Saint Margaret, Queen of Scots

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Margaret

Nicknames: "Saint Margaret of Scotland", "Margaret Ætheling", "Margaret Atheling", "Margaret the Exile", "the Exile", "of Wessex", "Atheling", "Margaret // Saint", "Saint Margareth", "/Atheling/", "Princess of England", "St. Margaret of Scotland", "Margaret of Wessex", "Queen Margaret of S..."
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Hungary
Death: Died in Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Scotland
Place of Burial: Dunfermline Abbey, Scotland
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Edward 'the Exile', Ætheling of England; Edward Atheling "The Excile"; Ágota - Agatha ÁRPÁD(házi) and Agatha von Brunswick Princess of England
Wife of Malcolm III "Canmore" King of Scotland and Malcolm III, 'Canmore', King of Scots
Mother of David I, King of Scots; Aethelred / Aedh, 1st Earl of Fife; Étgar King Of Scots, King of Scots; Edmund of Scotland mac Máel Coluim; Edward mac Máel Coluim and 3 others
Sister of Christina of England, Nun at Romsey and Eadgar Æðeling, Uncrowned King of England

Occupation: Queen consort of Scotland, Canonised 1250 and her feast day is 16th November, SAINT, кралица на Шотландия, Saint, Princesse, d'Angleterre, Sainte, 1251, Princess England Queen of Scotland, Queen, Quuen and a saint Canonised by Pope 1251,
Managed by: Sally Gene Cole
Last Updated:

About Margaret

http://www.turautak.com/cikkek/varak--romok/varak--varromok/reka-var--mecseknadasd-.html One out of many, many Hungarian sites who tell us that the grandfather of this Scottish Queen was Szent István, in English Saint Stephen I, the very first King of Hungary. The mother of Queen Margareth of Scottland, the Hungarian Prinses Ágota, was the daughter of Saint Stephen I and his second wife Gisela Von Bayern. (RBT)

Saint Margaret (c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), was the sister of Edgar Ætheling, the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England.

Spouse: Malcolm III, King of Scots

Children:

  1. Edward, killed 1093.
  2. Edmund of Scotland
  3. Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld
  4. King Edgar of Scotland
  5. King Alexander I of Scotland
  6. King David I of Scotland
  7. Edith of Scotland, also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
  8. Mary of Scotland, married Eustace III of Boulogne

LINKS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Margaret_of_Scotland

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIIIdied1093B

http://www.dunfermlineabbey.co.uk/index.php?ID=1853&CATEGORY=4-History

MEDIEVAL LANDS

MALCOLM, son of DUNCAN II King of Scotland & his wife [Sibylla of Northumbria] (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093[241], bur Tynemouth St Albans[242], transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife[243], transferred again to Escorial, Madrid). The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum names "Malcolaim filii Donnchada" in one of its lists[244]. The Chronicon of Mariano Scotti records that "Moelcol…filius Donchael" succeeded Lulach in 1058[245]. The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Siwardus" put "Macbeth" to flight in 1054 and installed "Malcolmum rege" in the following year[246]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Lulach rí Alban” was killed by “Mael-Coluimb, son of Donnchad” in 1058[247]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Malcolm recaptured his kingdom with the help of "Siward Earl of Northumberland" and killed "Machabeus" 5 Dec 1056[248].

He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, crowned 25 Apr 1058 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire. Duncan cites sources which demonstrate that this nickname was first applied to King Malcolm III in the 13th century[249]. He suggests[250] that it was originally applied to King Malcolm IV who, he asserts, suffered from Paget's disease, involving a deformation of the bones particularly observable in the skull, and was later misapplied to King Malcolm III. King Malcolm supported the claim to the English crown of Edgar ætheling, whose sister he had married, and led plundering raids into England. Florence of Worcester records that he did homage to William I King of England at Abernethy in Aug 1072[251]. The same source records that King Malcolm invaded Northumberland in 1091, but did fealty to Willam II King of England after peace was negotiated between the two kings[252]. Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[253]. William of Malmesbury records that he was killed, with his son Edward, by Morael of Bamborough, steward of Robert Mowbray Earl of Northumberland, while leading a raid into England[254]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[255].

m [secondly] (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) MARGARET of England, daughter of EDWARD ætheling of England & his wife Agatha --- ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai). Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][257], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin (as discussed in ANGLO-SAXON KINGS). Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[258]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[259]. Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldest son[260]. The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret…died of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle[261]. She was canonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov[262].

King Malcolm III & his second wife had eight children[287]:

3. EDWARD (-Edwardsisle, near Jedburgh 16 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth St Albans). Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[288]. He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him first of the sons[289]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[290]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that, according to "William", "Edmund…was privy to his brother Duncan´s death, having…bargained with his uncle [Donald] for half the kingdom" but was captured and "kept in fetters for ever"[291]. He died from wounds received at the battle of Alnwick during a raid on England led by his father. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[292]. Matthew of Paris reports that the remains of "regis Scotorum Malcolmi et Edwardi filii sui" were found at Tynemouth, commenting that both had been killed fighting "Robertus de Mumbrai"[293].

4. EDMUND (-after 1097, bur [Montacute]). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him second of the sons[294]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife, adding in a later passage that Edmund "was buried at Montacute in England"[295]. He succeeded in 1094 as EDMUND joint King of Scotland, jointly with his uncle King Donald III "Bane", ruling south of the Forth/Clyde. He was deposed in 1097 by his brother Edgar, and became a monk at Montacute Abbey. Edmund is not mentioned either by Orderic Vitalis in his brief account of the usurpation of King Donald "Bane"[296], or by Florence of Worcester in his account of the deposition of King Donald in 1097[297]. If Edmund was older than his brother Edgar, it is not clear why their uncle Edgar Ætheling, who led the English army which deposed their uncle, would have supported the accession of Edgar in place of Edmund. The Annals of Ulster record that he was involved in the killing of his half-brother King Duncan[298]. William of Malmesbury records that "Edmund was the only degenerate son of Margaret", that he "[partook] in his uncle Donald's crime and…had been accessory to his brother's death", was "doomed to perpetual imprisonment", and "on his near approach of death, ordered himself to be buried in his chains"[299]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum records that "Edmundus" was buried "apud Montem Acutum in…cella Cluniacensi"[300].

5. EDGAR ([1074]-[Dundee or Edinburgh Castle] 6 Jan 1107, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him third of the sons[301]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[302]. He succeeded in 1097 as EDGAR King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "clitorem Eadgarum" led an army to Scotland in [1097] to place "consobrinum suum Eadgarum Malcolmi regis filium" on the Scottish throne after expelling "patruo suo Dufenaldo"[303]. The reign of Edgar is ignored by Orderic Vitalis, who says that Alexander succeeded when King Donald was deposed[304]. "Edgarus filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "fratrum meorum Doncani et Edwardi" by charter dated 30 Aug 1095, subscribed by "Egeri regis, Alexandri fratri eius, Manyanium, Agulfi, filii Doncani, Eyluerti, filii Eghe Omani, Uhtredi, filii Magdufe, Constantini, Rodberti de humet, Ætele, A. gulfi, Alimoldi filii sui, David"[305]. The precise dating of this charter and the unusual list of subscribers suggest that it may be spurious. "Edgarus…Rex Scottorum" made grants for the souls of "Malcolmi patris nostri et Margaretæ matris nostræ…ac Edwardi et Duncani fratrum nostrorum" by charter dated 1095[306]. Robert of Torigny records the death in 1107 of "Edgarus rex Scotiæ"[307]. Florence of Worcester records the death "VIII Id Jan" in [1107] of "Eadgarus rex Scottorum"[308]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Edgar mac Malcolm" reigned for 9 years, died "in Dunedin", and was buried "in Dumferline"[309].

6. ALEXANDER ([1077/78]-Stirling Castle 23, 25 or 27 Apr 1124, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him fourth of the sons[310]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[311]. Robert of Torigny records that "Alexander frater eius" succeeded in 1107 on the death of "Edgarus rex Scotiæ"[312]. He succeeded his brother in 1107 as ALEXANDER I "the Fierce" King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "Alexander frater eius" succeeded his brother King Edgar in [1107][313]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "VII Kal Mai" [1124] of "Alexander rex Scottorum"[314]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Alexander" reigned for 17 years and 3 months, died "in Crasleth", and was buried "in Dumferline"[315].

m ([1107]) SIBYL, illegitimate daughter of HENRY I King of England & his mistress --- ([1090/95]-Island of the Women, Loch Tay, Perthshire 12/13 Jul 1122, bur Island of the Women, Loch Tay). William of Malmesbury records the marriage of Alexander to the unnamed illegitimate daughter of King Henry, but adds "there was…some defect about the lady either in correctness of manners or elegance of person"[316], which appears to imply mental retardation. Her name is confirmed by various charters, including the charter dated to [1120] under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum filius Regis Malcolmi et Reginæ Margaretæ et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Angliæ" made grants[317]. Considering the date of her marriage, it is unlikely that she was born much later than [1095]. The Complete Peerage[318] suggests that she was the daughter of Sibyl Corbet, both because of her name and also because of the possible co-identity between "…Willelmo fratre reginæ…", who witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone[319], and "…Willielmo fratre meo…" who witnessed the charter dated to [1163/75] under which "Reginaldus, Henrici Regis filius, comes Cornubiæ" granted property to "Willielmo de Boterell, filio Aliziæ Corbet, materteræ meæ"[320]. However, this co-identity is not ideal from a chronological point of view. William, brother of Renaud Earl of Cornwall, died after 1187. If he was the same person as the brother of Sibyl Queen of Scotland, he could only have been a child when he subscribed the Scottish charters in which he is named. The documents give no indication of his youth, and in any case it is probable that the queen´s [full] brother would have been born in the same timeframe as she was. In addition, as noted in the document ENGLAND KINGS, it is possible that William, brother of Earl Renaud, may have been his uterine brother, in which case it is unlikely that he would have been chosen to accompany the queen to Scotland. Another factor is that the birth of Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Sibyl Corbet by her marriage, is estimated to [1125/35] (see UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY), which is clearly inconsistent with his having been the half-sister of the Scottish queen. In conclusion, it is preferable therefore to show the queen´s mother as unknown.

King Alexander I had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

a) MALCOLM ([1105/15]-after 1158). Orderic Vitalis names Malcolm as bastard son of King Alexander[321]. Robert of Torigny records that "Aragois comes Morefie cum Melcolmo notho filio Alexandri fratri regis David" invaded Scotland in 1130[322]. Malcolm fought two battles challenging his uncle David for the crown of Scotland. He was captured in 1134, imprisoned in Roxburgh castle until 1158[323]. same person as …? MALCOLM MacHeth (-23 Oct 1168[324]). Duncan suggests that Malcolm, son of King Alexander I, and Malcolm MacHeth were two different persons, the latter being the son of "Aed" or "Heth" who witnessed two charters in the early years of the reign of King David I[325]. He was reconciled with King Malcolm IV in 1157. Malcolm MacHeth was created Earl of Ross in 1162 or before[326].

- EARLS of ROSS.

7. ETHELRED (-before [1107], bur [St Andrew´s Church, Kilremont]). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him fifth of the sons[327]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife, adding in a later passage that Ethelred "as some assert…lies buried in St Andrew´s church at Kilremont"[328]. Lay abbot of Dunkeld. "Edelradus…filius Malcolmi Regis Scotiæ Abbas de Dunkeldense et insuper Comes de Fyf" made donations to the Keledei of Loch Leven by undated charter, witnessed by "duo fratres Hedelradi…David et Alexander…Constantini comitis de Fyf et Nesse et Cormac filii Macbeath et Malnethte filii Beollani sacerdotum de Abyrnethyn et Mallebride alterius sacerdotis"[329].

8. EADGYTH (1079-1 Jun 1118).

Orderic Vitalis records that their mother sent Eadgyth and her sister Mary to be brought up by their maternal aunt Christina, nun at Romsey Abbey[330]. Florence of Worcester records the marriage of King Henry and "regis Scottorum Malcolmi et Margaretæ reginæ filiam Mahtildem" and her coronation as queen in a passage dealing with events in late 1100[331]. She adopted the name MATILDA on her marriage. Crowned Queen Consort of England 11 or 14 Nov 1100. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Kal Mai" of "Matildis Anglorum regina"[332]. The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "Kal Mai " at Westminster of "Mahthildis regina Anglorum", and her burial at Westminster Abbey[333].

m (11 Nov 1100) as his first wife, HENRY I "Beauclerc" King of England, son of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre (Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068-Saint-Denis le Ferment, Forêt d’Angers near Rouen 1/2 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire).

9. DAVID ([1080]-Carlisle 24 May 1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him sixth of the sons[334]. He succeeded his brother in 1124 as DAVID I King of Scotland.

- see below.

10. MARY (-31 May 1116 or 18 Apr 1118, bur Bermondsey Priory). Orderic Vitalis records that their mother sent Mary and her sister Eadgyth to be brought up by their maternal aunt Christina, nun at Romsey Abbey[335]. Florence of Worcester records that Henry I King of England arranged the marriage of "Mariam reginæ sororem" and "Eustatio Bononensium comiti" in [1102][336]. Her marriage is also recorded by Orderic Vitalis, who also names her daughter[337]. The Genealogica comitum Buloniensium records that "Eustachius, frater Balduini regis Iheruslame" married "Mariam filiam regis Scotiæ"[338]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum records the death "II Kal Jun" in 1116 of "Maria…comitissa" and her burial "apud Bermundseiam"[339]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Mary countess of Bouillon" died in "the third year before her sister´s death"[340].

m (1102) EUSTACHE [III] Comte de Boulogne, son of EUSTACHE [II] "Gernobadatus" Comte de Boulogne and Lens & his second wife Ida of Lotharingia (-after 1125).

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WIKIPEDIA (Eng)

Saint Margaret (c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), was the sister of Edgar Ætheling, the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England. She married Malcolm III, King of Scots, becoming his Queen consort.

Early life

Saint Margaret was the daughter of the English prince Edward the Exile, son of Edmund Ironside. She was probably born at Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd, in the region of Southern Transdanubia, Hungary.[citation needed] The provenance of her mother, Agatha, is disputed.

Margaret had one brother Edgar and one sister Christina.

When her uncle, Saint Edward the Confessor, the French-speaking Anglo-Saxon King of England, died in 1066, she was living in England where her brother, Edgar Ætheling, had decided to make a claim to the vacant throne.

According to tradition, after the conquest of the Kingdom of England by the Normans, the widowed Agatha decided to leave Northumberland with her children and return to the Continent. A storm drove their ship to Scotland, where they sought the protection of King Malcolm III. The spot where she is said to have landed is known today as St. Margaret's Hope, near the village of North Queensferry.

Malcolm was probably a widower, and was no doubt attracted by the prospect of marrying one of the few remaining members of the Anglo-Saxon royal family. The marriage of Malcolm and Margaret soon took place. Malcolm followed it with several invasions of Northumberland by the Scottish king, probably in support of the claims of his brother-in-law Edgar. These, however, had little result beyond the devastation of the province.

Family

Margaret and Malcolm has eight children, six sons and two daughters:

Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in a fight against the English at Alnwick Castle on 13 November 1093. Her son Edmund was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was ill, and she died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son.

Veneration

St Margaret's Church in Dunfermline dedicated to her memory

Saint Margaret was canonised in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. She attended to charitable works, and personally served orphans and the poor every day before she ate. She rose at midnight to attend church services every night. She was known for her work for religious reform. She was considered to be an exemplar of the "just ruler", and also influenced her husband and children to be just and holy rulers.

The Roman Catholic Church formerly marked the feast of Saint Margaret of Scotland on June 10, because the feast of "Saint Gertrude, Virgin" was already celebrated on November 16, but in Scotland, she was venerated on November 16, the day of her death. In the revision of the Roman Catholic calendar of saints in 1969, November 16 became free and the Church transferred her feast day to November 16.[1] However, some traditionalist Catholics continue to celebrate her feast day on June 10.

She is also venerated as a saint in the Anglican Church.

Born c. 1045, Castle Réka, in the region of Southern Transdanubia, Hungary

Died 16 November 1093 (aged c. 48), St Margaret's Chapel in Edinburgh Castle, Midlothian, Scotland

Venerated in Roman Catholic Church; Anglican Communion

Canonized 1250 by Pope Innocent IV

Major shrine Dunfermline Abbey

Feast November 16;

June 10 (pre-1970 General Roman Calendar)

Attributes reading

Patronage Dunfermline; Scotland; The Queen's Ferry; Anglo-Scottish relations

The wife of Malcolm III was Margaret the daughter of Edward “the Exile”a son of Edward Ironside and grandson of Ethelred II. When Cnut became King of England after Edmund death, Edward was banished and found his way to Hungary, when he married a German princess a had three children, Margaret, Christina and Edgar the Atheling. They return to England at the invitation of Edward uncle Edward the Confessor. The nephew Edward died with in few days or weeks after returning to England. His son Edgar claim to succeed Harold as King of England abt 1066. In about 1069 Edward “the Exile” family move to Scotland, where Margaret m’d Malcolm III. Margaret was canonized in 1249. Margaret died 16 Nov 1093 on hearing of her husband’s death.

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  1. Edward, killed 1093.
  2. Edmund of Scotland
  3. Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld
  4. King Edgar of Scotland
  5. King Alexander I of Scotland
  6. King David I of Scotland
  7. Edith of Scotland, also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
  8. Mary of Scotland, married Eustace III of Boulogne

Citations

  1. ^ "Calendarium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 126

Further reading

   * Chronicle of the Kings of Alba
         o Anderson, Marjorie O. (ed.). Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland. 2nd ed. Edinburgh, 1980. 249-53.
         o Hudson, B.T. (ed. and tr.). Scottish Historical Review 77 (1998): 129-61.
         o Anderson, Alan Orr (tr.). Early Sources of Scottish History: AD 500-1286. Vol. 1. Edinburgh, 1923. Reprinted in 1990 (with corrections).
   * Turgot, Vita S. Margaretae (Scotorum) Reginae
         o ed. J. Hodgson Hinde, Symeonis Dunelmensis opera et collectanea. Surtees Society 51. 1868. 234-54 (Appendix III).
         o tr. William Forbes-Leith, Life of St. Margaret Queen of Scotland by Turgot, Bishop of St Andrews. Edinburgh, 1884. PDF available from the Internet Archive. Third edition published in 1896.
         o tr. anon., The life and times of Saint Margaret, Queen and Patroness of Scotland. London, 1890. PDF available from the Internet Archive
   * William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum Anglorum
         o ed. and tr. R.A.B. Mynors, R.M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom, William of Malmesbury. Gesta Regum Anglorum. The History of the English Kings. OMT. 2 vols: vol 1. Oxford, 1998.
   * Orderic Vitalis, Historia Ecclesiastica
         o ed. and tr. Marjorie Chibnall, The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis. 6 vols. OMT. Oxford, 1968-1980.
   * John of Worcester, Chronicle (of Chronicles)
         o ed. B. Thorpe, Florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis. 2 vols. London, 1848-9
         o tr. J. Stevenson, Church Historians of England. 8 vols: vol. 2.1. London, 1855. 171-372.
   * John Capgrave, Nova Legenda Angliae
         o Acta SS. II, June, 320. London, 1515. 225

Secondary literature

   * This article incorporates text from the article "St Margaret" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
   * Baker, D. "A nursery of saints: St Margaret of Scotland reconsidered." In Medieval women, ed. D. Baker. SCH. Subsidia 1. 1978.
   * Bellesheim, Alphons. History of the Catholic Church in Scotland. Vol 3, tr. Blair. Edinburgh, 1890. 241-63.
   * Butler, Alban. Lives of the Saints. June 10.
   * Challoner, Richard. Britannia Sancta, I. London, 1745. 358.
   * Dunlop, Eileen, Queen Margaret of Scotland, 2005, NMS Enterprises Limited - Publishing, Edinburgh, 978 1 901663 92 1
   * Huneycutt, L.L. "The idea of a perfect princess: the Life of St Margaret in the reign of Matilda II (1100–1118)." Anglo-Norman Studies 12 (1989): 81–97.
   * Madan. The Evangelistarium of St. Margaret in Academy. 1887.
   * Parsons, John Carmi. Medieval Mothering. 1996.
   * Skene, W.F. Celtic Scotland. Edinburgh.
   * Stanton, Richard. Menology of England and Wales. London, 1887. 544.
   * Wilson, A.J. St Margaret, queen of Scotland. 1993.

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Margaret was a daughter of Edward d'Outremer ("The Exile"), next of kin to Edward the Confessor, and sister to Edgar the Atheling, who took refuge from William the Conqueror at the court of King Malcolm Canmore in Scotland. The young prince Malcolm, who was to become Margaret's husband, was still a child when his father, King Duncan, was killed by Macbeth. It was not until 1054 that Macbeth was driven out and Malcolm established on the throne of Scotland, as readers of Shakespeare's Macbeth will remember.

Margaret, as beautiful as she was good and accomplished, captivated Malcolm, and they were married at the castle of Dunfermline in the year 1070. Margaret was then twenty-four years old. Their marriage bestowed great blessings upon Malcolm as well as Scotland. Malcolm was rough and uncultured, but his disposition was good, and Margaret, through the great influence she acquired over him, softened his temper, polished his manners, and rendered him one of the most virtuous kings who have ever occupied the Scottish throne. To maintain justice, to establish religion, and to make their subjects happy appeared to be their chief objects in life.

What she did for her husband Margaret also did in a great measure for her adopted country, promoting the arts of civilization and encouraging education and religion. She found Scotland a prey to ignorance and to many grave abuses, both among priests and people. At her instigation, church councils were held which passed enactments to meet these evils. She herself was present at these meetings, taking part in the discussions. Attendance at Mass on Sundays and holy days was made obligatory, and the rules for Easter communion and Lent were restored. Many scandalous practices, such as simony, usury and incestuous marriages, were strictly prohibited. St. Margaret made it her constant effort to obtain good priests and teachers for all parts of the country, and formed an embroidery guild among the ladies of the court to provide vestments and church furniture. With her husband she founded several churches, notably that of the Holy Trinity at Dunfermline.

God blessed the couple with a family of six sons and two daughters, and their mother brought them up with the utmost care, herself instructing them in the Christian faith and superintending their studies. Their daughter Matilda married Henry I of England and was known as Good Queen Maud, while three of their sons, Edgar, Alexander, and David, successively occupied the Scottish throne, the last named being revered as a saint. St. Margaret's care and attention was extended to her servants and household as well as to her own family; yet in spite of all the state affairs and domestic duties in which she was involved, she kept her heart disengaged from the world and recollected in God. Her private life was most austere: she ate sparingly, and in order to obtain time for her devotions she permitted herself very little sleep. Every year she kept two Lents, the one at the usual season, the other before Christmas. At these times she always rose at midnight and went to the church for Matins. King Malcolm often shared her vigil. On her return, she washed the feet of six poor persons and gave them alms.

She also had stated times during the day for prayer and reading the Holy Scriptures. Her own copy of the Gospels on one occasion was inadvertently dropped into a river, but sustained no damage beyond a small watermark on the cover. That book is now preserved among the treasures of the Bodleian Library at Oxford. Perhaps St. Margaret's most outstanding virtue was her love of the poor. She often visited the sick and tended them with her own hands. She erected hostels for travelers and ransomed many captives, mostly those of English nationality. When she appeared outside in public she was invariably surrounded by beggars, none of whom went away unrelieved, and she never sat down at table without first having fed the crowds of paupers and orphans. Often -- especially during Advent and Lent -- the king and queen would entertain three hundred poor persons, serving them on their knees with dishes similar to those provided for their own table.

In 1093, King William Rufus surprised Alnwick castle, putting its garrison to the sword. King Malcolm and his son Edward were killed in the ensuing hostilities. St. Margaret at this time was lying on her deathbed. The day her husband was killed she was overcome with sadness and said to her attendants, "Perhaps this day a greater evil hath befallen Scotland than any this long time." When her son Edgar arrived back from Alnwick, she asked how his father and brother were. Afraid of the effect the news might have upon her in her weak state, he replied that they were well. She exclaimed, "I know how it is!" Then raising her hands toward Heaven she said, "I thank thee, Almighty God, that in sending me so great an affliction in the last hour of my life, thou wouldst purify me from my sins as I hope, by thy mercy." Soon afterward she repeated the words, "O Lord Jesus Christ, who by thy death hast given life to the world, deliver me from all evil!" and breathed her last. She died four days after her husband, on November 16, 1093, being in her forty-seventh year, and was buried in the church of the abbey of Dunfermline which she and her husband had founded. St. Margaret was canonized in 1250. Dunfermline was sacked in 1560, but the relics were safely removed. St. Margaret's body, together with that of Malcolm, was transferred to a chapel in the Escorial, outside Madrid. In 1673, St. Margaret was named a patron of Scotland.

--------------------

Saint Margaret was canonised in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. She attended to charitable works, and personally served orphans and the poor every day before she ate. She rose at midnight to attend church services every night. She was known for her work for religious reform. She was considered to be an exemplar of the "just ruler", and also influenced her husband and children to be just and holy rulers.

The Roman Catholic Church formerly marked the feast of Saint Margaret of Scotland on June 10, because the feast of "Saint Gertrude, Virgin" was already celebrated on November 16. In Scotland, she was venerated on November 16, the day of her death.


St Margaret's Church in Dunfermline dedicated to her memoryPer the revision of the Roman Catholic calendar of saints in 1969, the Church transferred her feast day to November 16, the actual day of her death. Traditional Roman Catholics continue to celebrate the feast day of "St Margaret, Queen of Scots, Widow" on June 10 as a Semi-Double feast, or a 3rd Class feast.

Queen Margaret University (founded in 1875), Queen Margaret College (Glasgow), Queen Margaret Union, Queen Margaret Hospital (just outside Dunfermline), North Queensferry, South Queensferry, Queen Margaret Academy (Ayr), Queen Margaret College (Wellington) and several streets in Scotland are named after her.

She is also venerated as a saint in the Anglican Church.

--------------------

St. Margaret was the wife of Malcolm III of Scotland and the daughter-in-law of King Duncan who was murdered by Macbeth in 1040. The history of the House of Wessex became the history of the English monarchy. King Egbert (802-839) was the founder of the dynasty. His mythical descent is from Woden. The English monarchy is the oldest European institution with the exception of the papacy.

Queen Consort of Scotland, Patroness of Scotland, reforming the Church of Scotland

  • Born about 1045.
  • Married Malcolm III King of Scotland about 1070
  • Died November 16, 1093, Edinburgh Castle, Scotland

Father of Margaret of Scotland was Edward the Atheling, also known as Edward the Exile. He was the son of King Edmund II Ironside of England, who was in turn son of Ethelred II "the Unready"

Mother of Margaret of Scotland was Agatha of Hungary, who was related to Gisela, wife of St. Stephen of Hungary

Margaret of Scotland's brother was Edgar the Atheling, the only of the Anglo-Saxon princes to survive the Norman invasion, acknowledged as King of England by some but never crowned.

Margaret of Scotland met her future husband, Malcolm, when she was fleeing with her brother from William the Conqueror's invading army in 1066. Their ship was wrecked on the Scottish coast.

Malcolm Canmore was the son of King Duncan. Duncan had been killed by Macbeth, and Malcolm in turn defeated and killed Macbeth after living for some years in England -- a series of events fictionalized by Shakespeare. Malcolm had been married previously to Ingibjorg, the daughter of the Earl of Orkney.

Malcolm invaded England at least five times. William the Conqueror forced him to swear allegiance in 1072 but Malcolm died in a skirmish with the English forces of King William II Rufus in 1093. Only three days later, his queen, Margaret of Scotland, also died.

Margaret of Scotland is known to history for her work to reform the Scottish church by bringing it into line with Roman practices and replacing Celtic practices. Margaret brought many English priests to Scotland as one method of achieving this goal. She was a supporter of Archbishop Anselm.

Margaret of Scotland's Children:

Of the eight children of Margaret of Scotland, one, Edith, renamed Matilda or Maud, married Henry I of England, uniting the Anglo-Saxon royal line with the Norman royal line. Three of her sons -- Edgar, Alexander I, and David I -- ruled as kings of Scotland. David, the youngest, reigned for almost 30 years. Her other daughter, Mary, married the Count of Boulogne and Mary's daughter Matilda became Queen of England as wife of King Stephen.

--------------------

Margaret "The Exile" Atheling, was the Queen of Scotland. Called St. Margaret. She was the wife of Malcolm III of Scotland and the daughter-in-law of King Duncan who was murdered by Macbeth in 1040. The history of the House of Wessex became the history of the English monarchy. King Egbert (802-839) was the founder of the dynasty. His mythical descent is from Woden. The English monarchy is the oldest European institution with the exception of the papacy.

Queen Consort of Scotland, Patroness of Scotland, reforming the Church of Scotland

Margaret Atheling was born of the ancient Saxon House of Wessex, she was the daughter of Edward Atheling, otherwise known as 'Edward the Exile' and Agatha (possibly a niece of Henry III, Emperor of Germany) and was born in Hungary in 1046.

Her father was the eldest son of Edmund II known as 'Ironside', and grandson of Ethelred II 'the Redeless'. Edmund reigned briefly as King of England from April to November of 1016. After his father's death, and the accession to the English throne of the Danish King Canute, the young Edward and his brother Edmund were consigned to the safe-keeping of Canute's half-brother and ally, Olof King of Sweden. They were secretly sent to Kiev, where Olof's daughter Ingigerd was the Queen. They were then sent on to Hungary, probably in the retinue of Ingigerd's son-in-law, King András. The two children were placed under the care of the King of Hungary.

The younger son, Edmund, died without issue. The elder brother, Edward, referred to as 'the Atheling' (Anglo-Saxon, meaning Prince or of noble birth), married Agatha, who according to some sources, was possibly a niece of Henry III, Emperor of Germany, the couple had three children. Besides Margaret the marriage produced a son, Edgar Atheling and a further daughter, Christina.

Margaret returned to England with her parents and siblings towards the end of the reign of her great-uncle, Edward the Confessor , with a view to naming her father as his heir, fate however, intervened, and Edward Atheling died within months of his return to his native land. The Confessor took his nephew's grieving widow and children into his care and protection. After the Norman Conquest, the claims of the royal Saxon House devolved upon Margaret's brother, Edgar Atheling, but then aged about 13 or 14, but he submitted to the formidable William the Conqueror.

In 1068, Edgar Atheling joined in rebellion with the northern Earls Edwin and Morcar against William's rule and shortly after the family were forced to flee, their ship was driven by storms to the Scottish coast, were welcomed at the court of King Malcolm Canmore.

The spot where Margaret and her family are said to have landed, near North Queensferry, is still known as St Margaret's Hope. Malcolm Canmore, a widower, was attracted to the beautiful Saxon princess and no doubt the prospect of an alliance with the ancient Anglo-Saxon royal house was an added attraction. Following their marriage, Malcolm lead several invasions into Northumberland in support of his brother-in-law's claims to the English throne, which achieved little and culminated in the King of Scots having to pay homage to the Conqueror. William demanded assurance of this treaty by yaking Malcolm's eldest son Donald, by his previous wife Ingibjorg, as a hostage for his compliance.

Margaret was highly respected for her piety and learning and for her knowledge of continental customs gained in the court of Hungary, and came to exert a great deal of influence with her husband, who frequently sought her advice on matters of state. Margaret instigated reforms within the Celtic church, as well as developing closer ties to the larger Roman Church. Mass was changed from the many dialects of Gaelic spoken throughout Scotland to Latin. The Queen became a patroness of the célidé, Scottish Christian hermits, and introduced Benedictine monks to Scotland. She was instrumental in the adoption of English-style feudalism in Scotland. Famed for her charity, Margaret frequently visited and cared for the sick, and had hostels constructed for the poor. At Advent and Lent, she held feasts for as many as three hundred commoners.

The Queen reformed the manners of the Scottish court. Under her influence, ceremonies became more elaborate; tapestries came to adorn the walls; gold and silver dishes were used and court costumes were marked by the appearance of fur, velvet, and jewelry.

Hostilities with England broke out again in the reign of William the Conqueror's son and succesor William Rufus. On 13th November, 1093, on accepting the surrender of the Castle of Alnwick, in Northumberland, Malcolm leaned forward from his horse to receive the keys from the point of the lance of its keeper, when the lance was treacherously thrust into his eye. He died in agony, his eldest son by Margaret, Edward, was also killed. The throne of Scotland was seized by Malcolm's brother Donald Bane.

The disastrous news of her husband and eldest son's death was carried to Queen Margaret at Edinburgh Castle, the Queen was already mortally ill and the castle was under siege by her brother-in-law. She died three days later.

While Margaret's body still lay within, Donald Bane and his ally the King of Norway besieged the Edinburgh Castle. Margaret's sons and her attendants managed to escape by a postern called the West Yhet, taking the body with them. A thick mist hid obscured them from the enemy's sight. They arrived at Dunfermline, where they buried Margaret, according to her own wishes, at Dunfermline Abbey. Her descendant, King Alexander II, petitioned Pope Innocent IV to canonize his devout ancestress. By Papal Bull of 1249 she was formally declared a saint in the Catholic church.

On 19th June, 1250, her body and that of her spouse, Malcolm III, were exhumed and removed to a magnificent shrine. 19th June was thereafter celebrated in Scotland as the feast of St. Margaret. Her remains, along with those of her husband, were not allowed to rest in peace however. In 1560 St. Margaret's shrine was desecrated by Scots Calvinist iconoclasts. Mary, Queen of Scots had St. Margaret's head removed as a reliquary to Edinburgh Castle, as she hoped to call on the assistance of the saint in childbirth.

In 1597 Margaret's earthly peregrinations continued, when her head was taken home by a pivate gentleman, it then embarked upon further journeyings, arriving in Antwerp and finally reaching the Scot's College at Douai, France. It disappeared completely during the French Revolution. Phillip II of Spain had the remains of Margaret and Malcolm Canmore translated to a shrine at El Escorial, seat of the Catholic Kings of Spain.

Four of Margaret's sons were to become Kings of Scotland, while her eldest daughter, Edith, through her marriage to William the Conqueror's youngest son Henry I, was to become Queen Consort of England and following the example of her mother, came to be respected for her acts of piety and charity. Her youngest son, King David I, who was said to revere his mother, honoured her memory by building St. Margaret's Chapel at Edinburgh Castle on the spot where his mother died in 1093. The Chapel is the oldest building to survive in the Castle to the present day.

--------------------

Margaret was brought up at the Hungarian court, where her father, Edward, was in exile. After the Battle of Hastings, Edward's widow and children fled for safety to Scotland. Her brother Edgar the Aetheling, defeated claimant to the English throne, joined her there. In spite of her leanings toward a religious life, Margaret married (c. 1070) Malcolm III Canmore, king of Scotland from 1057 or 1058 to 1093. Through her influence over her husband and his court, she promoted, in conformity with the Gregorian reform, the interests of the church and of the English population conquered by the Scots in the previous century. She died shortly after her husband was slain near Alnwick, Northumberland. [Encyclopaedia Britannica

later Cannonized and became St. Margaret [Ref: Holloway WENTWORTH p18]

1250: canonized [Ref: Weis AR7 #1] 1251: canonized [Ref: DeVajay

Agatha p85]

Anglo-Saxon princess [Ref: Moncreiffe RoyalAnc p20]

---------------------------

!English princess later cannonized as St. Margaret, who had been forced into exile in Scotland by the Norman Conquest in 1066. Under the influence of Margaret, a devout communicant of the church of Rome, many of the teachings of the Celtic church were brought into harmony with the Roman ritual. The hostility engendered among many of the Scottish chieftains by her activities flared into rebellion after Malcolm's death. Margaret, her stepson Duncan, later Duncan II, king of Scotland, and their English retainers were then driven from the country. Six sons. [Funk & Wagnalls]

!One of the fairest and most accomplished maidens in England, and who, considering that her brother was weak both in mind and body, might be looked upon as the hope of the Saxon royal line. [WBH - Scotland]

!She did all in her power, and influenced as far as possible the mind of her husband, to relieve the distresses of her Saxon countrymen, of high or low degree; assuaged their afflictions, and was zealous in protecting those who had been involved in the ruin which the Battle of Hastings brought on the royal house of Edward the Confessor. The gentleness and mildness of temper proper to this amiable woman, probably also the experience of her prudence and good sense, had great weight with Malcolm, who, though preserving a portion of the ire and ferocity belonging to the king of a wild people, was far from being insensible to the suggestions of his amiable consort. He stooped his mind to hers on religious matters, adorned her favorite books of devotion with rich bindings, and was often seen to kiss and pay respect to the volumes which he was unable to read. He acted also as interpreter to Margaret, when she endeavored to enlighten the Scottish clergy upon the proper time of celebrating Easter; and though we cannot attach much consequence to the issue of this

polemical controversy, which terminated, of course, in favor of the cause adopted by the fair pleader and the royal interpreter, yet it is a pleasing picture of conjugal affection laboring jointly for the instruction of a

barbarous people. [WBH - Scotland]

!Died 3 days after her husband upon hearing the news of his death. [WBH - Scotland]

!Many of the dispossesed and hunted proprietors and tenants of the northern counties of England found shelter in Scotland, under the protection of Margaret, following the arrival of William the Conqueror. [Knight's Popular History of England, Vol. 1, p. 228]

She was a determined opponent of Celtic ecclesiastical particularism. [A History of Wales, p. 121]

b. 1042, d. 16 Nov 1093; m. Malcolm Canmore, king of Scotland; mother of David I, king of Scotland. [Charlemagne & Others, Chart 2916]

b. 1045, d. 16 Nov 1093; dau. of Edward the Atheling and Agatha of Hungary; canonized 1250; m. 1068/9, Malcolm III Canmore, king of Scots; mother of Matilda of Scotland. [Ancestral Roots, p. 2-3]

Dau. of Prince Edward the Exile; descendant of Alfred the Great, Clovis I, Cerdic, and perhaps Hengist; ancestress of the royal line of England; m. Malcolm III Canmore; mother of David I the Saint. [Ancestral Roots, p. 147]

Under her influence, court life became more civilized, and English fashions and customs were introduced. She ordered the rebuilding of the Monastery of Iona and for her benefactions to the Church she was canonized in 1251. [Scotland: A Concise History, p. 24]

Margaret was about 10 years old when she arrived in England; the impression seems to have been that she was a tall handsome girl of Saxon type, but the early chronicles were so busy describing the beauty of her nature that they say little about her appearance.

Margaret was about 20 years old when her family was again in exile, this time in Scotland. She would find a primitive style of life at Dunfermlin, the Tower by the Crooked Stream, but Dunfermlin nevertheless was now the burying place of the Scottish kings, and the royal residence, Iona having become too dangerous because of Scandinavian pirates.

Malcolm was then about 40 and without the companionship of a wife. He soon began to yearn for Margaret, but her inclination and upbringing had prepared her for the cloister rather than the crown, and Malcolm, though he had many great and manly virtues, was a tempestuous monarch. It was only after long consideration, "yielding rather to the will of her friends rather than her own," that in 1070 Margaret was married to the King of Scotland. [St. Margaret]

Margaret had 8 children, 6 sons and 2 daughters. Of the sons, Edward, the eldest, was killed in battle, Ethelred died young, Edmund "fell way from the good". But the three youngest sons were the jewels in the crown; Edgar, Alexander, and David are remembered among the best kings Scotland ever had. The two daughters were both brought up under the strict rule of their aunt Christian in the Abbey of Romsey. Matilda m. Henry I of England. Mary m. Eustace, Count of Boulogne, and their daughter became Queen of England as the wife of King Stephen. Margaret's children played a great part in the history of Scotland and of England and of Europe. She brought them up well.[St. Margaret Queen of Scotland and her Chapel, p. 13-20]

--------------------

Saint Margaret (c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), was the sister of Edgar Ætheling, the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England. She married Malcolm III, King of Scots, becoming his Queen consort.

Saint Margaret was the daughter of the English prince Edward the Exile, son of Edmund Ironside. She was probably born at Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd, in the region of Southern Transdanubia, Hungary.[citation needed] The provenance of her mother, Agatha, is disputed.

Margaret had one brother Edgar and one sister Christina.

Margaret and Malcolm had eight children, six sons and two daughters:

  1. Edward, killed 1093.
  2. Edmund of Scotland
  3. Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld
  4. King Edgar of Scotland
  5. King Alexander I of Scotland
  6. King David I of Scotland
  7. Edith of Scotland, also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
  8. Mary of Scotland, married Eustace III of Boulogne

Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in a fight against the English at Alnwick Castle on 13 November 1093. Her son Edmund was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was ill, and she died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son.

Citations

  1. ^ "Calendarium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 126

--------------------

Saint Margaret (c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), was the sister of Edgar Ætheling, the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England. She married Malcolm III, King of Scots, becoming his Queen consort.

Early life

Saint Margaret was the daughter of the English prince Edward the Exile, son of Edmund Ironside. She was probably born at Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd, in the region of Southern Transdanubia, Hungary.[citation needed] The provenance of her mother, Agatha, is disputed.

Margaret had one brother Edgar and one sister Christina.

When her uncle, Saint Edward the Confessor, the French-speaking Anglo-Saxon King of England, died in 1066, she was living in England where her brother, Edgar Ætheling, had decided to make a claim to the vacant throne.

According to tradition, after the conquest of the Kingdom of England by the Normans, the widowed Agatha decided to leave Northumberland with her children and return to the Continent. A storm drove their ship to Scotland, where they sought the protection of King Malcolm III. The spot where she is said to have landed is known today as St. Margaret's Hope, near the village of North Queensferry.

Malcolm was probably a widower, and was no doubt attracted by the prospect of marrying one of the few remaining members of the Anglo-Saxon royal family. The marriage of Malcolm and Margaret soon took place. Malcolm followed it with several invasions of Northumberland by the Scottish king, probably in support of the claims of his brother-in-law Edgar. These, however, had little result beyond the devastation of the province.

Family

Margaret and Malcolm had eight children, six sons and two daughters:

Edward, killed 1093.

Edmund of Scotland

Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld

King Edgar of Scotland

King Alexander I of Scotland

King David I of Scotland

Edith of Scotland, also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England

Mary of Scotland, married Eustace III of Boulogne

Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in a fight against the English at Alnwick Castle on 13 November 1093. Her son Edmund was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was ill, and she died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son.

Margaret and Scottish culture

It is notable that while Malcolm's children by his first wife Ingibjörg all bore Gaelic names, those of Margaret all bore non-Gaelic names.

Later tradition suggests that Margaret was responsible for reducing the importance of Gaelic culture in the lowlands and Scotland in general. She probably intended the forenames of her children to bear her claims to the Anglo-Saxon throne in the period before permanent Norman rule was recognized. Her first group of children were given Anglo-Saxon royal names. But, it is unlikely that Margaret's children were originally seen as successors to the Scottish throne. Malcolm had older (grown) sons by his first marriage, as well as brothers, who were much more likely to succeed him.[dubious – discuss] Furthermore, Margaret freely patronized Gaelic churchmen. The use of the Gaelic language continued to increase in northern Britain.

Nevertheless, Margaret's sons regarded their Anglo-Saxon heritage as important. It was one of the main elements which later Scottish kings used to legitimize their authority in English-speaking Lothian and northern England.

Margaret was known for having invited English Benedictine monks to Scotland, to establish the first holy orders in the nation. She admired their work and learning, and also encouraged Scottish holy men.

Veneration

Saint Margaret was canonised in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. She attended to charitable works, and personally served orphans and the poor every day before she ate. She rose at midnight to attend church services every night. She was known for her work for religious reform. She was considered to be an exemplar of the "just ruler", and also influenced her husband and children to be just and holy rulers.

The Roman Catholic Church formerly marked the feast of Saint Margaret of Scotland on June 10, because the feast of "Saint Gertrude, Virgin" was already celebrated on November 16. In Scotland, she was venerated on November 16, the day of her death.

St Margaret's Church in Dunfermline dedicated to her memory

Per the revision of the Roman Catholic calendar of saints in 1969, the Church transferred her feast day to November 16, the actual day of her death.[1] Traditional Roman Catholics continue to celebrate the feast day of "St Margaret, Queen of Scots, Widow" on June 10 as a Semi-Double feast, or a 3rd Class feast.

Queen Margaret University (founded in 1875), Queen Margaret College (Glasgow), Queen Margaret Union, Queen Margaret Hospital (just outside Dunfermline), North Queensferry, South Queensferry, Queen Margaret Academy (Ayr), Queen Margaret College (Wellington) and several streets in Scotland are named after her.

She is also venerated as a saint in the Anglican Church.

--------------------

From http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Margaretdied1093

MARGARET ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai).  Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][1933], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin, as discussed above.  Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1934].  Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1935].  Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldest son[1936].  The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret…died of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle[1937].  She was canonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov[1938].  m (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) as his second wife, MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, son of DUNCAN I King of Scotland & his wife Sibylla of Northumbria (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid).  

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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Saint Margaret (c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), was the sister of Edgar Ætheling, the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England. She married Malcolm III, King of Scots, becoming his Queen consort.

Early life

Saint Margaret was the daughter of the English prince Edward the Exile, son of Edmund Ironside. She was probably born at Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd, in the region of Southern Transdanubia, Hungary.[citation needed] The provenance of her mother, Agatha, is disputed.

According to popular belief, Margaret was a very serious person, so much that no one ever could recall seeing her laugh or smile.

When her uncle, Saint Edward the Confessor, the French-speaking Anglo-Saxon King of England, died in 1066, she was living in England where her brother, Edgar Ætheling, had decided to make a claim to the vacant throne.

According to tradition, after the conquest of the Kingdom of England by the Normans, the widowed Agatha decided to leave Northumberland with her children and return to the Continent. A storm drove their ship to Scotland, where they sought the protection of King Malcolm III. The spot where she is said to have landed is known today as St. Margaret's Hope, near the village of North Queensferry.

Malcolm was probably a widower, and was no doubt attracted by the prospect of marrying one of the few remaining members of the Anglo-Saxon royal family. The marriage of Malcolm and Margaret soon took place. Malcolm followed it with several invasions of Northumberland by the Scottish king, probably in support of the claims of his brother-in-law Edgar. These, however, had little result beyond the devastation of the province.

Family

Margaret and Malcolm had eight children, six sons and two daughters:

Edward, killed 1093.

Edmund of Scotland

Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld

King Edgar of Scotland

King Alexander I of Scotland

King David I of Scotland

Edith of Scotland, also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England

Mary of Scotland, married Eustace III of Boulogne

Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in a fight against the English at Alnwick Castle on 13 November 1093. Her son Edmund was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was ill, and she died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son.

Margaret and Scottish culture

It is notable that while Malcolm's children by his first wife Ingibjörg all bore Gaelic names, those of Margaret all bore non-Gaelic names.

Later tradition suggests that Margaret was responsible for reducing the importance of Gaelic culture in the lowlands and Scotland in general. She probably intended the forenames of her children to bear her claims to the Anglo-Saxon throne in the period before permanent Norman rule was recognized. Her first group of children were given Anglo-Saxon royal names. But, it is unlikely that Margaret's children were originally seen as successors to the Scottish throne. Malcolm had older (grown) sons by his first marriage, as well as brothers, who were much more likely to succeed him. Furthermore, Margaret freely patronized Gaelic churchmen. The use of the Gaelic language continued to increase in northern Britain.

Nevertheless, Margaret's sons regarded their Anglo-Saxon heritage as important. It was one of the main elements which later Scottish kings used to legitimize their authority in English-speaking Lothian and northern England.

Margaret was known for having invited English Benedictine monks to Scotland, to establish the first holy orders in the nation. She admired their work and learning, and also encouraged Scottish holy men.

Veneration

Saint Margaret was canonised in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. She attended to charitable works, and personally served orphans and the poor every day before she ate. She rose at midnight to attend church services every night. She was known for her work for religious reform. She was considered to be an exemplar of the "just ruler", and also influenced her husband and children to be just and holy rulers.

The Roman Catholic Church formerly marked the feast of Saint Margaret of Scotland on June 10, because the feast of "Saint Gertrude, Virgin" was already celebrated on November 16. In Scotland, she was venerated on November 16, the day of her death.


St Margaret's Church in Dunfermline dedicated to her memoryPer the revision of the Roman Catholic calendar of saints in 1969, the Church transferred her feast day to November 16, the actual day of her death.[1] Traditional Roman Catholics continue to celebrate the feast day of "St Margaret, Queen of Scots, Widow" on June 10 as a Semi-Double feast, or a 3rd Class feast.

Queen Margaret University (founded in 1875), Queen Margaret College (Glasgow), Queen Margaret Union, Queen Margaret Hospital (just outside Dunfermline), North Queensferry, South Queensferry, Queen Margaret Academy (Ayr), Queen Margaret College (Wellington) and several streets in Scotland are named after her.

She is also venerated as a saint in the Anglican Church.

--------------------

Saint Margaret (c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), was the sister of Edgar Ætheling, the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England. She married Malcolm III, King of Scots, becoming his Queen consort.

Early life

Saint Margaret was the daughter of the English prince Edward the Exile, son of Edmund Ironside. She was probably born at Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd, in the region of Southern Transdanubia, Hungary.[citation needed] The provenance of her mother, Agatha, is disputed.

Margaret had one brother Edgar and one sister Christina.

When her uncle, Saint Edward the Confessor, the French-speaking Anglo-Saxon King of England, died in 1066, she was living in England where her brother, Edgar Ætheling, had decided to make a claim to the vacant throne.

According to tradition, after the conquest of the Kingdom of England by the Normans, the widowed Agatha decided to leave Northumberland with her children and return to the Continent. A storm drove their ship to Scotland, where they sought the protection of King Malcolm III. The spot where she is said to have landed is known today as St. Margaret's Hope, near the village of North Queensferry.

Malcolm was probably a widower, and was no doubt attracted by the prospect of marrying one of the few remaining members of the Anglo-Saxon royal family. The marriage of Malcolm and Margaret soon took place. Malcolm followed it with several invasions of Northumberland by the Scottish king, probably in support of the claims of his brother-in-law Edgar. These, however, had little result beyond the devastation of the province.

Family

Margaret and Malcolm had eight children, six sons and two daughters:

  1. Edward, killed 1093.
  2. Edmund of Scotland
  3. Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld
  4. King Edgar of Scotland
  5. King Alexander I of Scotland
  6. King David I of Scotland
  7. Edith of Scotland, also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
  8. Mary of Scotland, married Eustace III of Boulogne

Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in a fight against the English at Alnwick Castle on 13 November 1093. Her son Edmund was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was ill, and she died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son.

Margaret and Scottish culture

It is notable that while Malcolm's children by his first wife Ingibjörg all bore Gaelic names, those of Margaret all bore non-Gaelic names.

Later tradition suggests that Margaret was responsible for reducing the importance of Gaelic culture in the lowlands and Scotland in general. She probably intended the forenames of her children to bear her claims to the Anglo-Saxon throne in the period before permanent Norman rule was recognized. Her first group of children were given Anglo-Saxon royal names. But, it is unlikely that Margaret's children were originally seen as successors to the Scottish throne. Malcolm had older (grown) sons by his first marriage, as well as brothers, who were much more likely to succeed him.[dubious – discuss] Furthermore, Margaret freely patronized Gaelic churchmen. The use of the Gaelic language continued to increase in northern Britain.

Nevertheless, Margaret's sons regarded their Anglo-Saxon heritage as important. It was one of the main elements which later Scottish kings used to legitimize their authority in English-speaking Lothian and northern England.

Margaret was known for having invited English Benedictine monks to Scotland, to establish the first holy orders in the nation. She admired their work and learning, and also encouraged Scottish holy men.

Veneration

Saint Margaret was canonised in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. She attended to charitable works, and personally served orphans and the poor every day before she ate. She rose at midnight to attend church services every night. She was known for her work for religious reform. She was considered to be an exemplar of the "just ruler", and also influenced her husband and children to be just and holy rulers.

The Roman Catholic Church formerly marked the feast of Saint Margaret of Scotland on June 10, because the feast of "Saint Gertrude, Virgin" was already celebrated on November 16. In Scotland, she was venerated on November 16, the day of her death.

Per the revision of the Roman Catholic calendar of saints in 1969, the Church transferred her feast day to November 16, the actual day of her death.[1] Traditional Roman Catholics continue to celebrate the feast day of "St Margaret, Queen of Scots, Widow" on June 10 as a Semi-Double feast, or a 3rd Class feast.

Queen Margaret University (founded in 1875), Queen Margaret College (Glasgow), Queen Margaret Union, Queen Margaret Hospital (just outside Dunfermline), North Queensferry, South Queensferry, Queen Margaret Academy (Ayr), Queen Margaret College (Wellington) and several streets in Scotland are named after her.

She is also venerated as a saint in the Anglican Church.

Citations

  1. ^ "Calendarium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 126

Further reading

   * Chronicle of the Kings of Alba
         o Anderson, Marjorie O. (ed.). Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland. 2nd ed. Edinburgh, 1980. 249-53.
         o Hudson, B.T. (ed. and tr.). Scottish Historical Review 77 (1998): 129-61.
         o Anderson, Alan Orr (tr.). Early Sources of Scottish History: AD 500-1286. Vol. 1. Edinburgh, 1923. Reprinted in 1990 (with corrections).
   * Turgot, Vita S. Margaretae (Scotorum) Reginae
         o ed. J. Hodgson Hinde, Symeonis Dunelmensis opera et collectanea. Surtees Society 51. 1868. 234-54 (Appendix III).
         o tr. William Forbes-Leith, Life of St. Margaret Queen of Scotland by Turgot, Bishop of St Andrews. Edinburgh, 1884. PDF available from the Internet Archive. Third edition published in 1896.
         o tr. anon., The life and times of Saint Margaret, Queen and Patroness of Scotland. London, 1890. PDF available from the Internet Archive
   * William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum Anglorum
         o ed. and tr. R.A.B. Mynors, R.M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom, William of Malmesbury. Gesta Regum Anglorum. The History of the English Kings. OMT. 2 vols: vol 1. Oxford, 1998.
   * Orderic Vitalis, Historia Ecclesiastica
         o ed. and tr. Marjorie Chibnall, The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis. 6 vols. OMT. Oxford, 1968-1980.
   * John of Worcester, Chronicle (of Chronicles)
         o ed. B. Thorpe, Florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis. 2 vols. London, 1848-9
         o tr. J. Stevenson, Church Historians of England. 8 vols: vol. 2.1. London, 1855. 171-372.
   * John Capgrave, Nova Legenda Angliae
         o Acta SS. II, June, 320. London, 1515. 225

Secondary literature

   * This article incorporates text from the article "St Margaret" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
   * Baker, D. "A nursery of saints: St Margaret of Scotland reconsidered." In Medieval women, ed. D. Baker. SCH. Subsidia 1. 1978.
   * Bellesheim, Alphons. History of the Catholic Church in Scotland. Vol 3, tr. Blair. Edinburgh, 1890. 241-63.
   * Butler, Alban. Lives of the Saints. June 10.
   * Challoner, Richard. Britannia Sancta, I. London, 1745. 358.
   * Dunlop, Eileen, Queen Margaret of Scotland, 2005, NMS Enterprises Limited - Publishing, Edinburgh, 978 1 901663 92 1
   * Huneycutt, L.L. "The idea of a perfect princess: the Life of St Margaret in the reign of Matilda II (1100–1118)." Anglo-Norman Studies 12 (1989): 81–97.
   * Madan. The Evangelistarium of St. Margaret in Academy. 1887.
   * Parsons, John Carmi. Medieval Mothering. 1996.
   * Skene, W.F. Celtic Scotland. Edinburgh.
   * Stanton, Richard. Menology of England and Wales. London, 1887. 544.
   * Wilson, A.J. St Margaret, queen of Scotland. 1993.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Margaret_of_Scotland

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Saint Margaret (c. 1045–16 November 1093), was the sister of Edgar Ætheling, the Anglo-Saxon heir to the throne of England. She married Malcolm III, King of Scots, becoming his Queen consort.

Margaret and Malcolm had eight children, six sons and two daughters:

  1. Edward, killed 1093.
  2. Edmund of Scotland
  3. Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld
  4. King Edgar of Scotland
  5. King Alexander I of Scotland
  6. King David I of Scotland
  7. Edith of Scotland, also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
  8. Mary of Scotland, married Eustace III of Boulogne

Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in siege against the English at Alnwick Castle on 13 November 1093. Her son Edmund was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was ill, and she died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son. Her children tried to hide the fact of their father's and brother's deaths, but when Margaret did find out she either died of sadness or a broken heart.

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King Malcolm III "Ceanmor (Longneck)" of Scotland - was born about 1033, lived in Athoil, Perthshire, Scotland and died on 13 Nov 1093 in Alnwick, Northumberlandshire, England . He was the son of King Duncan I of Scotland and Sibyl Fitzsiward.

King Malcolm married Queen Margaret of Scotland in 1067/1069 while living in Athoil, Perthshire, Scotland. Queen Margaret was born about 1042/1045, lived in Wessex, England. She was the daughter of Prince Edward "Atheling" of England and Princess Agatha Von Brunswick of England. She died on 16 Nov 1093 in Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Edinburgshire, Scotland .

Queen Margaret - spent much of her time and money on works of charity, herself attending on the poor, the aged, the orphans and the sick. She supervised the making of vestments and fine things for the church. She was an admirable mother. She solved the problem facing the church in the Scotland of her day. Cut off by pagan invasion, the Celtic church had come to differ on points of procedure with Rome, and it was Margaret's personal achievement to reconcile the conflicting elements by bringing the Celtic church in Scotland back to conformity. This she did in such a way as to avoid schism or bitterness.


Similarly, her efforts to introduce European culture into Scotland were markedly successful. Whereas in England the Norman Conquest left a legacy of bitterness, the comparatively peaceful infusion of medieval culture into Scotland under Margaret and her sons was effected in such a manner as to bring a veritable golden age to Scotland, that lasted for two hundred years after Margaret's death. She died in Edinburgh Castle, and died, like so many saints, at a time when all that she had worked for seemed lost; her husband was killed in battle and rebel forces were attacking Edinburgh. But three of her sons succeeding to the throne in turn, their mother's work was reinforced and brought to fullness.

King Malcolm - rebelled twice against MacBeth in an effort to gain the throne.


The second attempt was more successful as Malcolm, at the head of an English Saxon army defeated and killed MacBeth while his Norwegian allies were engaged elsewhere and Malcolm ascended the throne in 1057 as King Malcolm III Ceann Mor (Canmore).


During his 37 year reign, the first events now known as Highland Games were held on the Braes of Mar to choose the best available men to serve as his servants and soldiers. His death in battle in December 1093 and the death of his wife, several days later brought on a turbulent time which saw Malcolm's eldest son, King Duncan II murdered by Malcolm's brother Donald Bane, Lord of the Isles, in order to become king. Another son, Edgar, finally secured the throne in 1097 with the help of another English army of Saxons and Normans led by his mother's brother, Edgar Aetheling. King Malcolm III's hereditary possessions devolved on his youngest brother, Maelmare, the first celtic Earl of Atholl and on his death, the earldom passed to Malcolm III's namesake, the second son of his first marriage. This Malcolm, the younger brother of the slain King Duncan II is the recognised progenitor of the Clan.


(from The DUncan Clan - Scottish History Online) (Sources: - 1) Children: (Quick Family Chart)

i. Princess Matilda of Scotland was born about 1070/1080 in Dunfermine, Fifeshire, Scotland and died on 1 May 1118 in Westminster, Middlesex, England .

Princess Matilda married King Henry I "Beauclerc" of England on 11 Nov 1100 in England. King Henry was born in 1068 in Shelby, Yorkshire, England. He was the son of King Guillaume "Le Conquerant" de Normandie and Queen Matilda van Vlaanderen. He died Dec 1135 in St. Denis, Seine-St.Denis, France and was buried in Reading Abbey, Berkshire, England .

Princess Matilda - Daughter of the king of Scotland.

See of England family for children.


ii. King David I "The Saint" of Scotland was born about 1080/1082, lived in Scotland and died on 24 May 1153 in Carlisle, Cumberland, Scotland . See #4. below.

iii. Mary of Scotland was born about 1085 and died on 31 May 1116 .

Mary married Count Eustace III of Boulogne. Count Eustace was born about 1058. He was the son of Count Eustace II of Boulogne and Ida de Lorraine. He died in 1125 .

See of Boulogne family for children

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Saint Margaret (c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), was the sister of Edgar Ætheling, the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England. She married Malcolm III, King of Scots, becoming his Queen consort.

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She was canonised 1250 and her feast day is 16th of November. In 1057 she arrived at the English court of Edward the Confessor. Ten years later she was in exile after William defeated Harold at the Battle of Hastings. She fled to Scotland where she was married against her wishes to King Malcolm to whom she bore six sons and two daughters. Her unlearned and boorish husband grew more graceful and Christian under the queen's graceful influence. Her remains were removed to Escorial, Spain and her head to Douai, France.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Margaret_of_Scotland

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See her and her descendents at http://www.geni.com/profile/index/367745019520012658

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Born c. 1045, Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd, in the region of Southern Transdanubia, Hungary

Died 16 November 1093 (aged c. 48), St Margaret's Chapel in Edinburgh Castle, Midlothian, Scotland

Venerated in Roman Catholic Church; Anglican Communion

Canonized 1250 by Pope Innocent IV

Major shrine Dunfermline Abbey

Feast November 16; June 10 (Extraordinary form of the Roman Rite)

Attributes reading

Patronage Dunfermline; Scotland; The Queen's Ferry; Anglo-Scottish relations

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Margaret Atheling was born of the ancient Saxon House of Wessex, she was the daughter of Edward Atheling, otherwise known as 'Edward the Exile' and Agatha (possibly a niece of Henry III, Emperor of Germany) and was born in Hungary in 1046.

Her father was the eldest son of Edmund II known as 'Ironside', and grandson of Ethelred II 'the Redeless'. Edmund reigned briefly as King of England from April to November of 1016. After his father's death, and the accession to the English throne of the Danish King Canute, the young Edward and his brother Edmund were consigned to the safe-keeping of Canute's half-brother and ally, Olof King of Sweden. They were secretly sent to Kiev, where Olof's daughter Ingigerd was the Queen. They were then sent on to Hungary, probably in the retinue of Ingigerd's son-in-law, King András. The two children were placed under the care of the King of Hungary.

The younger son, Edmund, died without issue. The elder brother, Edward, referred to as 'the Atheling' (Anglo-Saxon, meaning Prince or of noble birth), married Agatha, who according to some sources, was possibly a niece of Henry III, Emperor of Germany, the couple had three children. Besides Margaret the marriage produced a son, Edgar Atheling and a further daughter, Christina.

Margaret returned to England with her parents and siblings towards the end of the reign of her great-uncle, Edward the Confessor , with a view to naming her father as his heir, fate however, intervened, and Edward Atheling died within months of his return to his native land. The Confessor took his nephew's grieving widow and children into his care and protection. After the Norman Conquest, the claims of the royal Saxon House devolved upon Margaret's brother, Edgar Atheling, but then aged about 13 or 14, but he submitted to the formidable William the Conqueror.

In 1068, Edgar Atheling joined in rebellion with the northern Earls Edwin and Morcar against William's rule and shortly after the family were forced to flee, their ship was driven by storms to the Scottish coast, were welcomed at the court of King Malcolm Canmore.

The spot where Margaret and her family are said to have landed, near North Queensferry, is still known as St Margaret's Hope. Malcolm Canmore, a widower, was attracted to the beautiful Saxon princess and no doubt the prospect of an alliance with the ancient Anglo-Saxon royal house was an added attraction. Following their marriage, Malcolm lead several invasions into Northumberland in support of his brother-in-law's claims to the English throne, which achieved little and culminated in the King of Scots having to pay homage to the Conqueror. William demanded assurance of this treaty by yaking Malcolm's eldest son Donald, by his previous wife Ingibjorg, as a hostage for his compliance.

Margaret was highly respected for her piety and learning and for her knowledge of continental customs gained in the court of Hungary, and came to exert a great deal of influence with her husband, who frequently sought her advice on matters of state. Margaret instigated reforms within the Celtic church, as well as developing closer ties to the larger Roman Church. Mass was changed from the many dialects of Gaelic spoken throughout Scotland to Latin. The Queen became a patroness of the célidé, Scottish Christian hermits, and introduced Benedictine monks to Scotland. She was instrumental in the adoption of English-style feudalism in Scotland. Famed for her charity, Margaret frequently visited and cared for the sick, and had hostels constructed for the poor. At Advent and Lent, she held feasts for as many as three hundred commoners.

The Queen reformed the manners of the Scottish court. Under her influence, ceremonies became more elaborate; tapestries came to adorn the walls; gold and silver dishes were used and court costumes were marked by the appearance of fur, velvet, and jewelry.

Hostilities with England broke out again in the reign of William the Conqueror's son and succesor William Rufus. On 13th November, 1093, on accepting the surrender of the Castle of Alnwick, in Northumberland, Malcolm leaned forward from his horse to receive the keys from the point of the lance of its keeper, when the lance was treacherously thrust into his eye. He died in agony, his eldest son by Margaret, Edward, was also killed. The throne of Scotland was seized by Malcolm's brother Donald Bane.

The disastrous news of her husband and eldest son's death was carried to Queen Margaret at Edinburgh Castle, the Queen was already mortally ill and the castle was under siege by her brother-in-law. She died three days later.

While Margaret's body still lay within, Donald Bane and his ally the King of Norway besieged the Edinburgh Castle. Margaret's sons and her attendants managed to escape by a postern called the West Yhet, taking the body with them. A thick mist hid obscured them from the enemy's sight. They arrived at Dunfermline, where they buried Margaret, according to her own wishes, at Dunfermline Abbey. Her descendant, King Alexander II, petitioned Pope Innocent IV to canonize his devout ancestress. By Papal Bull of 1249 she was formally declared a saint in the Catholic church.

On 19th June, 1250, her body and that of her spouse, Malcolm III, were exhumed and removed to a magnificent shrine. 19th June was thereafter celebrated in Scotland as the feast of St. Margaret. Her remains, along with those of her husband, were not allowed to rest in peace however. In 1560 St. Margaret's shrine was desecrated by Scots Calvinist iconoclasts. Mary, Queen of Scots had St. Margaret's head removed as a reliquary to Edinburgh Castle, as she hoped to call on the assistance of the saint in childbirth.

In 1597 Margaret's earthly peregrinations continued, when her head was taken home by a pivate gentleman, it then embarked upon further journeyings, arriving in Antwerp and finally reaching the Scot's College at Douai, France. It disappeared completely during the French Revolution. Phillip II of Spain had the remains of Margaret and Malcolm Canmore translated to a shrine at El Escorial, seat of the Catholic Kings of Spain.

Four of Margaret's sons were to become Kings of Scotland, while her eldest daughter, Edith, through her marriage to William the Conqueror's youngest son Henry I, was to become Queen Consort of England and following the example of her mother, came to be respected for her acts of piety and charity. Her youngest son, King David I, who was said to revere his mother, honoured her memory by building St. Margaret's Chapel at Edinburgh Castle (pictured right) on the spot where his mother died in 1093. The Chapel is the oldest building to survive in the Castle to the present day.

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ADDITIONAL LINKS

http://thepeerage.com/p10216.htm#i102154

http://www.stmargaretofscotland.com

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Margaret_of_Scotland

Saint Margaret (c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), canonised by Pope Innocent IV, was the sister of Edgar Ætheling, the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England. She married Malcolm III, King of Scots, becoming his Queen consort.

Saint Margaret was the daughter of the English prince Edward the Exile, son of Edmund Ironside. She was born in Hungary, she had one brother Edgar and one sister Christina. The provenance of her mother, Agatha, is disputed.

When her uncle, Saint Edward the Confessor, the French-speaking Anglo-Saxon King of England, died in 1066, she was living in England where her brother, Edgar Ætheling, had decided to make a claim to the vacant throne.

According to tradition, after the conquest of the Kingdom of England by the Normans, the widowed Agatha decided to leave Northumberland with her children and return to the Continent. A storm drove their ship to Scotland, where they sought the protection of King Malcolm III. The spot where she is said to have landed is known today as St. Margaret's Hope, near the village of North Queensferry.

Malcolm was probably a widower, and was no doubt attracted by the prospect of marrying one of the few remaining members of the Anglo-Saxon royal family. The marriage of Malcolm and Margaret soon took place. Malcolm followed it with several invasions of Northumberland by the Scottish king, probably in support of the claims of his brother-in-law Edgar. These, however, had little result beyond the devastation of the province.

Margaret and Malcolm had eight children, six sons and two daughters:

1.Edward, killed 1093.

2.Edmund of Scotland

3.Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld

4.King Edgar of Scotland

5.King Alexander I of Scotland

6.King David I of Scotland

7.Edith of Scotland, also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England

8.Mary of Scotland, married Eustace III of Boulogne

Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in a fight against the English at Alnwick Castle on 13 November 1093. Her son Edmund was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was ill, and she died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son.


St Margaret's Church in Dunfermline dedicated to her memorySaint Margaret was canonised in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. She attended to charitable works, and personally served orphans and the poor every day before she ate. She rose at midnight to attend church services every night. She was known for her work for religious reform. She was considered to be an exemplar of the "just ruler", and also influenced her husband and children to be just and holy rulers.

On 19 June 1250, after her canonisation, her remains were moved to Dunfermline Abbey.

The Roman Catholic Church formerly marked the feast of Saint Margaret of Scotland on June 10, because the feast of "Saint Gertrude, Virgin" was already celebrated on November 16, but in Scotland, she was venerated on November 16, the day of her death. In the revision of the Roman Catholic calendar of saints in 1969, November 16 became free and the Church transferred her feast day to November 16. However, some traditionalist Catholics continue to celebrate her feast day on June 10.

Queen Margaret University (founded in 1875), Queen Margaret College (Glasgow), Queen Margaret Union, Queen Margaret Hospital (just outside Dunfermline), North Queensferry, South Queensferry, Queen Margaret Academy (Ayr), St Margaret's Academy (Livngston), Queen Margaret College (Wellington) and several streets in Scotland are named after her.

She is also venerated as a saint in the Anglican Church.

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Saint Margaret 'the Exile' was born in 1045 in Hungary.3 She was the daughter of Edward 'Atheling' and Agatha.2 She married Malcolm III 'Caennmor', King of Scotland, son of Duncan I 'the Gracious', King of Scotland and Sybilla, in 1069 in Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.3 She died on 16 November 1093 in Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.3 She was buried Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife.3 She was buried Jesuit College, Douai, France.3

    In 1250 she was canonised as Saint Margaret.3 

Family Malcolm III 'Caennmor', King of Scotland b. circa 1031, d. 13 November 1093

Children Mary of Scots+ d. 31 May 1116

Edward of Scotland d. 16 Nov 10931

Edmund of Scotland, King of Scotland 1

Ethelred of Dunkeld, Earl of Fife d. c 10971

Edgar of Scotland, King of Scotland b. c 1074, d. 8 Jan 1107

Alexander 'the Fierce' of Scotland, King of Scotland+ b. 1078, d. 23 Apr 1124

Editha of Scotland+ b. c 1079, d. 1 May 1118

David I 'the Saint' of Scotland, King of Scotland+ b. bt 1080 - 1085, d. 24 May 1153


Citations [S106] Royal Genealogies Website (ROYAL92.GED), online <ftp://ftp.cac.psu.edu/genealogy/public_html/royal/index.html>. Hereinafter cited as Royal Genealogies Website.

[S52] G. S. P. Freeman-Grencville, The Queen's Lineage: from A.D. 495 to the Silver Jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (London , U.K.: Rex Collings, 1977), page 6. Hereinafter cited as The Queen's Lineage.

[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 184. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family.


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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Margaret_of_Scotland

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Margaret was an English Princess, but because of the Norman conquest was forced into excile in Scotland. Introduced spiced meat & French wine to the Scottish Court. She insisted on good table manners & saying grace prior to meals. her 'Sainthood' was bestowed upon her after her marriage in 1249. Described as 'severe, pious, serious, domineering & never seen to smile'. She & Malcolm had 6 sons. She became ill upon hearing about the deaths of her husband & oldest son & died 3 days later.

Sources:

The book, 'The Island Race', by Winston Churchill

The book, 'The Queen's of England'

(plus many more ~ see Ancestors & Descendants)

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_Wessex

Saint Margaret (c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), canonised by Pope Innocent IV, was the sister of Edgar Ætheling, the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England. She married Malcolm III, King of Scots, becoming his Queen consort.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

2 Marriage

3 Family

4 Death

5 Veneration

6 Citations

7 Further reading

8 External links


[edit] Early life

Saint Margaret was the daughter of the English prince Edward the Exile, son of Edmund Ironside. She was born at Castle Reka near Mecseknadasd, in southern Hungary, and raised at its court where her father had settled in exile. Margaret had two younger siblings, a brother Edgar and a sister Christina. The provenance of her mother, Agatha, is disputed.

Margaret grew up in a very religious environment in the Hungarian court. The king of that time, Andrew I of Hungary, was known as Andrew the catholic for his extreme aversion to pagans, and great loyalty to Rome, which probably could have induced Margaret to follow a pious life. Still a child, she came to England with the rest of her family when her father, Edward, was recalled in 1057 as a possible successor to her great-uncle the childless Edward the Confessor. Her father died soon after the family's arrival in England, but Margaret continued to reside at the English court where her brother, Edgar Ætheling, was being considered as a possible successor to the English Throne. When the Confessor died in January 1066, Harold Godwinson was selected as king, Edgar perhaps being considered too young. After Harold's defeat at the battle of Hastings later that year, Edgar was proclaimed King of England, but as the Normans advanced on London, Margaret and her family fled north to Northumberland.

According to tradition, after the conquest of the Kingdom of England by the Normans, the widowed Agatha (Margaret's Mother) decided to leave Northumberland with her children and return to the Continent. A storm drove their ship to Scotland, where they sought the protection of King Malcolm III. The spot where she is said to have landed is known today as St. Margaret's Hope, near the village of North Queensferry.

Margaret's arrival in Scotland in 1068, after the Northumbrian revolt, has been heavily romanticized, though Symeon of Durham implied that her first meeting with Malcolm III of Scots may not have been until 1070, after William the Conqueror's harrying of the north.

[edit] Marriage

Malcolm was probably a widower, and was no doubt attracted by the prospect of marrying one of the few remaining members of the Anglo-Saxon royal family. The marriage of Malcolm and Margaret soon took place. Malcolm followed it with several invasions of Northumberland by the Scottish king, probably in support of the claims of his brother-in-law Edgar. These, however, had little result beyond the devastation of the province.[1]

[edit] Family

Margaret and Malcolm had eight children, six sons and two daughters:

1.Edward, killed 1093.

2.Edmund of Scotland

3.Ethelred, abbot of Dunkeld

4.King Edgar of Scotland

5.King Alexander I of Scotland

6.King David I of Scotland

7.Edith of Scotland, also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England

8.Mary of Scotland, married Eustace III of Boulogne

[edit] Death

Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in a fight against the English at Alnwick Castle on 13 November 1093. Her son Edmund was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was ill, and she died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son.

[edit] Veneration


St Margaret's Church in Dunfermline dedicated to her memorySaint Margaret was canonised in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. She attended to charitable works, and personally served orphans and the poor every day before she ate. She rose at midnight to attend church services every night. She was known for her work for religious reform. She was considered to be an exemplar of the "just ruler", and also influenced her husband and children to be just and holy rulers.

On 19 June 1250, after her canonisation, her remains were moved to Dunfermline Abbey.[2]

The Roman Catholic Church formerly marked the feast of Saint Margaret of Scotland on June 10, because the feast of "Saint Gertrude, Virgin" was already celebrated on November 16, but in Scotland, she was venerated on November 16, the day of her death. In the revision of the Roman Catholic calendar of saints in 1969, November 16 became free and the Church transferred her feast day to November 16.[3] However, some traditionalist Catholics continue to celebrate her feast day on June 10.

Queen Margaret University (founded in 1875), Queen Margaret College (Glasgow), Queen Margaret Union, Queen Margaret Hospital (just outside Dunfermline), North Queensferry, South Queensferry, Queen Margaret Academy (Ayr), St Margaret's Academy (Livngston), Queen Margaret College (Wellington) and several streets in Scotland are named after her.

She is also venerated as a saint in the Anglican Church.

[edit] Citations

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Margaret_of_Scotland

Saint Margaret 'the Exile' (?) was born in 1045 at Hungary.3 She was the daughter of Edward 'Atheling' (?) and Agatha (?).2 She married Malcolm III 'Caennmor', King of Scotland, son of Duncan I 'the Gracious', King of Scotland and Sybilla (?), in 1069 at Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.3 She died on 16 November 1093 at Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.3 She was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland.3 She was buried at Jesuit College, Douai, France.3

    In 1250 she was canonised as Saint Margaret.3

Children of Saint Margaret 'the Exile' (?) and Malcolm III 'Caennmor', King of Scotland

   * Mary of Scots+ d. 31 May 1116
   * Edward of Scotland d. 16 Nov 10931
   * Edmund of Scotland, King of Scotland 1
   * Ethelred of Dunkeld, Earl of Fife d. c 10971
   * Edgar of Scotland, King of Scotland b. c 1074, d. 8 Jan 1107
   * Alexander 'the Fierce' of Scotland, King of Scotland+ b. 1078, d. 23 Apr 1124
   * Editha of Scotland+ b. c 1079, d. 1 May 1118
   * David I 'the Saint' of Scotland, King of Scotland+ b. bt 1080 - 1085, d. 24 May 1153

Citations

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Name: Margaret Atheling Princess Of England 1

Sex: F

ALIA: the /Exile/

Title: Saint

Name: Margaret Queen of Scotland 2

Birth: 1045 in Hungary

Birth: 1042 in Hungary 2

Death: 16 NOV 1093 in Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Mid-Lothian, Scotland 2

Burial: Abby Church of the Holy Trinity, Dumbartonshire, Scotland

Burial: Dumfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland 1

Note:

Margaret of Scotland, Saint, d. 1093, queen con sort of Malcolm III and sister of Edgar Atheling. She was married to Malcolm c. 1070. A deeply religious woman, she worked to replace the Celtic practices of the Scottish church with those of Rome. She did this partly by bringing many En glish priests into Scotland and founding new monasteries. She was generous to t he poor and led a life of extraordinary piety. She was canonized in 1250. Feast : June 10 or, in Scotland, Nov. 16.

ST. MARGARET OF SCOTLAND

by Amy St eedman

A grey sky overhead; a cold bitter wind sweeping the spray from off t he crests of the great grey waves; a grey inhospitable-looking land stretching north and south. This was what the dim morning light showed to the eyes of the anxious watchers in the little boat which was battling its way along the shores of the Firth of Forth. Truly it was but a dark outlook, and the hearts of the little company on board were as heavily overshadowed by the clouds of misfortun e, doubt, and foreboding, as the gloomy shores were wrapped in their folds of r olling mist.

It was a royal burden that the little boat bore up the waters of the Firth that wintry day of wind and mist. Edgar the Etheling, grandson of Edmond Ironside, driven from his kingdom by the all-conquering William, had fle d northwards with his mother and two sisters, Margaret and Christina. Some fait hful followers had thrown in their lot with the royal fugitives, but it was but a small company all told. No wonder that their hearts were heavy that wintry m orning. Obliged to flee from their own country, driven out of their course by t he raging tempest, what welcome awaited them in this bleak land, of which they had heard many a savage tale? Would they be treated as friends or looked upon a s enemies? The royal family had meant to return to Hungary, where Edgar and his sisters had spent the days of their happy childhood, but the winds and waves h ad proved as furious and unkind as those subjects from whom they had fled, and there seemed nothing to do now but to seek some landing-place along the rocky s hore, some shelter from the pitiless storm.

Among the weary, spent travellers there was one who was calm and untroubled, whose face reflected none of the gloom of the skies overhead, on whom the dreary foreboding of the future cast n o shadow. Fair and stately as a lily the Princess Margaret stood gazing across the angry waters, marking the desolate rocky shores, watching the white sea-bir ds as they swooped and rose again, as confident and unruffled as one of those w hite birds herself. For Margaret knew that a greater than an earthly king was with her, and that He, her Lord and Master, held the grey waters and their uncer tain fortunes in the hollow of His hand, able as ever to calm the winds and wav es of this troublesome world with that comforting command, 'Peace, be still.'

'To the right, to the right,' shouted a sailor on the look-out; 'yonder is a little bay where methinks we should find shelter and means to land.'

'Ay, if there be no rocks to guard the way,' said the captain cautiously. But nevert heless he turned the boat landwards, and eager eyes scanned the shore as they a pproached. It seemed indeed a haven of refuge, a peaceful little bay, gathered in from the angry waters by a little wooded arm of land that guarded it so securely that the rough breakers went sweeping past, and the sandy beach sloped gen tly down to meet the little dancing waves, while the wet sand reflected the swo oping white wings of the sea-birds that hovered about the shore.

The little company were thankful indeed to land at last, and to feel the firm earth under their feet once more. The mist too had begun to roll away, and a gleam of suns hine touched into warmer colour the bare hills around. Surely this was a good o men, and they might hope that the clouds of their evil fortune were also about to break. It is more than eight hundred years sin

[scary.ged]

Canonised 1250 and her feast day is 16th November. In 1057 she arrived at the English court of Edward the Confessor. Ten years later she was in exile after William defeated Harold at the Battle of Hastings. She fled to Scotland where she was married against her wishes to King Malcolm to whom she bore six sons and two daughters. Her unlearned and boorish husband grew daily more graceful and Christian under the queen's graceful influence. Her remains were removed to Escorial Spain and her head Douai, France.

Ancestors of Margaret from "The Forgotten Monarchy of Scotland" by HRH Michael of Albany

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http://www.robertsewell.ca/scot2.html

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Saint Margaret was canonised in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. She attended to charitable works, and personally served orphans and the poor every day before she ate. She rose at midnight to attend church services every night. She was known for her work for religious reform. She was considered t

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Saint Margaret, Queen of Scots's Timeline

1007
1007
1045
September 8, 1045
Hungary
1059
1059
Age 13
Scotland
1068
1068
Age 22
Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland
1069
1069
Age 23
1070
December 1070
Age 25
Dunfermline, Scotland
1070
Age 24
Dunfermline, Scotland
1072
1072
Age 26
UK
1074
1074
Age 28
Atholl, Perthshire, , Scotland
1078
1078
Age 32
Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland