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Jewish families from Nyrsko (Neuern), Bohemia, Czech Republic

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This project seeks to collect all of the Jewish families from the town of Nyrsko (Neuern) in Bohemia, Czech Republic.

Nýrsko (Czech pronunciation: [ˈniːrsko]; German: Neuern) is a town in the Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic. It lies on the Úhlava River under the Šumava Range some 50 km south-west of the region capital of Plzeň.

Nýrsko is also a Municipality with Commissioned Local Authority within the Klatovy Municipality with Extended Competence.

The first written mention about Nýrsko dates back to 1327. It was probably a settlement in the 12th century. It was situated on the trade route to Bavaria near the ford across the Úhlava. A customs officer was located here.

The lower part of the town, called Dolní Nýrsko ("Lower Nýrsko"), was a member of the Royal Chamber, and the upper part, Horní Nýrsko ("Upper Nýrsko"), was a market village under the ownership of the Pajrek castle.

In 1558 Horní Nýrsko joined Dolní Nýrsko and both became property of the municipality of Bystřice nad Úhlavou. The town developed and grew quickly at that time and it obtained many rights and privileges from Rudolph II in 1539.

The development continued in the 19th century when the railroad, the factory for the production of optical instruments, and the shop of cut-glass were founded here.

South of the town a 36m high stone dam for a reservoir was built in 1969.

There is a detailed history of the Jews of Neuern available in German and English at this site here: http://www.porges.net/JewishHistoryOfNeuern.html

From the US Commission on Cemetery's found on www.jewishgen.org is the following information:

US Commission No. CZCE000018 Alternate name: Neuern in German. Nyrsko is located in Bohemia, Klatovyd at 49÷18 13.09, 15 km SW of Klatovy and 50 km SSW of Plzen. Cemetery: 1 km SE. Present town population is 1,000-5,000 with no Jews. Town: Mestsky Urad, 340 22 Nyrsko. Regional: Okresni urad, 339 01 Klatovy. Interested: Okresni Muzeum, Hostasova street 1, 339 01 Klatovy and Zdenek Prochazka, Vodni 18, 334 01 Domazlice. Earliest known Jewish community was 17th century. 1930 Jewish population was 139 people. The landmarked Jewish cemetery originated allegedly 1430 but is recorded in the 17th century with last known Conservative Jewish burial before WWII. Desenice (German: Deschenitz), 3 km away, used this site. The isolated rural (agricultural) flat crown of a hill has no sign or marker. Reached by crossing private fields, access is open to all via a continuous masonry wall and no gate. The pre- and post-WWII size of cemetery is 1600 sq. m. 100-500 stones, legible 1715-20th century, are granite and sandstone flat shaped stones, finely smoothed and inscribed stones, flat stones with carved relief decoration, or multi-stone monuments with Hebrew and German inscriptions. Some have metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains no known mass graves or structures. Plzen Jewish community owns the Jewish cemetery. Adjacent properties are agricultural. Occasionally, private visitors and local residents stop. Nazis vandalized the cemetery prior to World War II in 1938 and probably during World War II and 1945-1981. Individuals or groups of non-Jewish origin and Jewish groups within country did restoration in 1990. There is no maintenance. Moderate threat: uncontrolled access and vandalism. Slight threat: weather erosion, pollution and vegetation. Jiri Fiedler, z"l, Brdickova 1916, 155 00 Praha 5; tel. 02/55-33-40 completed survey on 20 January 1992. Documentation: Hugo Gold: Die Juden und Judengemeinden Bohemens 1934; and notes of Statni Zidovske Muzeum about 1960 and histories of the town. The site was not visited. Zdenek Prochazka in 1992 was interviewed. UPDATE: "The cemetery outside of Nyrsko has been untended and not visited for some time. The desecration, which was only recently discovered, could have been carried out any time betweem 1995 and the present." [15 graves sprayed with swastikas and Nazi SS symbols] Source: Dateline World Jewry, July 2001. Last Updated on Saturday, 21 February 2009 21:05

From www.chewra.com is a list of 412 gravestones in the cemetery at Nyrsko:

http://www.chewra.com/keshetnew/kweb/location_tombs.aspx?lid=211&kid=0

From www.yadvashem.org for the town Nyrsko Nyeren we find 39 people who were murdered by the Nazi's who had a connection to the town. Schwarz, Block, Jetter, Singer and several other family names are listed.