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Jewish Families from Koloděje nad Lužnicí (Kalladay)

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Profiles

The following are representative profiles for the various families in Koloděje nad Lužnicí:

  1. Löwy Antscherlik (1720)
  2. Sallomon Baasch (1746)
  3. Jakob Becker (1746)
  4. Israel Biegler (1750)
  5. David Boller (1729)
  6. Isak Diamant
  7. Jacob Ehrlich (1723)
  8. Salamon Epstein (1753)
  9. Jacob Erle (1743)
  10. Tobias Fässler (1726)
  11. Barbara Felix (1724)
  12. Urban Frey (1785)
  13. Markus Fried (1741-1829)
  14. Michal Fürth (1763)
  15. Feith Goldstein (1758)
  16. Aron Heller (1789)
  17. Simon Joffe (1754)
  18. Abraham Kafka (1735)
  19. Abraham Kohn (1756)
  20. Markus Kopperl
  21. Israel Kraupa (1732)
  22. Raphael Ladner (1754)
  23. Löwy Laterna (1746)
  24. Moses Löffler (1755)
  25. Benedikt Löwy
  26. Isac Lustig (1733)
  27. Sigmund Marbach (1760)
  28. Ferdinand Marody (1739)
  29. Abraham Mautner (1719)
  30. Joachim Modry (1773)
  31. Barbara Mostny (1736)
  32. Beerman Nossal (1746)
  33. Nathan Parisek (1746)
  34. David Pick (1759)
  35. Veith Pisetzky (1746)
  36. Aron Radok (1740)
  37. Raphael Schönbrun (1726)
  38. Abraham Schreibgern (1755)
  39. Jakob Schüssler (1756)
  40. Abraham Schwarz (1743)
  41. Marcus Späth (1749)
  42. Samuel Springer (1750)
  43. Sallomon Stampf (1709)
  44. Moises Stampher (1723)
  45. Jakob Stein (1748)
  46. Abraham Studnicka (1722)
  47. Samuel Uprzimny (1741)
  48. Urban Wiesmayer (1779)

CURRENT CZECH NAME: Koloděje nad Lužnicí

OTHER NAMES/SPELLINGS: Kalladay, Kallady, Kalady, Kaladey, Kallady, Kaladi, Kalladye, Kaladei, Kalladieg

LOCATION: Kolodeje is a small town on the Luznici river where it runs into the Moldau (Vltava) in Bohemia-Ceske Budejovice at 49º15 14º25, 3km N of Tyn nad Vltavou; 6 km SW of Bechyne; and 24 km SW of Tabor.

The JewishGen Kolodeje Page is a good resource to look at.

HISTORY: Earliest known Jewish community was 1681-1684. The Jewish community moved here after expulsion from nearby town of Tyn nad Vltavou (German: Moldautein). The Jewish population in the first half of 19th century was 94 families that later moved to Tyn nad Vltavou and other towns (153 in Kolodeje nad, 60 in Tyn n. V. in 1886). In 1857 over half the town's population were Jews (679 of 1327 total). The Jewish population in 1930 was 9 in Kolodeje and 23 in Tyn nad Vltavou. Nazis disbanded the congregation. See "The History of Judaism in Kalady" in "How the castle and the parish of Kolodeje arose" translated by Rainer Radok, http://www.jewishgen.org/austriaczech/towns/kolodeje/kolodeje.htm#jews.

GENEALOGICAL RESOURCES: Family name index of Familianten books, http://www.toledot.org/ihbf26.htm. Birth, Death and Marriage record books for Kolodeje dating from 1784 may be located at the Czech State Archives in Prague, Statni istredni archiv, tr. Milady Horokove 133, CZ-166 21 Praha 6, Czech Republic, tel/fax: +42 (2) 333-20274, seehttp://www.jewishgen.org/austriaczech/towns/gund1.htm. Search JewishGen/Internet resources for Kolodeje.

NOTABLE RESIDENTS AND DESCENDANTS: Kolodeje is the native village of Alfred Radok (1914-1976 Vienna), producer of the National Theatre and the Prague Laterna Magika and his brother Emil Radok (1918), author of the Laterna Magika stage. The father of German social democratic leader Friedrich Stampfer came from Kolodeje. The gggg-grandson of Beniamen Stampfer of Kolodeje, E. Randol Schoenberg, is a moderator of Jewishgen's Austria-Czech SIG and the submitter of this page.

SYNAGOGUES: A synagogue from 1695-97 was pulled down in 1948.

CEMETERIES: The Conservative and probably landmarked cemetery originated in the late 17th or early 18th century with last known Jewish burial probably 1969. Between fields and woods, the isolated hillside has no sign, but has Jewish symbols on gate or wall. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open with permission via a continuous masonry wall and locking gate. Size of cemetery before and after WWII: 0,2772 ha. 100-500 gravestones, all in original position with less than 25% toppled or broken, date from 1734 or from before 1500 through 20th century. The marble, granite, limestone, sandstone, and iron (one) flat shaped stones, finely smoothed and inscribed stones, flat stones with carved relief decoration, double tombstones, or multi-stone monuments have Hebrew, German, and/or Czech inscriptions. Praha Jewish community owns the cemetery with no structures. Adjacent properties are agricultural and forest. Occasionally, private visitors stop. Vandalism occurred occasionally in the last ten years. Regional or national authorities and Jewish groups within country re-erected stones, patched broken stones, cleared vegetation, and fixed wall and gate in 1991. No current care. Security (uncontrolled access) and vandalism are moderate threats. Weather erosion, pollution, and vegetation are slight threats. Vegetation overgrowth seasonally prevents access.

The 1793 census lists the following families in Kolodeje

  1. Antscherlik
  2. Baasch
  3. Becker
  4. Biegler
  5. Bloch
  6. Boller
  7. Cassenlin
  8. Ehrlieb
  9. Epstein
  10. Erle
  11. Faessler
  12. Fischman
  13. Flasur
  14. Frey
  15. Fried
  16. Furth
  17. Gebler
  18. Glogau
  19. Goldstein
  20. Groschl
  21. Gruebler
  22. Gruenhut
  23. Hahn
  24. Hofbauer
  25. Jassl
  26. Kafka
  27. Khon
  28. Kloper
  29. Knoepfler
  30. Knuebler
  31. Koch
  32. Koff
  33. Kohn
  34. Kohn
  35. Kohn
  36. Kohn
  37. Kohn
  38. Kozenarzk
  39. Kraupa
  40. Laterna
  41. Lodner
  42. Loefler
  43. Loevi
  44. Loevi
  45. Loevi
  46. Lovi
  47. Luria
  48. Lustig
  49. Manbach
  50. Marode
  51. Mautner
  52. Mautner
  53. Mestetz
  54. Miestetz
  55. Mostn
  56. Nerod
  57. Nossal
  58. Parizek
  59. Pick
  60. Pisetzky
  61. Polak
  62. Prager
  63. Putz
  64. Radok
  65. Raucher
  66. Reich
  67. Relis
  68. Rzibetz
  69. Sandler
  70. Schiessler
  71. Schoenbrun
  72. Schreibgern
  73. Schuler
  74. Schuster
  75. Schwarz
  76. Schwarz
  77. Schweiger
  78. Spaeth
  79. Springer
  80. Stampf
  81. Stampf
  82. Stampf
  83. Stampher
  84. Stein
  85. Stein
  86. Studniczka
  87. Tadeska
  88. Upruzimny
  89. Weisman
  90. Weiss
  91. Weiss

How the castle and the parish of Kolodeje arose

During the reign of of King Ladislav II in the year 1500, the region where today lies the parish of Kolodeje was completely deserted. The hut of the ferryman and a watering place for the cattle were the only building and became the origin of the parish; the farm as well as the fortification came only in the course of time. The river crossing and the inn belonged initially to the Estate Breznice, which earlier belonged to Bechyne and then became part of Tyn.

All villages of the region were bonded, that is, they belonged to an estate of which the inhabitants were subjects and formed effectively its living inventary. There were two kinds of fields: The socalled estate and the fields of the peasants. The estate comprised the fields of the overlord, they were free and were leased by the master; they had an area which could be ploghed in one day. In contrast, the land of the peasants were bonded fields which were leased to the bondsman under arbitrary conditions.

The farm Breznice and the fortification with the same name belonged to the Count Stefan of Stramberg and subsequently to the nobleman Vchyna of Mlikovice, whole successors owned Breznice right into the 16th Century.

The ferryman and innkeeper at the bank of the Luznice between the villages of Hosty and Tyn were bonded to the Breznice nobleman from Mlikovice and it remained like this until Breznice was sold to the Tyn nobleman, the Family of Cabelicky of Boutice.

The parish of Kolodeje was founded around the year 1570. Its initial name was Kalady. After some time - probably due to the influx later of hundreds of Jewish inhabitants - the earlier used name Kaladey became accepted. Later on it, became Kaladeye and was finally, in the second half of the 19th Century, changed to Kolodeje.

Among the inhabitants, the name remained unchanged until the present day, especially among old people who call it Kalady. Thus, it was Kaladey in 1657, Kalady in 1655, Kallady in 1670, Kaladi and Kalladye in 1678 and even Kalladieg in 1713.

The village Kalady was also called after the estate and the fortification, respectively, which the Czech nobleman Gabelicky of Sontice erected. He was the son of the owner of the castle and the estate Tein, the knight Johann Cabelicky (died 1567). The mother of the founder of the fortress Kalady was Kryselda, the daughter of the Czech nobleman Berka of Duba.

The fortress was errected on the right shore of the river Luznice in the form of a square, surrounded by an entrenchment and a drain, which was filled by the water of the river Luznice (whenever there arose danger).

Prior to the construction of the fortress, either the father Adam of Cabelicky or the grandmother of the nobleman Adam, Johanna Cabelicka, daugher of Albrecht Rendl of Usava, owned an estate on the right shore of the Luznice near the crossing.

The family of Cabelicky of Sontice wss very old and its name is Old-Czech. They were initially Wladikas and became later knights and noblemen. The name Cabelicky originates in the estate Cabelice not far from Kacov. The coat of arms of this family was the wing of an eagle and a yellow claw in a red field. Descendants with this name were still living in earlier centuries in Bohemia and Württemberg. The first of this family, who resided in the fortress Cabelice in 1395 was Page Hroch of Sontice and Cabelice. His successor at the time of Eneas Sylvius was Johann Cablicky (he was in 1447 among those who held a meeting in Benechan about how King Ladislav - at that time still a child - should behave and who should advise him).

The Knight Johann Cabelicky was a loyal follower of the King Georg of Podiebrad and the highest minter of the Kingdom of Bohemia.

Soon after the construction of the estate and the fortress, first the right bank, later also the left bank of the River Luznice were settled. At the time when Kalady was started, its immediate neighbourhood was already inhabited. The founder of the fortress, Adam Cabelicky, had three brothers Prokop, Albrecht and Karl. Their father Johann Cabelicky distributed his property between them: The eldest, Prokop, received the estate and the fortress Tein, Albrecht received Podbos near Opavany, Karl the estate Zigmuntice (called Zimumtice) and Adam Kalady. The estate of Kalady also included Donbrava, Tuklesy near Zvikov and Vesce near Luznice, moreover the estate Hartmanice, Kurskov, two ponds above Zimumtice: Umiachova and Farsky.

In 1587, Adam sold the farm Kurskov and both ponds to his brother Karl for 200 60-Czech Pennies. They were rather far away from his residence. However, he bought soon afterwards estates closer by in Netechovice with the forest Celibi from Jost Hozlauer of Hozlau (for 250 - 60).

After Adams' death, his wife Barbara, born at Budkov, inherited all his property. This estate inluded the village Netichovice, Donbrava with a mill on the Moldau, Vestec, Tuklesy and the bridge over the Luznice.

After the death of Barbara Cabeliska, all of it was to pass on to the brothers Cabelicky and the family Podborsky. At that time, the members of the two families fought over the inheritance.

Johann Cabelicky took over Sontice. He paid his brothers, the sons of Albrecht of Podbori 13,000 60 Meissner money in 1616. In the year 1625, Jan Cabelicky sold the fortress Kalady with the estate, the mill and the bridge, the villages Donbrava and Vestec to Johann Mencelius of Kolsdorf, a magistrate. Mencelius of Kolsdorf was the secretary of the chancellor of King Rudolf II, of the Czech nobleman Zdenek of Lokovice, who was a dedicated Catholic and supporter of the two known royal governors Martinic and Slavata and publicly opposed the Czech Estates.

When King Rudolf II, under the influence of Vaclav Budovec z Budova, was persuaded to extend religious freedom to the Czech citizens by the manifest of the 9th July 1609, Mencelius of Kolsdorf was among those who as high royal officials and strict Catholics refused to sign the document.

In 1609, there occurred a revolt of 4000 peasants in the districts of Bechyne and Prachen. Their leaders were small noblemen, equally poor like themselves. They rose against the Catholic and Protestant nobility, because they could not and did not want to sustain any longer the suppression. Mencelius handed in 1627 Kalady over to Johann de Vitte from Lilienthal, Podbori and Opavny, a citizen and merchant in the Smaller Prague City, servant of his imperial majesty.

This Johann de Vitte was an extremely rich man in view of the fact that he and several men of his kind had leased for one year all mints in the kingdom of Bohemia and on the Enns in Austria for 6 million Gelder.

Previously, at the time of the uprising after the lost battle at the White mountain, he had been condemned and then again pardonned, so that he only had to pay 700 Florins (Rhein florins) to the Collegius nobilus at St. Jacob. (Admonishing list on St. Georg Day 1631). It is also known that Johann de Vitte loaned money against interest.

Already in 1628, Johann de Vitte sold the fortress Kalady together with Netechovice and other communities to Isaak from Brandenstein and his wife Johanna for 18,000 60. They had a son who later on inherited Kalady. This son placed Kalady heavity in debt. Eventually, he left for Holland and Kalady was auctioned. In this way, the property passed on to the own son of this Johann Joachim, Johann Stastny Brandenstein from Oppurk and when he died in 1692, the inheritance, by a curious game of fortune, reverted to the father, Johann Joachim, who in the meantime had returned from Holland. After the death of his son, Johann Joachim held the estate Kalady until 1704, that is, for another 12 years. He then also died.

As has already been mentioned, Netechovice was prior to 1586 in the possession of Jost Hozlauer from Hozlau; it was bought from him by Adam Cabelisky and was attached for the following years to the estate of Kalady.

Hieronymus of the family Hozlauer founded the fortress Hnevkovice and his father Sebastian owned the farm Bzi.

The Hozlauers were an old knight family which cam from Austria to Bohemia and owned in the South several estates. The titles book of 1534 mentions the names Heinrich and Wolf Holzlauer. Wolf die in 1552, Heinrich in 1560, Georg in 1564. Wolf and Heinrich were buried in the monastery at Bechyne in 1560.

The origin of the farm Homole is also connected with the village Hosty. Half the village Hosty was leased by King Otakar Premyal II to the community Bechyne, the remainder with the farm Homole belonged to Moldautein. I do not know in what manner Zdenek Malovec from Malovice acqired half the village Hosty; in any case, he sold Homole in 1546 to the farm Driten.

What a fate had this master of Homole in the first half of the 16th century when he did not succeed to find the treasure buried in the slopes of Homole. When the ground for the road from Kalady to Hosty was being prepared, the workers discovered in the slopes vessels full of silver coins. The amount of money was surprisingly large and at the time, during which this money circulated, it was without doubt an immense fortune.

Some of the coins were white pennies of the time of Ladislaus II, who ruled in Bohemia in 1500; others were of the time of the government of Habsburg's Ferdinand I, who ruled in Bohemia since 1526.

The first coins had on one side a plastic image of the Czech crown with the inscription Wladislaus secundus, Dei gratis rex Bohemiae and on the other side an image of the Czech lion with the inscription Grossi Pragenses.

The other coins had the same image but the inscription bore another name, namely that of King Ferndinand I, Ferdinandus primus.

As it was already a custom at such occasions, the treasure was stolen by the workers and the coins carried away in all wind directions. Only a few reached the school collection in Kolodeje by the grace of Mr. Ad. Spet.

Later on, the buildings of Homole were so rundown, that they could no longer be inhabited; hence Cardinal Harrach allowed in 1636 the town Moldautein to repair the farm Homole and Jaroschovice.

The indebted town Moldautein was forced in 1660 to sell the farm Homole. It was bought for 500 florins by the director Matias Kröner. When he died, it passed on to his heirs. These sold Homole again in 1685 for 620 florins to Mr. Sykova from Lacinovo. The new owner Sokova was a debtor of the Baroness Alosie Brandenstein, from whom he had borrowed 700 florins. Due to this debt, the baroness, who then lived in Kalady. eventually came to own the farm Homole.

After four years, Homole was sold for 450 florins to Peter Kodytek, a citizen of Budweis. Subsequently, the farm came into the hands of Ferdinand Stampach. By a marriage contract, Franz Schumann, captain of Volyn, inherited Homole and sold it again in 1734 to the Baroness Cratislav, neé Slik, who allotted it to the group of the communities of Moldautein; in this manner, Homole became attached to Kalady.

The farm Homole as well as the community Kalady belong to the Rectory Chrastany, which has existed since 1350.

In 1836, the farm Homole was again almost ruined, whence Count Karl Vratislav ordered all administrative and accommodative buildings to be torn down and reerected in an Italian style. The work lasted two years. The farm had two entrances, over which was written

This farm, Holole, was ordered to be built by the Count Karl Wratislaus for his own usage and welfare.

Above the second gate was the chronography by Professor Weber, the later provost:

Carolus Comes a Bratislaw has sibi erexerat aedes.

Both inscriptions have already become unreadable these days and only remnants of letters allow to guess where at one time the inscriptions decorated these gates.

Soon after the reconstruction of Homole, tree-nurseries were established which supplied the neighbourhood with fruit trees.

Vesce

Vesce. a village which was most of the time called Cabrov, belonged until 1260 to the dominion Bechyne and to the bishopric Prague. At this time, Bechyne and its environment belonged to Prague's bishop. In the same year, the community Vesce and at the same time also Bechyne came into the possession of King Premyal Otakar II, who had received them after a quarrel from Bishop Johann.

In the years 1510 - 1543, Vesce belonged to the region, which then was ruled by the Wladikas of Mlikovice. The owner of Moldautein acquired Vesce and the river crossing with the inn, as has already been mentioned above, from the successors of Wladikas Majnus of Breznice . After the subdivision of the Tein property, Vesce came into the possession of Adam Cabelicky, a knight who held the fortress Kalady (1608), while Breznice was sold by Prokop Cabelicky, the brother of Mr. Adams, already before the year 1589 to Peter Vok of Rosenberg, master at Bechyne. Since this time, Vesce belonged for ever to Kalady. The community Tukleky, which is always mentioned in connection with Vesce, was allotted after the death of Adam Cabelicky, that is, in 1612, to Rotkostelec; after 1662, also Orlik was added.

The legend, by which Vesce is supposed to have had a glorious past, unfortunately just remains a legend; it has been impossible to discover details, which the tradition would have really confirmed. A confirmed fact is only that the foundation of Vesce occurred far in the past, whence it is the oldest village in the region.

In the sense of what has been said before, the legends about this or that, which is supposed to have taken place in Vesce, is in now way supported by facts, because the lists of localities and cloisters do not display any indications. However, it is not excluded that the stories regarding Vesce should actually be ascribed to the fortress Kalady.

When and at which occasion Vesce was renamed Cabrov can no longer be ascertained. There exist several suspicions and many phantastic ideas. For example, the name Cabrov is to be a rearrangement of the letters of Cahlov. Another version derives the name Cabrov from the German Zauberdorf.

The last mentioned name may certainly only be a play with words as a joke, because it cannot be imagined that this village could receive such an unusually beautiful name in view of the fact that it neither by its position nor its buildings excels others in the neighbourhood.

If we were to approach seriously the question regarding the origin of the name, we would arrive at the insight, that the name Cabrov arose in the village as a criticism of the prevailing communications and is derived from a verb, which people use rather often and appropriately summarized the situation. Cabrati means wading through mud.

Solitary buildings behind the creek Bilinka, called Bronsek, have the real name Rosin, as its also cited in the Bechine coat of arms.

These buildings received the name Rosin after their inhabitant at the time, who was the game keeper on the great landed property Paarov and a Russian. Accordingly, it is Rusin, Rosin. This refugee Russian settled here and his progeny lived then also in Kalady.

The history of judaism in Kalady

From the 17th Century until the present day, the history of Kalady is closely linked to the history of the Jews, especially in Southern Bohemia. For this reason, the author, as he deals with the history of Kolodeje, may not exclude those inhabitants of the Parish of Kolodeje, who for 200 years were the majority of the total population. For this reason, with respect to this peculiarity in Bohemia's history,I add the story about the Israelitic population as a special chapter.

In 1681, the Jews settled in Kolodeje in large numbers. None were there before; the reason for this migration was the anger of the citizen of Moldautein, which they felt against the Jews due to the plague, which in 1680 appeared as an epidemic in the region. The inhabitants of Tein charged the Jews with the appearance of the plague and the public opinion was eventually also confirmed by the office of the ruler, which imposed on the Jews cruel punishment.

All Jewish families were expelled from the town and their houses were sold against their wishes.

The epidemic raged everywhere without mercy, not only in Tein but also in other towns many people died on the streets and in the houses. For example, in the town Tabor, entire families died. The servant Drazicky, who had been condemned to death, was released in order to bury the dead. The citizens of Tabor wrote about this on the 22.10.1680 to the Royal Tribunal.

Nevertheless, the good man did not escape execution. As the epidemic approached its end and all bodies had been buried, he was beheaded on 24th September 1681 in one of the suburbs of Tabor.

At the same time, during which the Jews were evicted from the town, Johann Brandenstein owned Kalady. He lacked money too often and since the Jews had to pay dearly for the protection offered, he was pleased to let them settle there, sold them building plots and, as their number had increased so much that they already required a synagogue, he built for them in 1695 a magnificent one , in which the rabbis and teachers could live.

Inside the synagogue was a decorated altar, in front of it a table with an embroidered cloth and around it an iron grid.

For the male faithfuls, there were benches along the walls and rows of them at the centre, for the women a galery upstairs with a special entrance. Decorated thoras were stored in the tabernacle.

The number of the Jewish inhabitants gradually exceeded that of the Catholics and in 1784 - that is, 100 years after the initial immigration - 80 Israelitic familes lived in Kalady. The rabbi in Kalady was not only responsible for the village, he also ruled over all of Southern Bohemia (that is, Tabor, Budweis, etc.).

In 1784, the District Rabbi Nathan Steckel is mentioned, who with the schoolmaster Aron Glockau performed the duty of the godfathers, by whom newly born children received their names.

The mortality of the Jewish inhabitants of Kalady was remarkable. On an average, there died during normal times 5 persons each month; however, when there was a measles epidemic in the country, there were monthly up to 25 funerals.

The registered cause of death during normal times was mostly tuberculosis, dropsy and also bone tuberculosis.

The laws for the Jewish part of the population were rather cruel, viewed from today. In the first place, one of them stopped the marriage of Israelites. Such a legal limitation of valid marriages led, of course, to secret ones, which, while blessed by God, were really legally invalid - even punishable.

The law of the 16th October 1726 ordered that Jews, who had already been married on the day of its announcement, must be entered in the official lists as Patres Familias, that is, from their families only one son, and indeed the first born son was allowed to marry in the country; the other sons had to emigrate before their marriage. Infringement of this law was punished by thrashing and eviction.

The total number of these Patres Familias was restricted in Bohemia to 8,600 and they were only allowed to reside in those locailities in which they were tolerated in 1725. As long as a Pater Familiae was alive, only his first born son was allowed to marry and never the other sons or grandsons. Under all conditions, these had to wait until a married childless Jew died or they had to serve as soldiers for many years or work as a peasant for 3 years.

But also then, when all the conditions had been met, the bridegroom and bride had to prove beyond doubt that they owned at least 300 florins.

A special law ordered that the houses of the Jews, in order to distinguish them from those of the Catholics, had to be given Roman numbers.

Until the year 1787, the Israelitic families had no family names, so that, for example, there lived in Kolodeje a merchant, who was only called Abraham and his wife Chaja; in House X, there lived a bootmaker Abraham with his wife Ester and two sons Abraham and Jakob and daughter Ester, in House XXXII a merchant Markus Simon with his wife Perle and his son Lebl, in House XXXV the policeman Abraham Lebl, in House XVI the tailor Salomon Thomas, in House III the clerk Jacob Markus with his wife Chana and Aron Herschl, in House LX Marcus Michal with his wife Rifka, in House VI the lawyer Simon Refrist with Mirian and the second inhabitant was the teacher Simon Joffe, etc.

There were altogether 85 houses in Kolodeje with Roman numbers, all of them inhabited by Jews. Since every Jewish family had many children, the houses were overcrowded. During the 18th and 19th Centuries, 600 - 700 Jews lived in Kolodeje.

In order to avoid mistakes, it was decreed that every house father had to give his family a surname (Decree of 23. July 1787, Blasek, Volume V, page 425). The same decree indicated that the names unconditionally had to have a German sound and could never be changed again. A choice of names was offered which had to be followed strictly. Nevertheless, everyone could select from the list a name which they liked best.

From the first of January 1788, records had also to be kept in German. This stage - the socalled Joseph Period - was altogether directed strongly against Czech tradition. The motto of this period was:

One realm, one language, and this language is German.

Certain deviations from this decree, as concerns the choice of surnames, with some Israelites adopting also Czech names, arose mostly for economic, that is, business reasons. However, these were rare cases. (Cf. the Court Decree of 12th November. 1787, according to which such transgressions were punished.)

Since this time, there exist in the records the names of the families which are known today.

For a convenient survey, the names of the owners of houses with Roman numbers in the year 1800 are presented below with the names of the Jewish owners and the names of today's owners with Arabic house numbers

  1. I Fürth Michl 114 destroyed, Garden Krisz
  2. II Lustig Isak früher hospital, Löwy Jacob Joachim then destroyed, Prager Aron now fire brigade
  3. III Studnicka Isak
  4. IV Stein Wolf 122 Vlaskova Marie
  5. V Fried Eliatin destroyed
  6. VI Joffe Simonn desctroyed
  7. VII Stampf Zigmund 125 Mautner
  8. VIII Schönbrunn Aron 126 Vedrova Marie
  9. IX Kaff Abraham 119 "
  10. X Kafka Markus Parizek Samson Kafka Izaias Jelinkova Eleonora, Lonos Vaclav Kafka Ezechiel Marbach Abraham Marbach Jozef destroyed
  11. XI Schwarz, Abraham 130 Spet Adolf
  12. XII Nosal Joseph
  13. XIII Fried Veit primary school
  14. XIV Knöpler Benedict
  15. XV Schwarz Benedict
  16. XVI Löwy Isak 131 Basovna
  17. XVIII Diamand Aron 134 Pisecky in Rom, shaver Fiala Pisecky Joseph bootmaker Cermak. F.Bilez, Jul.Stamfer
  18. XIX Stampf Urban garden of Mr. Kucera Stampfer Zigmund Stampfer Abraham
  19. XX Koch Salomon destroyed, now garden of Mr. Radok, Krampa Wolf slaughtering yard of Mr. Josef Svec Mautner Seligman House of miller Secky Stampf Samuel Fässler Marcus Mautner Samuel Marody Isak
  20. XXI Schuster Bernard
  21. XXII Ladner Rafael
  22. XXIII Anserlik Joel 139 House of miller Secky
  23. XXIV Kopelmans (no surname) burned down
  24. XXV Jacob (no surname)
  25. XXVI Weiszman Joachim 140 Svec Josef
  26. XXVII Epstein Elisabeth 141 "
  27. XXVIII Mostny Mojzis 142 Zemlickova Frantiska
  28. XXIX Modry Joachim 29 Rehak Rudolf
  29. XXX Fürth Joachim 143 Taibner Ferdinand, J. Hislka
  30. XXXI Prisinger Bernard destroyed
  31. XXXII Späth Marcus 150 Vomacka Joseph
  32. XXXIII Stein Jacob 144 Kucera R., lodgings of teacher J. Dvorak
  33. XXXIV Ehrlich Moises 145 Kucera Rudolf, inn Pick Aron Kaff Samuel
  34. XXXV Synagogue 110 Vogl Rudolf, inn
  35. XXXVI Stampf Zigmund 124 Kubicek Jan (opposite mansion)
  36. XXXVII Lowy Joachim 114 Jewish school, V. Kda
  37. XXXVIII Mautner, Jacob 111 Bunea Karl basketmaker
  38. XXXIX Neumann Marcus 83 Vlasek Ambrov
  39. XL Mautner Veit 118 Jiska Jan
  40. XLI Stampf Zacharias 119 Dvorak Vaclav
  41. XLII Stampf Samuel 144 Kucera Rudolf, inn
  42. XLIII Mautner Elias 116 Bunes F., postman
  43. XLIV Fried Marcus 157 Radok Viktor, store
  44. XLV Marody Josus 122 Vlaskova Marie
  45. XLVI Stampfer Samuel 117 Jiska Jan
  46. XLVII Marbach Karl 154 Radok Bernard (died in Theresienstadt aged about 100)
  47. XLVIII Kafka Israel 153 Radok Bernard
  48. XLIX Erle Isak 154 Radok Bernard
  49. L Koch Isak
  50. LIII Bäcker Löbl 67 Vogel Rudolf (next to school)
  51. LV Stampf Zigmund 66 primary school
  52. LVII Schuster Israel
  53. LVIII Parisek Anna
  54. LXII Kopperl Josef and Markus
  55. LXVIII Frey Urban 70 mansion Frey Rebeka
  56. LXX Löfler Moises 32 Mrazek Jakob, bootmaker Radok Habakuk 157 Rehak Fr., village headman
  57. LXXIII Löwy Abraham Kohn Abraham
  58. LXXV Wiesmaier Urban 22 police headquarter Löwy Isak inn
  59. LXXIX Löwy Joel 79 Vogl Rudolf, colonial F. Jiskas
  60. LXXX Stampfer Benjamin 24 inn, J. Svec
  61. LXXXV Frei Jacob Bernard 70 mansion

Among the faithful, probably the District Rabbi Samuel Lob Kander and the Rabbi Jacob Mahler received special esteem. The Jews erected on the local cemetery a monument in Gothic style to Rabbi mahler with the inscription:

Jacob Mahler,District Rabbi of the Budweis and Tabor districts, died 29th of thr month Adaru in the year 5267 (1867).

He loved his country and was as devout as our ancestors. He was active in Kalady and in the districts Tabor and Budweis from 1817 tyo 1867. He was known as a great scholar and bible researcher. His wisdom was outstanding and his knowledge greater than that of the other scholars; he was esteemed as a son of the parish, in which he was active. Amen. Rest here in the house of God

Initially, the Jewish cemetery was quite small, but it was extended later on. Some of the monuments on the graves display Hebrew inscriptions, the later ones are in German and the latest in Czech. As regards their form, the old monuments are plain plates, the newer ones have tastefull decorations. The monument of the family Pisecky was built in Italy and transported to Kalady. It is made out of beautiful marble.

A black decorated carriage, the work of a local artisan, transported the bodies of the dead. On the southern slope of the cemetery, there grew three ancient oak trees. However, what the weather could not destroy, the hoe of the fisherman Womacka has completed. It was also the fault of the greedy head of the Jewish community Kolodeje ros hakohol Adolph Späth. On Karwednesday, when everyone should become aware that he is ash and becomes ash, these trees looked for the last time from their height onto the cemetery covered with snow. The sound of the saws informed the entire neighbourhood that the witnesses of the founding of the one hundred years old cemetery no longer existed.

Memento mori!

We will now look back 120 years to the Jewish hospital in House II. It was established by the testament of the widow Cecilie Lustig. After her death, the entire building was to become a hospital. We cannot ascertain today how it functioned and when it perished. House XXXV was in the possession of the community. It was inhabited by people, who received money from the Jewish community as well as by beggars. (It is today an inn underneath the synagogue.)

For example, in 1784, it housed the Parish policeman and synagogue servant Löbl Abraham, the teacher (Buchr) Mendel with his wife Diene, Sekl Joachim with his wife Sarah, Marcus Michl with his wife Rifka, Joachim Samson with his wife Chaja and, last of all, Benedikt Isak, a cerain poor man, called the bundle carrier by everyone; he was not able to conduct on his own a business and therefore was engaged in fetching for his more lucky fellow-believers to their stores in Kolodeje material, they had bought in the neighbourhood. The reward for his carrying effort was small, but he was frequently rewarded for it by swearing. Although the invective bechaijm chamour - stupid ass - fitted well the poor bundle carrier, it was hardly in harmony with God's command:

Love thy neighbour like yourself: Voohafto lerejecho komoncho.

I am sure that it will be quite interesting to talk briefly about the mode of construction of the Jewish buildings. The houses did not have a yard. Most attention was given to the largest room, called the magazine. In the magazine, every balbos - family father - in Kalady spent most of his life. Such magazines, in which in most cases the entire fortune was held, were vaulted and also otherwise well protected against fire.

Here is an example how such a construction took place: In 1807, at the time of the Duke Karl Bratislaus the office of the Chairman in Kolodeje sold to Elias Mautner a building site on the meadow beside the road to Moldautein for 120 florins.

Mautner had promised that he would, in addition, pay 10 florins annually into the office of the administration (that is, 2 florins 30 Kreuzer every quarter ). The bricklaying work was allotted to Jacob Bunes; moreover, there worked at the site the carpenter - art expert secmajsti - Jacob Sobisek. The brick work including materials cost 1100 florins, the carpenter received 317 florins and for the two ovens Mautner paid 29 florins.

The layout of the House XLII was recorded and signed by the higher adminstrator Kuhl, Justice Frauenfeld and Actuarian Parizek in the presence of the Village Mmayor Zakostelecky. The record was presented to the court of justice of the Eestate Kalady for entry into the register.

This court of justice operated in Kalady until 1850 and its last head was the powerful adminstrator Thomas Wurm.

The handing over of the register to the newly established district centre in Moldautein and the transit from the times of the Robot and subservance to the times of civil liberty was noted after 1848 in the register by a lapidary conclusion:

Concluded Kalady 2.6.1850 Josef Ptacek Justice

This was the last line under the patrimonial power of the law.

The Jewish holidays were always quite exhilirating. The duration of a celebration could not be measured in hours, but days. The autumn festival seminy aceres and simchas thora, which is similar to our church festival, started already the evening before with a festive procession and illumination of the entire parish. A procession with many people moved through the streets, carrying coloured flags and accompanied by a strong Turkish band; many inhabitants of Kalady moved about happily and excitedly.

On the next day, during the simchas thora, dedicated completely to the goddess Terpsichora, people danced until the first cocks crow.

Then again, at the time of the Purim, similar to our carneval, it became very noisy.

Old and young people, men, women, roken, balbos, naar, besulch and isch (old man, family father, young fellow, maid and married woman), all in a colourful crowd, most of them in biblical clothes, formed groups which represented scenes from the bible.

The serious scenes vanished and in the evening followed humorous ones, which had rather little in common with the bible.

What about Jewish marriages? They did not only concern the marrying couple, but the entire parish, indeed for two days and nights. Prior to the wedding, a joyful engangement took place within the family with congratulations in the form of ancient customs. A cup was wrapped in a very pure cloth and shattered while people shouted Mazltov! Mazltov! (God bless).

The fragments of the cup, called kchaleserbile and supposed to bring good luck, were not only presented to the chusm (bridegroom), but also to the kchale (bride) and all people present (of course, only in as far as there were enough fragments). It happened frequently that, for example, there were twenty guests, but only half as many fragments. In that case, only the baldover (rich and highly esteemed) received one and a poor devil just did not receive anything. Depending on the number of the fragments, the future of the marrying couple was predicted to become lucky or less lucky.

There were no weddings without a noisy band. Already on the eve, the band moved through the town and played in front of the houses of other wedding candidates. The female friends of the bride visited her and accompanied her with music to an inn, where the assembled parish danced and amused itself, while the bride returned home, because she was indispensable at the festive table among the friends of her family.

On the wedding day, the bride sat in a specially prepared armchair and let her beloved decoration - her tress - be removed according to an old custom; instead of it, a decorated bonnet was placed on her head. After this ceremony, while the band played, the married women guided the bride to the synagogue. Immediately on return of the band, also the bridegroom was conducted there by the men.

"Scholem aleichem" called the poor and begging sons of Israel, who had assempled in front of the synagogue and into the outstretched hands of which the wealthy Jews threw many small coins.

Immense excitement was caused among the locals by the recall of the laws, unfavourble to the Jews. In fact, during the Sixties of the 19th century, all laws and rules, by which the Jews lacked freedom, were declared invalid and all Jews became equivalent to other citizen of the country and therefore could change their place of residence, marry, acquire wealth and their real estates had no longer to be entered in special registers, socalled Jew-registers at the District Courts. The natural result of this event was that all Kalady Jews sold as fast as possible their property; if they could not get rid of it, they left behind their houses and magazines, made out of stone, and emigrated to all parts of the world.

Most of them were lucky and reached undreamed wealth, only a small number of them lived and died in poverty in the wide world. Emigration out of Kalady became an epidemic and involved the young as well as the old. In just a few years, 660 people left Kolodeje, halving the population.

But we shall let the numbers speak for themselves. In 1857, there lived 1327 people in the 150 houses of the parish Kolodeje. There were 127 Christian and 141 Jewish familes. The number of people with the Israelitic Religion was 679, of those with the Christian religion 648.

After the emigration, only a few families remained which eventually reduced to three. At the present time live here the families Radok, Spaeth and Kohn, altogether 10 persons.

Looking at the larger fortunes of the local Jews - and also the excess of the number of Jewish family members - as well as the fact that the civil rights were distributed according to possessions, so that, for example, the right to vote depemds not as today on democratic rules but on wealth, we arrive at the interesting insight that after the year 1848, although for three decades all power in the parish was in the hands of the Jews, nevertheless formally the power was represented by a Christian mayor.

However, the office of the first parish councillor and the commissioner of police always remained in the hands of the Israelites.

I am wondering whether those suddenly enriched compatriots from Kolodeje or their successors, those millionaires of Hungary, Lower- and Upper-Austria, England and Italy they still think back to the two small settlements on the banks of the Luznice, where their great-grand-mothers bore their children, worried or rejoiced, died and dreamed the eternal dream? Do they recall the small semitic island in the Czech sea, where the magic confession schema Israel! Adonnaj elouhejno, adonnaj echod (Hear Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord alone) gave their ancestors the strength of mind and endurement in a greater measure than to any other people?

They do not recall this any more. They forgot soon completely. But there came the time when they still remembered, even had to remember. At the historic moment when the Czech Republic arose, remembrances came flying from abroad to the small valley of the quiet river Luznice. The compatriots demanded from Kolodeje their local registration (for material reasons) in order to document that they belonged to Kolodeje and were therefore Czechoslovak citizen.

But also this brief recall perished soon through the wave of forgetting in the noise of the foreign capitals.