Çağrı Bey, Lord of Khorasan

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Abu Suleiman Dawud Chaghri-Beg ibn Mikail

Persian: ابوسلیمان داوود چغری‌بیک بن میکائیل
Also Known As: "Chagri Beg", "Chagri Bey", "Cagri Beg"
Birthdate:
Death: 1060 (70-72)
Sarakhs, Khorasan Razavi, Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
Immediate Family:

Son of Mikâîl ibn Seljuq and daughter of Inal
Husband of Mother of Solaymān ibn Čaḡrī Beg
Father of Alp Arslan, Sultan of Great Seljuq; Qavurt; Yaquti ibn Çağrı; Bahram-Shah ibn Çağrı; Ilyas ibn Çağrı and 6 others
Brother of Tuğrul I of Great Seljuq and Musa ibn Mikâîl

Occupation: Governor of Khorasan (1040-1060)
Managed by: Emily Damiano
Last Updated:

About Çağrı Bey, Lord of Khorasan

Chaghri Beg[1] (Turkish: Çağrı Bey, full name: Abu Suleiman Dawud Chaghri-Beg ibn Mikail) (989 - 1060), Da'ud b. Mika'il b. Saljuq,[2] also spelled Chaghri, was the co-ruler of the early Seljuq empire. The name Chaghri is Turkic (Çağrı in modern Turkish) and literally means "small falcon", "merlin".[3]

Contents

  • 1 Background
  • 2 Biography
  • 3 Death
  • 4 Legacy
  • 5 Issue
  • 6 References

Background

Chaghri and his brother Tughril were the sons of Mikail and the grand-sons of Seljuq. The Great Seljuq Empire was named after the latter, who was a Turkic clan leader either in Khazar[4] or Oghuz states. In the early years of the 11th century, they left their former home and moved near the city of Jend (now a village) by the Syr Darya river, where they accepted the suzerainty of the Karakhanids in Transoxania (roughly modern Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan). After the defeat of the Karakhanids by Ghaznavids, they were able to gain independence.

Biography

Very little is known of Chaghri and Tughril's lives until 1025. Both were raised by their grandfather Seljuq until they were fifteen and fought with Ali Tigin Bughra Khan, a minor Kara Khanid noble, against Mahmud of Ghazni.[5] The earliest records about Chaghri are about his expeditions in Eastern Anatolia. Although Ghaznavid governor chased him from his home to Anatolia, he was able to raid the Byzantine forts in Eastern Anatolia.[6] However according to Claude Cahen this was highly improbable and of legend.[7] From 1035 to 1037 Chaghri and Tughril fought against Mas'ud I of Ghazni. Chaghri captured Merv (an important historical city now in Turkmenistan).[8] Between 1038 and 1040 Chaghri fought against the Ghaznavids, usually with hit and run manoeuvres. Major clash was the Battle of Dandanaqan. Tughril was rather hesitant and suggested to continue with the hit and run operations. But Chagri preferred to fight and he commanded the Seljuk army.[9] At Dandanaqan, the Seljuks defeated the numerically superior Gaznavid army. A kurultai was held after the battle, by which empire was divided between the two brothers. While Tughril reigned in the west (comprising modern western Iran, Azerbaijan and Iraq), Chaghri reigned in eastern Iran, Turkmenistan, and Afghanistan. Chaghri later also captured Balkh (in modern North Afghanistan). In 1048, he conquered Kerman in South Iran and, in 1056, the Sistan region (south east Iran).[10] After the Seljuqs had gained more influence over the Abbasid caliphate, Chaghri married his daughter, Arslan Khatun Khadija, to the caliph Al-Qa'im in 1056.[11][12]

Death

Chaghri died in Sarakhs, in North-eastern Iran. The historical sources do not agree on the exact date of his death: years 1059, 1060, 1061 and 1062 were proposed. But it is purported that numismatics can be used to determine the exact death date. Coins were minted in the name of Chaghri up to 1059 and in the name of his son Kavurt after 1060, so Chaghri's death can be ascribed more probably to 1059.[13]

Legacy

Unlike later Ottoman practice, in earlier Turkic tradition, brothers usually participated in government affairs.(Bumin - İstemi in the 6th century, Bilge Khan – Kultegin in the 8th century are notable examples.) Tughril and Chaghri as well as some other members of the family participated in the foundation of the empire. Although Tughril gained the title "sultan", it was Chaghri’s sons who continued it afterwards.

Chaghri had six sons and four daughters. Among his sons, Alp Arslan became the sultan in 1064. All the remaining members of the Great Seljuq Empire were from Chaghri’s lineage. Another son, Kavurt, became the governor of Kerman (which later on became fully independent); a third son, Yaquti, became the governor of Azerbaijan.

Issue

  • Alp Arslan
  • Kavurt
  • Yaquti
  • Suleiman
  • Bahram-Shah
  • Ilyas
  • Uthman
  • Khadija Arslan-Khatun
  • Gouhar Khatun
  • Safiye

References

  1. Chaghri Beg (Seljuq ruler) Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. 'Izz al-D in Ibn al-Athir, The Annals of the Saljuq Turks, transl. D.S. Richards, ed. Carole Hillenbrand, (Routledge, 2002), 302.
  3. "ČAḠRĪ BEG DĀWŪD" Encyclopædia Iranica
  4. Arthur Koestler: The thirteenth Tribe (translated by Belkıs Çorakçı), Say, İstanbul, 1984, p.164
  5. Caghri-Beg, Cl. Cahen, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. II, ed. B.Lewis, C. Pellat and J. Schacht, (E.J. Brill, 1991), 4.
  6. Prof. Yaşar Yüce-Prof. Ali Sevim: Türkiye tarihi Cilt I, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, İstanbul, 1991 p 28-29
  7. Caghri beg, Claude Cahen, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. II, 4, 5; "Tradition gives here an account of a highly improbable escapade of Caghri-Beg in Armenia.", "On the legendary escapade of Caghri in Armenia, the article of Ibrahim Kafesoglu, "Dogu Anadoluya ilk selcuklu adini", in "Fuad Koprulu Armagam", 1953, and my discussion with him in JA 1954, 275 ff. and 1956, 129 ff."
  8. 'Izz al-D in Ibn al-Athir, The Annals of the Saljuq Turks, 36.
  9. Ümit Hassan (ed.Sina Akşin) Türkiye Tarihi I, CemYayınevi, İstanbul,2009, ISBN 975-406-563-2 p. 167
  10. History page (Turkish)[dead link]
  11. The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed. J. A. Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), 48.
  12. Dailamīs in Central Iran: The Kākūyids of Jibāl and Yazd, C. E. Bosworth, Iran, Vol. 8, (1970), 86.
  13. A paper on Chaghri's death date

Peace was established this year between King Ibrahim and Da’ud ibn Mikha’il ibn Saljuq, the lord of Khurasan, on condition that each of them should keep what he held and abandon opposition to the other’s rule. The reason for this was that the wise men on both sides considered [the situation] and realised that neither of the two rulers was able to take what the other held, and that the only result would be expenditure of money, exhaustion of the troops, plundering of the land and loss of life. So they worked for peace, and an accord was reached and oaths sworn. Copies were drawn up, and the people were delighted and rejoiced at the prospect of prosperity.

---

In Rajab of this year [13 August-11 Septemener 1059] there died Chagri Beg Da’ud ibn Mikha’il ibn Saljuq, the brother of Sultan Tughril Beg. It is said that his death was in Safar [4]52 [7 March-4 APril 1060]. He was about seventy years old. He was the lord of khurasan and the rival andopponent of the House of Sabuktegin, and the defender of Khurasan againstthe,. When he died, his son Alp Arslan became ruler of Khurasan after him. Da’ud left a number of male children, including the Sultan Alp Arslan, Yaquti, Sulayman, and Qavurt Beg. After [the death of] his brother Da’ud, the Sultan Tughril Beg married the mother of Sulayman, and named him as his successor. What happened to him we shall relate later.

[Chaghri Beg] was generous and just, a good ruler, one who was conscious of God Almighty’s favours to him and grateful for them. An example of this is that he sent to his brother Tughril Beg by Abd al-Samad, the Cadi of Sarakhs, saying ‘I have heard that you are ruining the lands you have conquered and taken, whose inhabitants have fled them. This is manifestly in opposition to what God Almighty orders for His servants and His lands. You also know what this involves in the way of evil repute and alienation of one’s subjects. You are aware that we met our enemies with 30 men, when they were 300 strong, but we overcame them. We led 300 when they were 3,000 strong, and we overcame them. We had 3,000, when they were 30,000 strong, and we repelled them. Once in the past we fought Shah Malik, when he commanded numerous hordes of [our] enemies, and we crushed him. We took his kingdom in Khwarizm and he fled 500 leagues away from us, and yet we seized and captured, then slew him. We conquered the kingdoms of Khurasan, Tabaristan and Sijistan, and became powerful kings after we had been weak subjects. The favors God has shown us do not deserve to be repaid in this manner.’ Tughril Beg said, ‘Say to him in reply, “My brother, you took Khurasan as a flourishing land, and you have ruined it, although with the establishment of your position it was your duty to make it flourish. I have come to a land ruined by those who preceded me and destroyed by those before me. I am incapable of making it flourish while enemies encompass it. Necessity leads armies to tramp th[r]ough it and it is impossible to stop them harming it.”’

He possessed many virtues which we have passed over for fear of prolixity.

About Çağrı Bey, Lord of Khorasan (Persian)

https://www.wikiwand.com/fa/%DA%86%D8%BA%D8%B1%DB%8C_%D8%A8%DB%8C%D... چغری بیک (ترکی استانبولی: Çağrı Bey) از بزرگان حکومتی در سرآغاز امپراتوری سلجوقی بود. نام کامل او ابوسلیمان داوود چغری‌بیک بن میکائیل بود. نام چاغری در ترکی به معنای «شاهین کوچک» است.

چغری‌بیک و طغرل‌بیک فرزندان میکائیل و نوه سلجوق از قبیله قِنِق https://www.wikiwand.com/fa/%D9%85%DB%8C%DA%A9%D8%A7%D8%A6%DB%8C%D9... (Qinik) یکی از ۲۴ قبیله اغوز بودند. آنها در مدت کوتاهی بعد از فتح ایران به «آسیای صغیر» حمله‌ور شدند و پس از جنگ ملازگرد (۱۰۷۱ میلادی) در اندک مدتی قسمت عمده آسیای صغیر را اشغال کردند و امپراطوری سلجوقی را تشکیل دادند.