annals record the presence of warriors from the Isle of Man or the Hebrides. Amlaíb's son Ragnall (Rögnvaldr) was among the dead in the battle which followed, and although several kings fighting alongside Máel Sechnaill were killed, the result was clearly a crushing blow for Dublin. Máel Sechnaill occupied the city and imposed a heavy tribute on the citizens.[41]

In the aftermath of this defeat Amlaíb abdicated, or was removed from power. He was replaced by a son named Glúniairn (Járnkné), a son of Dúnlaith and thus Máel Sechnaill's half-brother. Amlaíb retired to the monastery on Iona where he died soon afterwards.[42]

Marriages and children

He was succeeded by his son Glúniairn (Járnkné, literally "Iron Knee"), son of his wife Dúnlaith, daughter of Muirchertach mac Néill. Among his wives was Gormflaith, daughter of Murchad mac Finn, King of Leinster, and future wife of Brian Boru. Gormflaith's son Sitric Silkbeard was king of Dublin after Glúniairn's death. Amlaíb's other children included Gytha, who married Olaf Tryggvason, Máel Muire, who married Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill, and Harald, possibly the grandfather of Godred Crovan.[43]

Cuarán

Amlaíb's byname, cuarán, is usually translated as "sandal" or "shoe". It derives from the Old Irish word cúar meaning bent or crooked. It is first applied to him in the report of the battle of Slane in 947 in the Annals of Ulster. The usual translation may be misleading. The epithet probably refers to a distinctive style of footwear. Benjamin Hudson points to the description of a cuarán in a twelfth century satire, where it is made of leather folded seven times and has a pointed toe. In Aislinge Meic Con Glinne and Scél Baili Binnbérlaig, the cuarán is waterproof. In the first story Mac Con Glinne cleans his by dipping them in his bath; in the second, a cuarán serves as a vessel to drink from. That the cuarán was a piece of footwear specific to Dublin is suggested by statements in other stories that have cobblers in the town owing a cuarán in taxes.[44]

Notes

  1. ^ In Old English he was Anlaf. To Irish speakers he may also have been Amlaíb mac ua Ímair or Amlaíb ua Ímair but others shared these names. Likewise, his Norse nickname, "Olaf the Red" was applied to several Norse rulers in Ireland and the Isles.
  2. ^ Keynes, "Vikings in England", pp. 50–51; Ó Corráin, "Ireland, Wales, Man, and the Hebrides", pp. 83–85.
  3. ^ Keynes, "Vikings in England", pp. 51–52; Ó Corráin, "Ireland, Wales, Man, and the Hebrides", pp. 84–89.
  4. ^ Ó Cróinín, Early Medieval Ireland, pp. 250–254, discusses Ímar's career and the various arguments. See also Woolf, Pictland to Alba, chapter 2; Downham, Viking Kings, chapters 1–3, especially pp. 17–23 & 64 –67. Ó Corráin, "Vikings in Scotland and Ireland", passim, sets out the case against the identification.
  5. ^ Thus Downham, Viking Kings, p. 29, figure 6. Cyril Hart's contributions to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography make Ragnall, Sitriuc and Gofraid brothers; likewise Hudson, Viking Pirates, p. 31, figure 1, makes these three brothers, sons of Guthfrith, King of York.
  6. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 27–35.
  7. ^ According to William of Malmesbury, who states that he did not know the princess's name, she was Æthelstan's full sister, daughter of Edward the Elder and his first wife Ecgwynn, John of Wallingford gives her name as Orgiue, perhaps Eadgifu; Hudson, Viking Pirates, pp. 28–29.
  8. ^ Hudson, Viking Pirates, p. 31, figure 1, shows only Gofraid; Downham, Viking Kings, p. 29, figure 6 & pp. 245, 247, 254 & 269; Annals of Clonmacnoise, s.a. 931.
  9. ^ Hart, "Sihtric Cáech"; "Saga of Olaf Tryggvason", chapter 32, Heimskringla, pp. 171–173; Hudson, Viking Pirates, p. 31, figure 1 & p. 84.
 10. ^ Thus Keynes, "Rulers of the English", p. 505.
 11. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, p. 100; Hudson, Viking Pirates, p. 29; Woolf, Pictland to Alba, p. 151. Hudson, "Óláf Sihtricson", presumes Amlaíb to have been born in York, in which case he was a child at this time.
 12. ^ Woolf, Pictland to Alba, pp. 168–173; Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 103–105; Hudson, Viking Pirates, page numbers to be supplied.
 13. ^ Hudson, Viking Pirates, pp. 30–31; Hudson states: "If there is any historical basis to this story, Olaf Cuaran is clearly confused with his cousin ...".
 14. ^ Hudson, "Óláf Guthfrithson"; Woolf, Pictland to Alba, p. 174.
 15. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 43, 241 & 248; Costambeys, "Ragnall Guthfrithson"; Hudson, "Óláf Sihtricson"; Hudson, Viking Pirates, pp. 33–34; Woolf, Pictland to Alba, p. 181; Annals of Clonmacnoise, s.a. 933.
 16. ^ Higham, "Five Boroughs"; Higham, Kingdom of Northumbria, p. 193; Miller, "Edmund"; Woolf, Pictland to Alba, p. 174; but that either Amlaíb controlled the Mercian Danelaw is questioned by Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 108–109.
 17. ^ Swanton, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, p. 111, Ms. D, s.a. 943.
 18. ^ The events are associated with Amlaíb mac Gofrith by Higham, Kingdom of Northumbria, p. 193; Miller, "Edmund"; Woolf, Pictland to Alba, p. 174. Others, such as Swanton, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, p. 111, note 11; Downham, Viking Kings, p. 110; Hudson, "Óláf Sihtricson", associate them with Amlaíb Cuarán.
 19. ^ Swanton, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, pp. 110–111, Ms. A, s.a. 942, Ms. D, s.a. 942 & 943.
 20. ^ Thus Hudson, Viking Pirates, p. 34. Regarding the baptism, Hudson describes it as "... a politically motivated act ... a recognised means of sealing an alliance with a dominant individual ...". Ragnall was baptised some time later according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
 21. ^ Swanton, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, pp. 110–111, Ms. A, s.a. 944, Ms. E., s.a. 944.
 22. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 46 & 111–112; Woolf, Pictland to Alba, p. 182.
 23. ^ Hudson, Viking Pirates, p. 35; Woolf, Pictland to Alba, p. 182, suggests that the unnamed Mercian leader was Æthelstan Half-King.
 24. ^ Costambeys, "Ragnall"; Downham, Viking Kings, p. 46; the killing of Ragnall is reported in the Annals of Clonmacnoise, s.a. 937.
 25. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 46, 241 & 248; Hudson, Viking Pirates, pp. 35–36.
 26. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 46–47 & 241; Hudson, Viking Pirates, pp 36–37; Woolf, Pictland to Alba, p. 186.
 27. ^ For a contrary view of Erik's identity see Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 115–120 and Woolf, Pictland to Alba, pp. 187–188.
 28. ^ Swanton, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, pp. 112–113, Mss A & D, s.a. 946, Ms. E, s.a. 948.
 29. ^ Swanton, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, pp. 112–113, Ms D, s.a. 947 & 948.
 30. ^ Swanton, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, pp. 112–113, Ms E, s.a. 949.
 31. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 114–115.
 32. ^ Woolf, Pictland to Alba, pp. 178–190; Hudson, Viking pirates, pp. 37–38; Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 153–155.
 33. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 47 & 254; Hudson, "Óláf Sihtricson".
 34. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 48 & 241; Hudson, "Óláf Sihtricson".
 35. ^ Hudson, "Domnall ua Néill"; Hudson, Viking Pirates, page numbers needed.
 36. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 48–49, 184–185, 242, 249, 263 & 269; check Hudson, Viking Pirates.
 37. ^ [Muiredach, see Byrne, "Church and politics", @673?] Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 50 & 242; Hudson, "Domnall ua Néill".
 38. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 50 & 242; Hudson, "Óláf Sihtricson"; Hudson, "Domnall ua Néill".
 39. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 50–51 & 242; Hudson, "Óláf Sihtricson"; Hudson, "Domnall ua Néill". Check Viking Pirates also.
 40. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, p. 51; Hudson, "Óláf Sihtricson"; Annals of Tigernach, AT 976.3, 977.1, 978.2 & 979.2. Domnall Claen may have been a personal enemy of Amlaíb as he had killed Amlaíb's father-in-law Murchad mac Finn "deceitfully" in 972; Hudson, "Óláf Sihtricson"; Annals of Ulster, AU 972.2.
 41. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 51–52 & 190; Hudson, "Óláf Sihtricson"; Hudson, "Máel Sechnaill"; Hudson, Viking Pirates, page numbers needed.
 42. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, pp. 51–53; Hudson, "Óláf Sihtricson"; Hudson, Viking Pirates, page numbers needed. Only son by Dúnlaith?
 43. ^ Downham, Viking Kings, p. 29, figure 6; Hudson, Viking Pirates, p. 49, figure 2 & p. 83, figure 3; Etchingam, "Gwynedd and Ireland", p. 167, fig. 7.1.
 44. ^ Hudson, Viking Pirates, pp. 36–37.

--------------------

Olav Kvåran Sigtryggsson (død 981) var en norrøn leder av Ivarætten som var aktiv på siste halvdel av 900-tallet. Han var konge i Dublin og for en kortere tid også hersker over byen York eller Jorvik i Northumbria (England)

Innhold [skjul]

1 Navnet «Kvåran»

2 Dynastiske forbindelser

3 Det blodigste slaget

4 Konge av York og Northumbria

5 Ufred i Irland

6 Etterkommere

7 Litteratur

8 Referanser

9 Ekstern lenke


[rediger] Navnet «Kvåran»

Han er også navngitt som Olaf Cuaran og i irske opptegnelser som Amlaíb Cuaran. Tilnavnet «Cuaran» eller «Kváran» betyr «sandaler». Navnet blir i de ulike kildene stavet på mange måter. I sagaene nevnes han også som «Olav den røde», muligens på grunn av håret, ikke nødvendigvis fordi han var rødhåret, men for at han ikke var svarthåret.

[rediger] Dynastiske forbindelser

Hos Snorre Sturlasson i Olav Tryggvasons saga i Heimskringla nevnes han som Olav Kvåran (Kváran), konge av Dublin, og hans søster Gyda oppgis å være gift en navnløs jarl i England, men velger så Olav Tryggvason, den framtidige konge i Norge, som ektemann (side 144-145). Også Olav Kvåran knyttet dynastiske forbindelser via ekteskap ved at han var gift med Gormflaith, datter av Morugh MacFinn som hersket over Leinster i Irland, og deretter datteren til kong Konstantin II av Skottland. Det tyder på hans posisjon i landene rundt Irskesjøen var betydelig. Han hustru Gormflaith, som senere ble gift med Irlands berømte overkonge Brian Boru, ble mor til hans sønn og etterfølger Sigtrygg Silkeskjegg.

[rediger] Det blodigste slaget

Olav Kvårans far Sigtrygg Caech var hersket over Dublin, og ble så konge over Jorvik fra 921 til sin død i 927. Da hadde han herredømme i Deira, en del av Northumbria i nordlige England. Sigtrygg Caech var gift med søsteren til den engelske kongen Adalstein av England, kjent som den første de facto konge av England. I Norge er Adalstein først og fremst kjent for å ha oppfostret Håkon Haraldsson, også kalt for Håkon Adelstansfostre, som senere ble norsk konge.

Adalstein tok ingen slektshensyn da han med en hær annekterte Deira etter Sigtryggs død. Det førte til at Olav Kvåran tok sin tilflukt i Skottland og i Irland. Det er sannsynlig at Olav Kvåran deltok i den store alliansen som besto av bl.a. norrøn-gælere, Konstantin II av Skottland og Eógan I av Strathclyde som gikk mot Adalstein i 937. Den Olav (Amlaíb) som omtales i annalene som leder sammen med Konstantin og Eógan er derimot trolig Olav Godfridsson.[1] Alliansen ble knust i det berømte slaget ved Brunanburh i 937. Slaget skal ha vært et av de blodigste i denne perioden av Englands historie. Fem britiske konger og syv jarler falt på den norrøne/gæliske siden. Antagelig var stedet Brunanburh i dagens Burnswark i Annandale i sydlige Skottland.

[rediger] Konge av York og Northumbria

Atter måtte Olav Kvåran søke tilflukt hos slektninger i Irland, men da Adalstein døde i 940 ble han tilkalt av ledere i byen York, kanskje spesielt av erkebiskop Wulfstan som var en betydelig politisk kapasitet og i opposisjon til den engelske kongen og erkebiskopen i Canterbury. I 941 ga den nye engelske kongen Edmund I av England opp Deira til fordel for Olav Kvåran. Freden mellom de engelske og de norrøne, hovedsakelig dansker, varte ikke lenge. I 944 ble Olav Kvåran drevet fra Northumbria av kong Edmund.

Igjen måtte han ta seg til takke med det irske kongedømmet Dublin som øyensynlig ikke var nok for en mann med hans ambisjoner. Fra 949 til 952 var atter konge over Northumbria inntil han måtte forlate landet for godt, denne gangen til fordel for en hensynsløs mann fra Norge, Harald Hårfagres sønn Eirik Blodøks, som var blitt nødt til å oppgi kongedømmet Norge til fordel for halvbroren Håkon Adalsteinsfostre.

[rediger] Ufred i Irland

Resten av Olav Kvårans liv ble benyttet til stadige kriger og posisjonering i Irland. I år 980 ble hans innflytelse knust i da norrøne styrker fra Dublin og Hebridene led et stort nederlag i slaget ved Tara mot Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill. Etter dette nederlaget trakk Olav seg tilbake til den lille, hellige øya Iona nord for Irland utenfor det skotske fastlandet. Her døde han i 980 eller 981 og ble gravlagt der. Han ble etterfulgt i Dublin av sin sønn Járnkné Olavsson, også kjent under sitt irske navn Glun Iarainn («Jernkne») inntil 989 da broren Sigtrygg Silkeskjegg, Olav Kvårans sønn med Gormflaith, etterfulgte broren.

[rediger] Etterkommere

Det er en del debatt mellom forskerne om hvem av Olav Kvårans ulike koner som er mor til hans barn. Informasjonene nedenfor er derfor noe usikker:

Med Gormflaith ingen Murchada MacFinn

Harald Olavsson

Dubgall Olavsson

Dubgilla Olavsson

Gofraid Olavsson

Sigtrygg Silkeskjegg Olavsson

Med datteren (ukjent navn) til Konstantin II av Skottland:

Járnkné Olavsson (Glun Iarainn)

Ragnall Olavsson (Ragnar Olavsson)

[rediger] Litteratur

Heimskringla

Donnchadh Ó Corraín, The Vikings & Ireland

[rediger] Referanser

^ Ó Corraín s.30

[rediger] Ekstern lenke

Olaf Cuarán Sitricsson

Ó Corraín:Vikings&Ireland -------------------- Olaf Cuaran

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Olaf Cuaran (Olaf Kvaaran) (died 981), was also known as Olaf Sihtricsson. In Irish he is known as Amlaíb Cúarán. His nickname, cuaran, means "sandals".

Sihtric Cáech, Olaf's father, ruled Deira, a part of Northumbria, until his death in 927. Upon Sihtric's death, Athelstan annexed Deira and Olaf fled to Scotland. Until 937, he spent time in Scotland and Ireland and, according to some accounts, participated in the Battle of Brunanburh as part of the defeated alliance.

Among his wives was Gormflaith, daughter of Murchad mac Finn, King of Leinster, and future wife of Brian Boru. She was mother of his successor, Sigtrygg Silkbeard.

Athelstan died in 939 and Olaf Guthfrithson, king of Dublin at the time, invaded Northumbria and compelled Edmund, Athelstan's successor, to surrender Deira. When Olaf Guthfrithson died in 942, Olaf Cuaran succeeded him, finally recovering the throne of his father in addition to the throne of Dublin. Two years later, however, Edmund expelled him from Northumbria and Olaf was left with only Dublin.

Olaf managed to regain his lands in Northumbria in 949, only to be expelled again in 952, this time by Erik Bloodaxe.

In 980, Olaf suffered a massive defeat at the Battle of Tara, which destroyed the power of the Norse in Ireland. He went to Iona and probably died there in 981. He was succeeded by his son Glúniairn ("Iron Knee"), son of his wife Dúnlaith. -------------------- The Battle of Tara took place in medieval Ireland in 980. On one side there was a Norse army from Dublin supported by troops from the Hebrides and commanded by Olaf Cuaran. The other side was led by Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill, who had recently come to power as head of the southern Uí Néill. The latter's force consisted of troops from his home province of Meath (the Kingdom of Mide), probably with strong support from troops from Leinster and Ulster.

The battle ended in a devastating defeat for the Norse of Dublin. Olaf abdicated and died in religious retirement at Iona. Dublin was besieged by the victorious Máel Sechnaill, and forced it to surrender slaves and valuables, as well as giving up all its prior claims to Uí Néill held territory. In the following decade, Dublin was more or less under the control of Máel Sechnaill and the southern Uí Néill.

The Battle of Tara may have been a more decisive defeat for the Norse of Dublin than the later, and much more famous, Battle of Clontarf. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amla%C3%ADb_Cuar%C3%A1n -------------------- Amlaíb mac Sitric (c. 926?–981; Old Norse Óláfr Sigtryggsson), commonly called Amlaíb Cuarán, in Old Norse Óláfr kváran, was a 10th century Norse-Gael who was king of York and king of Dublin. His byname, cuarán, is usually translated as "sandal". His name appears in a variety of anglicized forms, including Olaf Cuaran and Olaf Sihtricson, particularly in relation to his short-lived rule in York.[1] He was the last of the Uí Ímair to play a major part in the politics of Britain and Ireland.

Amlaíb was twice, perhaps three times, ruler of York and Northumbria and twice ruler of Dublin and its dependencies. His reign over these territories spanned some forty years. He was a renowned warrior and a ruthless pillager of churches, but ended his days in respectable retirement at Iona Abbey. Born when the Uí Ímair ruled over large areas of Britain and Ireland, by his death the kingdom of Dublin was a minor power in Irish politics. At the same time, Dublin became a major centre of trade in Atlantic Europe and mastery over the city and its wealth became the supreme prize for ambitious Irish kings.

In death Amlaíb was the prototype for the character Havelok the Dane. In life he was a patron of Irish poets and Scandinavian skalds who wrote verses praising their paymaster. Amlaíb was married at least twice, and had many children who married into Irish and Scandinavian royal families. His descendants were kings in the Isle of Man and the Hebrides until the 13th century.

-------------------- Amlaíb mac Sitric (known in Old Norse as Óláfr Sigtryggsson), commonly called Amlaíb Cuarán (in Old Norse: Óláfr kváran), was a Norse-Gael who was King of York and King of Dublin. His byname, cuarán, is usually translated as "sandal." His name appears in a variety of anglicized forms, including Olaf Cuaran and Olaf Sihtricson, particularly in relation to his short-lived rule in York. He was the last of the Uí Ímair Vikings to play a major part in the politics of Britain and Ireland.

Amlaíb was twice, perhaps three times, ruler of York and North Umbria and twice ruler of Dublin and its dependencies. His reign over these territories spanned some forty years. He was a renowned warrior and a ruthless pillager of churches, but he ended his days in respectable retirement at Iona Abbey. He was born when the Norse ruled over large areas of Britain and Ireland, and by his death the kingdom of Dublin was a minor power in Irish politics. At the same time, Dublin became a major center of trade in Atlantic Europe and mastery over the city and its wealth became the supreme prize for ambitious Irish kings.

In death Amlaíb was the prototype for the character Havelok the Dane. In life he was a patron of Irish poets and Scandinavian skalds who wrote verses praising their paymaster. Amlaíb was married at least twice, and had many children who married into Irish and Scandinavian royal families. His descendants were kings in the Isle of Man and the Hebrides until the 13th century.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olaf_Cuaran for considerably more information.

--------------------

Amlaib was also called Anlaf. He was also called Óláfr Kváran Sigtriggson (Old Norse).

Amlaíb Cuarán mac Sitric of Dublin was related to the English king Aethelstan.

He was born before 920. He was taken from York to Dublin, Irelandm by his uncle, Guthfrith, in 927, after their expulsion by King Aethelstan of Wessex.

Amlaíb went to Cair-Abroc in 938.

According to the Annals of the Four Masters (938): "A victory was gained by the King of the Saxons over Constantine, son of Aedh; Anlaf, or Amhlaeibh, son of Sitric; and the Britons. / Cath-raoinedh ria righ Saxan for Constantin mac Aedha for Anlaf no Amhlaoibh, mac Sitric, & for Breathnaibh." ( (an unknown value)).

Amlaib was baptized in 941: "This year King Edmund received King Anlaf at baptism."

He was chosen as their king by the Northumbrians who abandoned their allegiance to the Angles of Wessex at Athelstan's death in 941. He succeeded his 1st cousin, Olaf I, to the throne of Dublin in 941.

He was King of York in England between 941 and 943.

He was a witness where Edmund I "the Magnificent," King of the English, moved against Olaf Sihtricson and regained the lands lost to the former Olaf in 942. Amlaíb witnessed King Edmund made peace with Olaf and saw him baptized as a Christian in 943.

Amlaíb remained in Dublin after Blacaire, one of the chiefs of the foreigners, was expelled in 943 at Dublin.

King Edmund took advantage of the fighting that broke out between Olaf Sihtricson and a rival claimant to the Scandanavian Kingdom of York, and invaded Northumbria and brought it under his rule in 944. Amlaíb was restored to the throne of York following Ragnald II, but soon lost it to the English King Eadred in 944.

He succeeded his 1st cousin, Blacar, to the throne of Dublin in 945.

He was restored to the throne of York, succeeding Eric Bloodaxe, with the help of Eadred in 949. He was restored to the throne of Dublin in 953.

He married Gormlaith ingen Murchada Uí Fáeláin, daughter of Murchad mac Finn Uí Fáeláin, rí Laigin and N. N. ingen Taidg Uí Conchobair, before 980.

Amlaíb abdicated his throne after the Battle of Tara in 980. According to the Annals of Tigernach (980): "Amlaim mac Sitriuca, aird-righ ar Gallaib Atha Cliath, do dul co h-Í a n-aithrighe & a n-ailithri iarsin cath mortuus est."

He was called the High King of the "foreigners" in Ath Cliath, or Dublin, in the Annals of Tigernach.

He died in 981 in Ionia in religious retirement.

See "My Lines"

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p327.htm#i12041 )

from Compiler: R. B. Stewart, Evans, GA

( http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/index.htm ) -------------------- Also called Anlaf.8 Amlaíb Cuarán mac Sitric of Dublin was the son of Sihtric, king of Deira, and was related to the English king Aethelstan.9 Also called Óláfr Kváran Sigtriggson Old Norse.3,10 He was born before 920. He was the son of Sitric Caoch ua Ímair, rí Dubgall & Finngall and unknown (?).4,5,6,7 Amlaíb Cuarán mac Sitric of Dublin was taken from York to Dublin, Ireland by his Uncle?, Guthfrith, in 927. He and Gothfraidh ua Ímair were expelled from York by King Aethelstan of Wessex in 927. Amlaíb Cuarán mac Sitric of Dublin went to Cair-Abroc in 938.11 Annals of the Four Masters 938: "A victory was gained by the King of the Saxons over Constantine, son of Aedh; Anlaf, or Amhlaeibh, son of Sitric; and the Britons. / Cath-raoinedh ria righ Saxan for Constantin mac Aedha for Anlaf no Amhlaoibh, mac Sitric, & for Breathnaibh." ( (an unknown value)).12 He was baptized in 941; "A.D. 941. This year King Edmund received King Anlaf at baptism."13 He was chosen as their king by the Northumbrians who abandoned their allegiance to the Angles of Wessex an Athelstan's death in 941.13 He succeeded his 1st cousin, Olaf I, to the throne of Dublin in 941. King of York at England between 941 and 943.5,14 He was a witness where Edmund I "the Magnificent", King of the English moved against Olaf Sihtricson and regained the lands lost to the former Olaf in 942.15 Amlaíb Cuarán mac Sitric of Dublin was a witness where Edmund I "the Magnificent", King of the English made peace with Olaf and saw him baptised as a Christian in 943.16 Amlaíb Cuarán mac Sitric of Dublin remained in Dublin after Blacaire, one of the chiefs of the foreigners, was expelled in 943 at Dublin, Ireland.17 He was a witness where Edmund I "the Magnificent", King of the English took advantage of the fighting that broke out between Olaf Sihtricson and a rival claimant to the Scandanavian Kingdom of York, and invaded Northumbria and brought it under his rule in 944.16 Amlaíb Cuarán mac Sitric of Dublin was restored to the throne of York following Ragnald II, but soon lost it to the English King Eadred in 944. King of York, restored at England in 944. He was succeeded his 1st cousin, Blacar, to the throne of Dublin in 945.14,10 King of Dublin at Ireland between 945 and 948.14 He was restored to the throne of York, succeeding Eric Bloodaxe, with the help of Eadred in 949. King of York, restored at England between 949 and 952.14 He was restored to the throne of Dublin in 953.14 King of Dublin, restored between 953 and 980.14 He married Gormlaith ingen Murchada Uí Fáeláin, daughter of Murchad mac Finn Uí Fáeláin, rí Laigin and N. N. ingen Taidg Uí Conchobair, before 980; One of her 6.1,18 Amlaíb Cuarán mac Sitric of Dublin abdicated his throne after the Battle of Tara in 980.5,19,10 Annals of Tigernach 980: "Amlaim mac Sitriuca, aird-righ ar Gallaib Atha Cliath, do dul co h-Í a n-aithrighe & a n-ailithri iarsin cath mortuus est."20 He was called the High King of the "foreigners" in Ath Cliath, or Dublin, in the Annals of Tigernach.20 He died in 981 at Ionia. He died in religious retirement.1,3,21,10,22,9

Family

Gormlaith ingen Murchada Uí Fáeláin b. circa 965, d. 1030

Children

   * Sitric mac Amlaíb, rí Gall+ b. b 9811,3
   * Aralt mac Amlaíb of Dublin+ b. b 981, d. 30 Dec 99923
   * Dubgall mac Amlaíb of Dublin b. b 981, d. 101423
   * Duibhghilla mac Amlaíb+ b. b 98123
   * Gofraid Olafsson of Dublin b. b 98123

http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p327.htm#i12041

view all 14

Olaf Sithricsson, King of Dublin & York's Timeline

918
918
York, United Kingdom
970
970
Age 52
Dublin - dtr of Olaf Kvaran
975
975
Age 57
Ireland
975
Age 57
Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
979
979
Age 61
Ireland
980
980
Age 62
Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland
980
Age 62
Isle of Iona, Scotland
981
981
Age 62
Dublin,Leinster,Dublin,Ireland
????
????